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Department of Chemical Engineering

Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering

Lab Manual

Chemical Engineering Lab III (Semester V)

Fluid Mechanics

(CH351L)

Year: 2018

GIK INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND


TECHNOLOGY TOPI
1
Table of Contents
Preface, Instructions, Grading Policy, Rubrics 3
Level Of Proficiency 4
Lab Learning Outcomes (LLOs) 5
LLOs, PLOs Mapping
Safety Information -Chemical Lab III (CH351L 6-7
Chemical Lab III (CH351L) Safety Regulations Agreement 8
Fluid Mechanics Portion
S. Lab. Experiment Experiment Name Page
No. NO. No.
1 1 1 Calibrating a Bourdon gauge 9-12

2 2 2 Hydrostatic Pressure apparatus 13-16

3 3 3 Flow over Weirs 17-21

4 4&5 4 Energy Losses in Pipes and Fittings 22-31

5 6 5 Flow Measurement Methods 32-34

6 7 6 To Study the Centrifugal Pump Characteristics 35-37

7 8 7 To Study the Pump Characteristics (Series and 38-42


Parallel)
8 9 8 Methods Of Pressure measurement 43-55

9 10 9 Water Hammer and Surge Chamber 56-59

Thermodynamics Portion
S. No. Lab. NO. Experiment Experiment Name Page
No.

10 11 10 Steam Power Plant Demo unit 61-70

11 12 11 Absorption Refrigeration System 71-78

2
Preface

This manual deals with the laboratory experiments, exercises and demonstrations
related to the fifth semester chemical engineering courses CH351L taught to the
students.

Instructions and information


 Come to the laboratory well prepared and in time.
 Bring Your Lab Manuals in each lab
 Wear proper lab attire to each lab
 80.% min attendance is required to sit in the final exam

 Please read through the sheets for the particular experiment from this
manual.
 Observe strictly the safety precautions for handling chemicals/materials and
equipment, as well as any instructions given by the supervisors.
 Equipment Failure- If a piece of equipment fails while being used, report it
immediately to your lab assistant or tutor. Never try to fix the problem by
yourself because you could harm yourself and others
 Keep your lab space clean and organized

Grading Policy

 Lab Performance 15%


 Lab Reports 30%
 Midterm Exam 20%
 Final term Exam 25%
 Lab Final Viva 5%
 Open ended lab 5%
Rubrics:
 Punctuality
 Apparatus Handling
 Data Analysis

3
Fluid Mechanics Lab. CH351-L (Fall 2018)

Level of Proficiency

Score 1-3 6-8 8-10


3-6

Expected Poor Fair Good Excellent


Title Outcome

Time Student must Student does Student Student come Student is in the
Management understand the not come on does not on times but lab at start of
value of time. time and do not come on need few extra scheduled time
(Affective cover task. time but minutes to and cover Lab in
Domain) covers task cover task. allotted time.
in time.

Demonstrate Demonstrate Has basic Establishes Demonstrate


operational either no or idea but in good work comprehensive
Apparatus procedure for incomplete or need of successfully, knowledge and
Handling apparatus and incorrect extreme identifies and proposes
(Psychomotor identify operational supervision describes improvements.
Domain) necessary skills and is and steering steps involved.
parameters and unable to in the right
uncertainties. identify direction
parameters
and
uncertainties.

Present Demonstrate Has basic Describes the Demonstrate


Performance relevant either no or idea but in methods of comprehensive
experimental incomplete or need of data analysis, knowledge in
(Date data (in the incorrect extreme able to identify data analysis
Analysis and form of knowledge, supervision potential and presentation
Processing) tables/graphs) unable to and steering errors. Identify and require no
(Cognitive taking into analyze or in the right trends and supervision.
Domain) account the process data. direction presents
statistical processed
analysis. data in
coherent way.

4
Lab Learning Outcomes (LLOs)
1. To investigate the laws of Fluid Mechanics under
different scenario
2. To investigate the laws of Thermodynamics on steam
engine and refrigeration system.
3. Be able to design a solution for open ended engineering
problem.

