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This chapter deals with the methods and tools the researcher uses in data collection and analysis. It
describes the research design that was used by the researcher, data sources and collection tools,
processing, analyzing and the challenges that the researcher faced.

Research design & Strategy

The researcher used a case study strategy which was Sumega Technologies and an explanatory
research design because it sought to explain why there were still low levels of employee
performance despite the many ways put in place by the management of Sumega Technologies to
motivate its employees.

Sampling methods & techniques

The study employed stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques..

 Stratified random sampling refers to a process of dividing a population into smaller groups
known as strata basing on the members’ shared attributes. This was done by grouping the
employees according to management levels.

 Simple random sampling was also applied. This refers to a process of selecting a group of
subjects (a sample) for study from a larger group (population). This was intended to select
respondents since each stratum was assumed to contain employees with related knowledge
on the topic under study.

Sample design

Random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed.

 Random sampling technique is a process of selecting a sample that allows all members of
the group or population to have an equal and independent chance of being selected for the
sample. Random sampling technique was employed when selecting the employees at
operational level. This was done to avoid bias.

 Purposive sampling technique refers to a process whereby the researcher selects a sample
based on experience or knowledge of the group to be sampled. Purposive method was
applied when selecting management staffs because there was need to specifically get
information from those members of staff who deal directly in administrative duties.
Sources of data
The researcher used both primary and secondary data sources.

Primary data source

This refers to raw facts collected or generated in a given research for the first time. This data was
generated from the sample population by use of the questionnaire.

Secondary data source

This method involves sourcing for already processed information. Data was got by reviewing
relevant text books, journals, news papers, records of Sumega Technologies and other published
materials about the research topic.

Data collection methods & instruments

The researcher used questionnaire as an instrument of data collection.


A questionnaire is a list of questions drafted by the researcher to be filled by the respondent. This
was the basic tool the researcher used in data collection. The questionnaire contained both close
ended and open ended structured questions and the variables therein were measured using likert
scaling technique. The reason for use of this method was that it minimized bias.

This chapter shows what other scholars have written about motivation and organizational
performance. The greatest asset of any company is its human resources that ensure that
achievement of the company’s goal and objective. (Human resource Article, 2012). It is unfortunate
that most company’s or organization have neglected the development and management of their
chief asset which is human resource (human resource Article 2012).

According to Susan, (2012), human Management is the function within an organization that focused
on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the
organization. It is also a strategic and comprehensive approach of managing people and the work
place culture and environment (Susan, 2012). Effective Human management enables employees to
contribute effectively and productivity to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of
the organization’s goals and objectives (Susan, 2012).

Balunywa, T. (2005) defines motivation as the inducement of a desired behavior with in

subordinates with a view of channeling their efforts and activity to achieve an organization’s goals.
He adds that it’s an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need in an organization and is also known
as an incentive action.

Traditionally, motivation has been defined by the two dimensions that comprise it namely, energy
and direction (Deci, 1980; Deci & Ryan, 1985; Roberts, 1992). The energy dimension of motivation is
the driving force behind someone’s effort and persistence during engagement in a particular activity.
Direction of motivation determines the area or field of interest in which that effort is projected. Both
are necessary elements of a complete motivational act. Energy without direction has no purpose,
and direction without energy results in a state of motivation.

Beyond defining motivation, however, researchers have also categorized various types of
motivation, based on whether the motivational states are internally or externally derived. These two
global motivational states are called intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Deci, 2000) theorized about
both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational states and about correlates of those states.

2.2 Motivation practices

Many different scholars have agreed and disagreed on the ways employees should be motivated.
Some of them assert that in order to motivate an individual, a financial benefit has to be foregone by
the motivator whereas others believe that money is not a true motivator hence both financial and
nonfinancial incentives are considered in the discussion below;
According to Cole (1998), financial incentives are rewards/payments that employees get in
consideration of their contribution towards the organization. He adds that these are payments for
labor as a factor of production.

The findings of the study are follows

 The employees are really motivated by the management.

 The employees are satisfied with the present incentive plan of the company
Most of the workers agreed that the company is eager in recognizing and acknowledging their

 The study reveals that there is a good relationship exists among employees.
 Majority of the employees agreed that there job security to their present job.
 The company is providing good safety measures for ensuring the employees safety.
 From the study it is clear that most of employees agrees to the fact that performance
 Appraisal activities and support from the co-workers in helpful to get motivated.
 The study reveals that increase in the salary will motivates the employees more.
 The incentives and other benefits will influence the performance of the employees
 From the above table, we can conclude that 60% of the respondents agreed that they feel
enthusiastic some times in their work.
 From the above table we can conclude that 40% of the employees agreed that they are
encouraging to come up with new and better ways of doing things.
 The table shows that 64% of the employees are not promoted from the last six months and
36% of the employees are promoted. From this we can conclude that most of the employees are not
 56% of the employees agreed that they are recognized for good work and 20% are
disagreed and 24% respondents are neutral. So it can conclude that most of the
employees recognized by their good work.

 42% of the respondents are responding that the increase in salary will motivate them the
 60% of the respondents are expressing that they are nominated for training and
development programme in the organization for the last 6 months.
 T 28% of respondents strongly agreed and 32% agree that they are getting feedback from
management and 20% are neutral and 10% are disagree that they are not getting feedback from the

The suggestions for the findings from the study are follows

 Most of the employees agree that the performance appraisal activities are helpful to
get motivated, so the company should try to improve performance appraisal system,
so that they can improve their performance.
 Non financial plans should also be implemented; it can improve the productivity level of
the employees.
 Organization should give importance to communication between employees and
gain co-ordination through it.

 Skills of the employees should be appreciated.

 Better carrier development opportunities should be given to the employees for their
 If the centralized system of management is changed to a decentralized one, then there
would be active and committed participation of staff for the success of the
 Greater recognition to be given to the employees for the work they do.

 It was opinioned that the management needs to take steps to improve the coordination
between the employees and the various departments.

 The management must try to appreciate the employees for the work they do and give some
monetary rewards to the employees.

 Irrespective of the cadre, the management must take care of all its employees’ welfare.

 Training should be given to employees to cope up with the new technical advances.

 Steps may be taken to biases and individual difference in the organization.

 Providing opportunities for the employees to think and innovate new ideas can help
organizational prospects.

 Active participation from the accounts department can enhance their performance

The study concludes that, the motivational program procedure in travel solution, is found effective
but not highly effective. The study on employee motivation highlighted so many factors which will
help to motivate the employees. The study was conducted among 50 employees and collected
information through structured questionnaire. The Study helped to findings, which were related
with employee motivational, programs which are provided in the organization.

The performance appraisal activities really play a major role in motivating the
employees of the organization. It is a major factor that makes an employee feels good in his
work and results in his satisfaction too. The organization can still concentrate on specific
areas which are evolved from this study in order to make the motivational programs more
effective. Only if the employees are properly motivated- they work well and only if they
work well the organization is going to benefit out it. Steps should be taken to improve the
motivational programs procedure in the future. The suggestions of this report may help in this