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Electrolytic capacitor - C

Function: - An electrolytic capacitor is a type of capacitor that uses an electrolyte, an ionic conducting liquid, as
one of its plates, to achieve a larger capacitance per unit volume than other types. They are often referred to
in electronics usage simply as "electrolytics". They are used in relatively high-current and low-frequency
electrical circuits, particularly in power supply filters, where they store charge needed to moderate output voltage
and current fluctuations in rectifier output. They are also widely used as coupling capacitors in circuits
where AC should be conducted but DC should not. There are two types of electrolytics; aluminum and tantalum.

Electrolytic capacitor Red Black Black Red


Testing: - Needle shows forward deflection & reverses back to zero position (Charging & Discharging).

Polar capacitor

Testing: - Needle shows constant deflection for forward continuity and Charging & Discharging for reverse
Non Polar Condenser - C

Function: - To maintain the flow of power supply.

Testing: - Needle shows no deflection for either forward or reverse continuity.

Resister - R

Function: - To resist the power supply. Resistors restrict the flow of electric current, for example a
resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the

Testing: - Needle shows constant deflection for both forward and reverse continuity.
Diode - D

Function: - In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only
one direction. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called
the diode's forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the
diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. diodes can convert AC supply to DC supply from
anode to cathode.

Zener diode

Function: - A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current not only in the forward direction like a normal
diode, but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee
voltage" or "Zener voltage". The device was named after Clarence Zener, who discovered this electrical property.

Semiconductor diodes

Function: - A modern semiconductor diode is made of a crystal of semiconductor like silicon that has impurities added to it
to create a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers (electrons), called n-type semiconductor, and a region on
the other side that contains positive charge carriers (holes), called p-type semiconductor. The diode's terminals are attached
to each of these regions. The boundary within the crystal between these two regions, called a PN junction, is where the
action of the diode takes place.
The crystal conducts conventional current in a direction from the p-type side (called the anode) to the n-type side (called
the cathode), but not in the opposite direction.

Testing: -

Red (-) Deflection must be shows Black (+) Deflection not be shows Red (-)

Function: - A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is
made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A
voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of
terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor
provides amplification of a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found
embedded in integrated circuits.


The symbol of an NPN bipolar junction transistor

NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors, consisting of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two
N-doped layers. A small current entering the base is amplified in the collector output. That is, an NPN transistor is "on" when
its base is pulled high relative to the emitter.

Most of the NPN current is carried by electrons, moving from emitter to collector as minority carriers in the P-type base
region. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN, because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility in
semiconductors, allowing greater currents and faster operation.

The symbol of a PNP Bipolar Junction Transistor.

The other type of BJT is the PNP, consisting of a layer of N-doped semiconductor between two layers of P-doped material. A
small current leaving the base is amplified in the collector output. That is, a PNP transistor is "on" when its base is
pulled low relative to the emitter.

The arrows in the NPN and PNP transistor symbols are on the emitter legs and point in the direction of the conventional
current flow when the device is in forward active mode.

A mnemonic device for the NPN / PNP distinction, based on the arrows in their symbols and the letters in their names, is not
pointing in for NPN and pointing in for PNP

E Black (+) E

Testing: -

Red (-) Red (-) Black (+)

Deflection must be shows Deflection must be shows

Mosfet - Q

Function: - The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a device used for
amplifying or switching electronic signals. The basic principle of the device was first proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in
1925. In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel between the two other
contacts called source and drain. The channel can be of n-type or p-type (see article on semiconductor devices), and is
accordingly called an nMOSFET or a pMOSFET (also commonly nMOS, pMOS). It is by far the most common transistor in
both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common.



JFET MOSFET enh MOSFET enh (no bulk) MOSFET dep


Testing: - Black (+) Red (-)

Red (-) Black (+)

P Channel N Channel
Deflection must be shows Deflection must be shows
Power trench Mosfet - Q

P- Channel power trench Mosfet.

Function: - This device is designed specifically as a single package solution for the battery charge switch in
cellular and set and other ultraportable applications. It features two independent P-Channel MOSFETs with low on-
state resistance for minimum conduction losses. When connected in the typical common source configuration, bi-
directional current flow is possible

N- Channel power trench Mosfet.

Function: - This N-Channel MOSFET has been designed specifically to improve the overall efficiency of DC/DC
converters using either synchronous or conventional switching PWM controllers. It has been optimized for low
gate charge, low r DS (ON) and fast switching speed.