5
Safety Information -Chemical Lab III (CH351L)
Safety Precautions
 Observance of Safety Rules and the use of common sense are essential in any
Laboratory.
 Instructions on the manipulation of chemicals or the use of instruments should be read,
or obtained from an instructor, and strictly observed.
 As apprentices in a laboratory environment you should pay particular attention to the
following rules:
 No food / drinks / smoking in the Lab.
 Elementary discipline -- no running, observance of instructions from the instructors, no
manipulation of instruments before being instructed, attention (without interference) to
others working in the same area -- are mandatory.
 Care should be taken when using compressed air and particulate materials.
 Mechanical testing: keep well clear (and make sure that others are clear) of any
operating machine. Manual adjustments must never be attempted during a test.
Complement to the Safety Instructions
Dealing with Electrical Systems
 Don’t ever stand on or try to pinch high power cables. This may destroy their insulation
and cause electrical shock.
 Don’t switch on or off the power supply of any machine without prior permission from a
lab instructor.
 Don’t try to remove the casing or cover of any electrical circuitry, even if it is not in
operation.
 In case of electrical shock immediately inform the lab instructor and/or precede
according to the first aid measures.
Working with Mechanical Systems
 Never touch the moving parts of any machine when in operation.
 Before operating any machine, first inquire about the emergency stop button of that
particular machine
 Never cross the safety-clearance distance of any machine (particularly important for the
impact testing machine)
 Never try to move and/or lift any machine by yourself, it may cause physical injury to
you. Whenever you are near any moving part of machine make sure you don’t have any
loose clothes in your dress,
Fire hazards and prevention
 In case of fire, immediately call for help/instructor and inform the fire brigade at 2333
 If help is not available immediately reach for nearest fire extinguisher, remove its
lock/pin and use it to extinguish fire.
 Smoking is strictly prohibited in lab premises as it can cause fire.

6
 Never use lighter or match near gas equipment (e.g. oxygen, hydrogen cylinders.) as it
can cause a serious accident in form of explosion.
 Never use water to extinguish a fire in electrical apparatus.
 Ensure that all additions to a bath of molten metal are completely dry
Safe laboratory practice is based on understanding and respect, not fear. Your instructors will
discuss specific safety precautions relevant to each experiment during laboratory lecture. Your
laboratory manual will point out specific hazards and precautions. Before beginning an
experiment, be sure you have this information at hand and that you understand it.
When you have read the following information carefully and feel you understand it, please read
and sign the Chemical Lab III (CH351L) Safety Regulations Agreement. At the start of your first
lab session you will submit the signed Safety Agreement to the instructor. Only then will you be
permitted to begin laboratory work.

Safety Rules
 Working alone in the laboratory is strictly forbidden.
 Approved safety goggles and lab coats must be worn at all times when in a laboratory.
 Students may only perform authorized experiments and then only at the assigned time.
 Use every precaution to keep all chemicals off your skin and clothing, out of your nose,
mouth and eyes, and away from flames. It is strictly forbidden to eat or drink anything
(including water) in the laboratory.
 Long hair and billowy clothing must be confined when in the laboratory. Shoes are
mandatory; sandals or open-toed shoes are not allowed. Shorts are not allowed.
 All laboratory workers must know the location and proper use of all laboratory safety
equipment.
 All accidents, including contact with chemicals, cuts, burns, or inhalation of fumes must
be reported to an instructor immediately.
 It is your responsibility to read and abide by the "Laboratory Safety" section of the lab
manual and to keep it with you in the laboratory.
 Laboratory equipment and work area must be cleaned after finishing work.
 Failure to observe laboratory safety rules and procedures may result in injury to you or
to fellow students. For a first violation, you may be asked to leave the laboratory for the
day, while for repeated violations; you may be dropped from the course with a grade of
F, at the discretion of the instructor.
 It is in your own best interest to stay alert and to be aware of possible hazards in the
laboratory. Do not hesitate to call unsafe practices by your colleagues to the attention
of the instructors.

7
Important phone numbers in case of emergency
FIRE SECTION 2333
MEDICAL CENTRE 2434

Chemical Lab III (CH351L) Safety Regulations Agreement

 I have received and read the "Safety Information" document for the “Chemical Lab III
(CH351L)” course I am taking this semester.
 I agree to abide by these laboratory regulations and safety procedures at all times while
working in the lab.
 I agree not to begin an experiment until I have studied and understood the purpose of
the experiment, the procedures involved, and any particular hazards associated with
the equipment and chemicals.
 I agree that I will not work alone in the lab and will only perform experiments if the
laboratory instructor or another member of the Chemical Engineering faculty is
present.
 I understand that if I violate the laboratory regulations I may be asked to leave the
laboratory and (for repeated violations) dropped from the course with a grade of F.

