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Spall and Breach Performance of High Strength Concrete

HPC and UHPC – Innovations in Material Concept for High


Tensile Strength and Ductility – Session 2

Jared L. Brown, P.E.


US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC)

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and Exposition and Exposition
Objective
• Evaluate the ability of existing penetration mechanics methodologies to
predict the impact performance of reinforced concrete elements
impacted with a high-aspect ratio fragment
• Study the effect of compressive strength, fiber reinforcement, and
thickness on impact performance of reinforced concrete elements

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Background
• Evaluated spall and breach response of concretes when subjected to
impact from a high width-to-thickness (aspect) ratio fragment
• Shockwave induced by impact from this type of fragment can result in
spall and breach without target perforation

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and Exposition and Exposition
Factors affecting spall and breach response
• Compressive Strength
• Thickness
• Fiber Reinforcement
Concrete mixtures tested
• Normal Strength Concrete (NSC)
• High Strength Concrete “A” (HSC-A)
• High Strength Concrete “B” (HSC-B)
• High Strength Concrete “B” with fiber reinforcement (HSC-B-F)
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Experimental Test Matrix
Material fc (ksi) Thickness (in.) Reinforcement
6 #3 at 8 in. O.C. each face
NSC 4.2 8 #3 at 6 in. O.C. each face
10 #3 at 4.75 in. O.C. each face
6 #3 at 8 in. O.C. each face
HSC-A 14.5 8 #3 at 6 in. O.C. each face
10 #3 at 4.75 in. O.C. each face
6 #3 at 8 in. O.C. each face
HSC-B 15.6 8 #3 at 6 in. O.C. each face
10 #3 at 4.75 in. O.C. each face
6 #3 at 8 in. O.C. each face
HSC-B-F 18.4 8 #3 at 6 in. O.C. each face
10 #3 at 4.75 in. O.C. each face

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Experimental Setup

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Experimental Results
Thickness 6 inch 8 inch 10 inch

Distal
Face Proximal Distal
Face Face

Impactor

Proximal
Face

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Damage Quantification
• Spall ImageJ Boundary

– Theoretical spall cone (CV-T)


• Image analysis (ImageJ) to determine spalled area
• Depth of spall physically measured

• Breach
– Area of breach throat (AT)
• Image analysis (ImageJ) to determine opening area

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and Exposition and Exposition
Experimental Results
Material fc (ksi) Thickness (in.) CV-T (in.3) AT
6 --- 72
NSC 4.2 8 --- 61
10 722 ---
6 --- 60
HSC-A 14.5 8 --- 27
10 757 ---
6 --- 56
HSC-B 15.6 8 1,222 19
10 1,027 ---
6 --- 25
HSC-B-F 18.4 8 415 ---
10 0 ---

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Effect of Compressive Strength and Thickness on Breach
80

70

AVERAGE AT (in.2)
60

50

40 6-inch
30 8-inch

20

10

0
NSC HSC-A HSC-B

• Increased thickness and compressive strength results in decreased


breached area
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Effect of Compressive Strength on Spall
1050

Average CV-T (in.2) - 10 inch


1000

950

900

850

800

750

700
4.2 14.5 15.6
NSC HSC-A HSC-B

fc (ksi)

• Increased compressive strength results in increased spall


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Effect of Fiber Reinforcement on Spall and Breach

• Fiber reinforcement decreases breach and spall response


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Future work
• Further evaluation of material characteristics that affect spall
and breach
• Determine existing penetration relationship’s ability to predict
spall and breach performance due to plate fragment impact
• Investigate ability to predict breach by plate fragment from
established contact charge relationships
• Perform a parametric sensitivity analysis using a numerical
model calibrated to match experimental results
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Acknowledgements
• US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC)
• Isaac Howard, PhD, PE – Mississippi State University
• Bradley Foust, PhD, PE – ERDC
• Bowen Woodson – ERDC
• Andrew Barnes – ERDC
• Stephen Robert, PhD – ERDC
• Vincent Chiarito – U.S. Federal Highway Administration

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and Exposition and Exposition