Name: _________________________

Reg. #: _________________________

Group: ________________________

Signature: ______________________

Date: _________________________

8
Lab#01……..Experiment 1
Calibrating a Bourdon gauge

Figure 0-1 Bourdon gauge calibration apparatus

Objective:

The objective of this experiment is to calibrate a Bourdon gauge.

Apparatus description:

The Bourdon pressure gauge shown in fig. 10-2 above has a transparent dial through which the
construction may be viewed. The device consists of two units

1) The pressure gauge unit; this is where the manometer to be calibrated is screwed in.
2) The load unit; the load unit consists of several weights and a cylinder with a piston. An
increase in the load results in an increase in the pressure. The load unit is connected to the
pressure gauge unit via an oil filled line, enabling the manometer to display the increase in
pressure.
A cylindrical piston, free to move vertically in a cylinder, is loaded with known weights. The space below
the piston is filled with oil, and the pressure is transmitted by the oil to the gauge under test. The
pressure generated by the piston is easily found in terms of the total weight supported and the cross‐
sectional area of the piston.

Theory:

9
Many types of gauges are available for measurement of pressure. The simplest form is manometer tube,
in which the rise of level of a liquid indicates the static head, this being converted to pressure by
multiplying by the liquid density. An example of a much more sophisticated instrument is a pressure
transducer, in which the pressure is used to deflect diaphragm. The deflection causes an electrical signal
to be generated by some means such as an electric resistance strain gauge, and this signal is displayed,
typically in digital form, as the corresponding pressure. The display can be remote from the point of
measurement. The Bourdon gauge (named after its inventor Eugene Bourdon) uses the deflection of a
tube of oval cross-section to cause a pointer to move over a scale.

All pressure gauges, of whatever type, need to be calibrated. As the calibration may change over a
period, repeat calibrations may be needed from time to time. The normal calibration procedure is to
load the gauge with known pressures, using a dead weight tester using oil. This experiment will provide
a clear understanding regarding the technique used for calibrating pressure gauges.

Experimental procedure:

1. The weight of the piston, and its cross‐sectional area, should be noted. To fill the cylinder,
the piston is removed, and oil is poured into the cylinder until it is full the overflow level.
2. The piston is then replaced in the cylinder and allowed to settle.
3. Weights are now added in convenient increments, and at each increment the pressure
gauge reading is observed.
4. A similar set of results is then taken with decreasing weights. To avoid piston sticking in the
cylinder, it is advisable to rotate the piston gently while the pressure gauge is being read.

10
Observation & calculation:

Diameter of piston (D) = 12 mm Area of piston = ________ m2

Formula: P=F/A where F = m.g

If weight= 578 g then gauge pressure = 0.5 bar

Table 0-1 Readings for increasing weight

Increasing weight
Theoretical
Mass Force Gauge Pressure Percentage
S/N Pressure
m (Kg) F (N) bar Difference
bar
1 0
2 0.385
3 0.578
4 1.156
5 1.734
6 2.312
7 2.890

Table 0-2 Readings for decreasing weight

Decreasing weight
Theoretical
Mass Force Gauge Pressure Percentage
S/N Pressure
m (kg) F (N) bar Difference
bar
1 0
2 0.385
3 0.578
4 1.156
5 1.734
6 2.312
7 2.890

Exercise:

1. Draw graphs between theoretical pressure and gauge readings.


Comments:

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

11
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____

2. Draw graph between applied force and gauge pressure.


Comments:

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____

12
LAB#2………..EXPERIMENT # 2
Hydrostatic Pressure apparatus

Objective:

The objective of this experiment is to determine the Center of Pressure and Hydrostatic pressure.

Center of Pressure:

The center of pressure is the point on a body where the sum of pressure field acts, causing a resultant
force but no moment about that point.

Mathematically it can be said that the net pressure force on the body acts through this point. The net
force applied at the center of pressure produces the equivalent moment, equal in magnitude to the
moment produced by pressure field about any arbitrary point.

Resultant Force:

The magnitude of the resultant force is equal to the pressure acting at the centroid (geometric center)
of the area multiplied by the total area.

Apparatus description:

A fabricated toroid is mounted on a balance arm. Only the forces acting on the rectangular end face of
the toroid gives rise to the moment and an adjustable counterbalance is used to balance the moment
produced. Water is admitted to the top of the tank through a beaker and may be drained through a
pipette. The water level is indicated on a scale on the side of the quadrant.

13
Figure 0-1 Experimental setup

Theory:

Because no shear stresses can exist in a static fluid, all hydrostatic forces on any element of a
submerged surface must act in a direction normal to the surface. The hydrostatic forces acting on the
two sides of the Toroid counter‐balance themselves, and the forces exerted on the curved surfaces (the
circular arc top and bottom faces) act through the pivot point of the moment arm of the Toroid, hence
contributing nothing to the net moment about the pivot point. The only hydrostatic forces that act on
the Toroid and have a net moment about the pivot point are those acting on the plane end face of the
Toroid.

Balancing Procedure:

 Set the water vessel to an angle of 0° using the detent.


 Mount the rider, set the lever arm on the scale (e.g. l=150 mm)
 Counterbalance the unit with a rotating slider
 Top up with water until the unit is balanced
 Read off water level s and enter it in the prepared worksheet
 Increase the appended weights in increments of 0.5 - 1 N and repeat the measurement
Determining Centre of Pressure:

14
Determining Resultant Force:

The resultant force corresponds to the hydrostatic pressure at the planar centre
of force C of the active surface. Thus, the height of water level s must again be
differentiated:
Aact - Superficial content of active surface
b=75 mm - Width of liquid vessel
pc – Hydrostatic pressure at planar centre of force

15
Observations and Calculations:

16
LAB#3………….EXPERIMENT # 3
Flow over Weirs
Objective:

Determination of weir head z and volumetric flow rate

Apparatus description:

The flow over weirs accessory is used together with the fluid mechanics Basic Module [3]. The
base module contains a channel section [5]. The water enters at the bottom left and then
flows to the right over a weir into the volumetric tank. A weir [2] with V-profile and a weir [2]
with rectangular profile are available for experimentation purposes. The weir head is
determined with the aid of the height sensor [1]. The volumetric flow rate can then be calculated
from the above.
The volumetric flow rate is determined using the volumetric tank [3] and the volume scale
[6].The volumetric flow rate is set on the ball cock [4], which regulates the pump of the base
module.

Fig:

Theory:

17
A weir is a barrier across a river designed to alter its flow characteristics. In most cases, weirs
take the form of obstructions smaller than most conventional dams, pooling water behind them
while also allowing it to flow steadily over their tops. Weirs are commonly used to alter the flow
of rivers to prevent flooding and measure discharge. Two weirs are provided, V-profile weir and
a rectangular-profile weir.

Experiments:

Rectangular Profile Weir:

Determination of Weir Head Z:

Determination of volumetric flow rate:

The theoretical volumetric flow rate V th is calculated as follows:

18
The actual volumetric flow rate can be determined with the aid of the volumetric tank of the
base module using a stopwatch. It is advisable to measure the filling time t for 10 litres.

V Profile Weir:

19
Determination of Weir Head Z:

Determination of volumetric flow rate:

The theoretical volumetric flow rate V th is calculated as follows:

20
Observation & calculations:

Table 3-1 Readings for weir head and theoretical flow rate (Rectangular Weir)
 
z h Time t for 10 l V th VM Deviation
[cm] [cm] [sec.] [l/s] [l/s] [%]

Table 3-2 Readings for weir head and theoretical flow rate (V Weir)
 
z h Time t for 10 l V th VM Deviation
[cm] [cm] [sec.] [l/s] [l/s] [%]

Exercise:

3. Draw graphs between flow rate (Y-axis) and h (X-axis) for both cases.
Comments:

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________

21
Lab#4&5………….Experiment #4
Energy Losses in Pipes and Fittings

Figure 0-1 Pipe fitting loss unit

1. Demo Panel 2. Connecting Hose 3. Discharge Valve

4. DP manometer 5. Rotameter 6. Manometer panel

7. Double Manometer 8. Inflow Valve

Objective:

The objective of this experiment is to find

a) Influence of different pipe diameters on energy losses


b) Influence of different materials and degrees of surface roughness on energy losses
c) Influence of flow velocity
d) Losses due to pipe bends and elbows
e) Determining resistance coefficients and loss levels

Unit Description:

The HM 120 Pipe Fitting Loss Demo Panel contains a fully fitted test stand for measuring losses in

22
pipelines. The demonstration panel is distinguished by the following features:
 The entire layout of the experiment is clearly arranged on an upright panel.
 Mobility and easy manoeuvring of the demonstration panel due to four castors. Two braked castors
ensure stability.
 By using the Plastic Tank with Submergible Pump, the system can be operated independently of the
water main.
 Flow measurement via variable-area flow meters.
 Four independent pressure measuring systems for measuring differential pressure and loss level.
 Ten different pipe sections permanently installed.
 Standardized measuring length 1m for measuring pipe friction.

Theory:

The following experiments are intended to determine the pressure loss pv and/or the loss level hv in pipe
flow hampered by friction.
With turbulent pipe flow, which is defined as a Reynolds’ number Re > 2320, pressure loss is
proportional to
 The length l of pipe
 Coefficient of pipe friction λ
 Density ρ of the flow medium
 Square of the flow velocity v.

Pressure loss pv is then calculated as

The relevant loss level hv is calculated as

In the case of (Re > 2320), the coefficient of pipe friction λ depends on the pipe roughness k and the
Reynolds’ number Re. The correlation between Re, λ and k is portrayed in the diagram according to
Colebrook and Nikuradse, which relates wall roughness k to the pipe diameter d.

23
For hydraulically smooth pipes and Reynolds’ numbers in the range from 2320 < Re < 105, the
coefficient of pipe friction is calculated according to the Blasius formula

For pipes in the transition region to rough pipes, the coefficient of pipe friction is calculated according
to Colebrook

This is an implicit formula which must be solved iteratively. First, estimate λ, insert it in the formula and
calculate an initial approximation. This approximation is included in the equation again and a second
approximation calculated.

24
Experimental 1: To find energy losses in pipes of different materials
Objective: Comparison of tubes made of different materials (copper; steel) and with the same internal
diameter di = 16mm in terms of their head loss hv.

Procedure:
 Connect pipe section 2 with infeed and discharge hose.
 Open the inflow to the pipe section.
 Close the discharge from the pipe section.
 Open the outlet valve gradually and note the measurements of rotameter and dual manometer.
 Repeat the points above for pipe section 3.

Experimental 2: To find energy losses in pipes of different cross sections


Objective: Comparison of tubes with different cross section but made of the same material in terms of
their head loss hv.
PVC pipes (pipe sections 4 and 5) with an external diameter of 20mm and 32 mm are then examined. The
corresponding internal diameters are 17mm and 28.6mm.

Procedure: same as experiment 1.

Experimental 3: To find resistance coefficient of different pipe bends.


Objective: Empirical determination of the coefficients of resistance for different pipe elbows (bend, angle
and knee) in pipe section 1.

Procedure:
 Connect pipe section 1 with inflow and discharge hose.
 Open the inflow to the pipe section.
 Close the discharge from the pipe section.
 Connect the double manometer with the measuring glands of the knee 1a.
 Open the outlet valve gradually and note the measurements.
 In a similar manner, perform the measurement with elbow 1b and bend 1c.

 Close the inflow to the pipe section.

 Close the discharge from the pipe section.

25
Experiment 1:
Observations and Calculations

Loss Level Calculations:

26
27
Experiment 2:
Observations and Calculations

Loss Level Calculations:

28
Experiment 3:
Observations and Calculations
For 1a, Knee

For 1b, Elbow

29
For 1c, Bend

Calculation of Resistance Coefficient:

30
Exercise:

4. Draw graphs between Flow rates and loss levels.


Comments:

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____

31
Lab#6…………Experiment #5
Flow Measurement Methods
Objective:

The HM 150.13 Methods of Flow Measurement unit includes three different flow
meters, allowing the following relationships to be investigated experimentally:

 Comparison of different flow meters


 Investigation of relationships between flow and pressure in flow measurement
 Determination of flow coefficients
 Calibration of flow meters

Apparatus description:

The unit comprises a Venturi nozzle (9), an orifice plate, a measuring nozzle
and a Pitot tube (8) for flow measurement and a rotameter (3).The flow rate
can be regulated using the gate valve (2).The pressure losses at the
measuring elements can be recorded using pressure connections with rapid
action couplings. The connections are connected to a 6-tube manometer (6),
which is fitted with a ventilation valve. The flow rate can be measured using
the HM 150 Base Module for Experiments in Fluid Mechanics (volumetric flow
measurement). All components of the experimentation stand are clearly
arranged on a base plate with a frame (5).

32
Figure 0-1 Flow Measuring Apparatus

Theory:

Venturi Meter:

Venturi meters are flow measurement instruments which use a converging section of pipe to give an
increase in the flow velocity and a corresponding pressure drop from which the flowrate can be
deduced. They have been in common use for many years, especially in the water supply industry.

Orifice Plate:

An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate, for reducing pressure or for
restricting flow (in the latter two cases it is often called a restriction plate). Either a
volumetric or mass flow rate may be determined, depending on the calculation
associated with the orifice plate.

33
Pitot Tube:

A pitot tube is a pressure measurement instrument used to measure fluid flow velocity. It is widely
used to determine the airspeed of an aircraft, water speed of a boat, and to measure liquid, air and
gas flow velocities in industrial applications. The pitot tube is used to measure the local flow velocity
at a given point in the flow stream and not the average flow velocity in the pipe or conduit.

Experimental Procedure:

An orifice / nozzle with a volumetric flow running through it results in a pressure loss p
. The relation is

Insert either the orifice disc or the nozzle disc into the housing.

Connect the pressure connections on the housing to two measuring tubes on the
manometer panel.

Prepare the manometer panel for differential pressure measurement.

Switch on the pump.

Open the gate valve (2) on the HM 150.13 and initially set a low flow rate.
Note volumetric flow rate using rotameter.

Note the differential pressure value in the table.

Repeat above steps for different flow rates.

Exercise:

Plot graph of differential pressure (X-axis) and volumetric flow rate (Y-axis).

34
Lab#7………………..Experiment #6
To Study the Centrifugal Pump Characteristics

10

11 12 13 14

Fig:

Pos. Designation Pos. Designation


1 Asynchronous motor 8 Alteration switch of the digital display
2 Rear panel 9 On-off switch for the Centrifugal pump
3 Ball valve 10 Potentiometer for speed
4 Manometer, delivery side 11 Master switch
5 Manometer, intake side 12 Emergency-off switch
6 Display of the switch position 13 Centrifugal pump
7 Digital display 14 Frame

Objectives:

The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint students with different important parameters that are
vital indicator of pump performance including

 Recording the pump characteristic curve at a constant pump speed


 measuring the intake and delivery pressure

35
 determining the flow rate
 Recording the pump characteristic curves for different speeds
 power and efficiency curves
 measuring the electrical drive power
 determining the hydraulic power
 Calculating the efficiency

Apparatus Description:

The overall structure of the unit is made of anti-corrosion materials. The piping and
the stop valves are made of plastic material. The centrifugal pump (13) is driven by
an asynchronous motor (1).
The pump speed is controlled by an asynchronous motor with a frequency converter.
The speed and the power consumption can be read on a digital display (7). Use the
alteration switch (8) to change the display from one variable to another.
The suction pressure and delivery pressure are measured by 2 manometers (4, 5).
The volume (mass) flow-rate is measured using the volumetric tank of the hydraulic
bench.
Theory:

Centrifugal pumps belong to the group of dynamic pumps. They are the most widely used type of
pumps. The advantages are mainly

 Simple design
 No oscillating masses
 Little wear
 Reliable
 Suitable for different fluids
 Direct coupling to electric motor without gearing
Procedure:

1. Place the experimental unit HM 150.04 onto the base module HM 150 (hydraulic
bench).

2. Open the drain (16) of HM 150.

3. Open the ball valve (20).

4. Open the ball valve (3).

5. Fill the storage tank of hydraulic bench with water.

36
6. Connect the electrical supply.

7. Now turn on the pump and start noting different variables.


Observations and Calculations:

Rpm Pis Pds Volume Time Head Ped Phyd Efficiency

min-1 bar bar L Sec m W W %

1000

1500

2000

2500

Observations and Calculations:

Speed=2000 min-1

Pds Pis Volume Time Head Ped Phyd Efficiency

bar bar L Sec m W W %

37
Lab#8………………Experiment #7
To Study the Pump Characteristics (Series and Parallel)

10

11

12

1 Pump P2 7 Volume flow sensor, FI1

2 Pump P1 8 Valve for flow rate V , V3


3 Pressure p1 upstream of pump P1 9 Water tank
4 Pressure p2 downstream of pump P1 10 Shut-off valve for pump P2, V2
5 Pressure p3 downstream of pump P2 11 Outlet valve, V4
6 Three-way valve for operating mode, V1 12 Housing
Objective:

The purpose of this experiment is to acquaint students with different important parameters that are
vital indicator of pump performance.

Apparatus Description:

The series and parallel pumps unit essentially consists of the centrifugal pump with drive motor, the
throttle valve, the flow meter and the water tank. These components are connected to the water circuit
by pipes.

38
The experimental unit consists of the controllable pump P1 (2) and the optionally switchable
constant-speed pump P2 (1). Water is sucked in from the water tank (9) and pumped through
the piping in the circuit. The experimental unit can be operated in a variety of different
operating modes using the 3-way valve for the operating mode (6) and the shut-off valve for
pump P2 (10). The valve for flow rate (8) is used to adjust the system's flow resistance. In this
way, it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the pressures p1, p2 and p3 (3, 4, 5) and the flow
rate (7) of the system and the pumps.
Theory:

Centrifugal pumps belong to the group of dynamic pumps. They are the most widely used type of
pump in the world. The advantages are mainly

 Simple design
 No oscillating masses
 Little wear
 Reliable
 Suitable for different fluids
 Direct coupling to electric motor without gearing
When pumps are connected in parallel,

 Ht = (Ht) 1 = (Ht) 2
 Qt = Q1 + Q2
When pumps are connected in series,

 Qt = Q1 = Q2
 Ht = (Ht) 1 + (Ht) 2

Experiment 1: To determine characteristic curve for pump P1

Procedure:

8. Bleed the experimental unit


9. Set the experimental unit for standalone operation of pump P1
10. Fully open valve V3
11. Use the tare button to calibrate to zero
12. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed

13. Measured values for the suction pressure P1, the pump outlet pressure P2 and the
volume flow rate should now be recorded.

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14. Reduce the volume flow by gradually closing valve V3 and take measurements
according to point 6.

15. Repeat step 6 and 7 until the volume flow is completely throttled.
Observations and Calculations:

Pump speed Volume Pressure Pressure Hydrostatic Electrical Efficiency


flow Q P1 P2 Power P hyd Power Pel ƞ
P1, n

l/min l/min bar bar W W %

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Experiment 2:
Objective:

To verify the operating characteristic of system of pumps working in parallel

Procedure:

1. Bleed the experimental unit


2. Set the experimental unit for parallel operation
3. Fully open valve V3
4. Use the tare button to calibrate to zero

5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed

6. Switch to pump P2

7. Values for the pump inlet pressure P1, the pump outlet pressure P2 and P3 and the volume
flow rate should now be recorded.

8. Reduce the volume flow by gradually closing valve V3 and take measurements according to
point 7.

9. Repeat step 7 and 8 until the volume flow is completely throttled.

Observations and Calculations:

Pump 1 & 2 Volume flow Q Pressure P1 Pressure P2 Pressure P3


speed, n

l/min l/min bar bar bar

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Exercise:
1. For experiment 1 plot the following parameters against flow rate (Q)
o P2 = f(Q)
o Phyd = f(Q)
o η = f(Q)
2. Comment on the variation of the parameters stated above with flow rate and justify the
trends.
3. For experiment 2, plot graph of flow rate and pumps outlet pressures.

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Lab#9………..Experiment # 8

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Experiment 1st

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Experiment 2nd

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Lab#10………………….Experiment #9
Water Hammer and Surge Chamber

Figure 0-1 Water Hammer and Surge Chamber Apparatus

Objective:

The objective of this experiment is to demonstrate water hammers in pipes and to determine natural
frequency in the surge chamber.

Apparatus description:

The HM 156 trainer is used to demonstrate water hammers and the functional
principle of a surge chamber.
The HM 150 Base Module provides the water supply for the experiment setup in a
closed circuit. Water is pumped from the supply tank on the HM 150 module into a
tank, via a supply pipe. The tank is located on a pedestal. It is fitted with an overflow,
which flows into a return pipe. There is a level indicator provided for checking the
water level in the tank. The water flows out of the tank through the two experimental
pipe sections, which are operated separately from each other.
The solenoid valve V1 is installed in the “water hammer” experimental pipe

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section. It can be closed via the control unit or by using the software provided. Closing
the solenoid valve V1 creates a water hammer in the experimental pipe section. The
water hammer is detected by the pressure sensors PI1 and PI2, which are installed in
the experimental pipe section, 3m apart from each other.
In the “surge chamber” experimental pipe section the water hammer is generated
by manually closing the ball valve V3. The water hammer is detected by the pressure
sensor PI3 and can be seen in the fluctuations of the water level in the surge
chamber.
There are two throttle valves (V2 and V4), one located at the end of each
experimental pipe section, which are used to shut off the experimental pipe section
that is not needed.
The values measured by the pressure sensors are displayed in the software.
Alternatively, they can be output to an oscilloscope or a line recorder.

Theory:

In water-bearing structures such as hydroelectric power stations or systems that


supply water, the starting up and shutting down of hydraulic machinery, or the
opening and closing of valves and gates during operation lead to changes in flow
rate, which in turn lead to pressure fluctuations.
We make a distinction between rapid pressure changes that propagate with the
speed of sound (water hammers) and slow pressure changes caused by mass
oscillations. Pipeline systems use air vessels or surge chambers to dampen water
hammers and mass oscillations.
The HM 156 Water Hammers and Surge Chamber trainer has been designed for the
purposes of demonstrating water hammers and the functional principle of a surge
chamber. The trainer can be used to generate water hammers in a pipe. Furthermore,
it is possible to show a water hammer subsiding in a surge chamber.

Experimental procedure for Producing Water Hammers:

1. Start up the HM 150 Base Module and the HM 156 trainer.


2. On the HM 150 Base Module:
 Turn on the main switch.
 Turn on the pump.
3. On the HM 156 trainer:
 Turn on the power switch.

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4. Close the throttle valve V4 fully. The ‘ surge chamber’ experimental pipe section is
now shut off.
5. Open the throttle valve V2 fully. The ‘water hammers’ experimental pipe section is
now open.
6. Use the throttle valve on the HM 150 Base Module and the throttle valve V2 to
adjust the desired flow rate, so that there is a steady water level in the surge
chamber.
7. If the water level is too high, water will splash out of the surge chamber during the
experiment. The water level in the surge chamber should be between the lower
third and the middle of the surge chamber.
8. Use a stopwatch to determine the flow rate.

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Observation & calculation:

Calculating the Natural Frequency of the Oscillation in the Surge Chamber

l Length of the pipe = 3 m

d Diameter of the pipe = 26 mm

D Diameter of the surge chamber = 50 mm

H Height of the water column in the surge chamber = 825 mm

Formulas:

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Thermodynamics
Experiments

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Lab#11…….Experiment #10

10-Steam Power Plant with Steam Engine

Learning content/exercises
– Recording of a steam pressure curve
– Effect of additional evaporation
– Effect of the addition of cold water
– Determination of the fuel consumption

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– Determination of the steam volume generated
– Determination of emitted power
– Determination of boiler efficiency
– Determination of condensation power

Equipment Layout:

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Experiments
The selection of experiments makes no claims of completeness but is intended to be
used
as a stimulus for your own experiments. The results shown are intended as a guide
only.
Depending on the construction of the individual components, experimental skills and
environmental conditions, deviations may occur in the experiments. Nevertheless, the
laws
can be clearly demonstrated.
Experiment 1 – Demonstration of function
Performing the experiment
When the steam engine is running slowly, the relationship between the movement of the
piston and the slider can be clearly observed. The steam engine can be stopped safely

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using the flywheel and the power provided by the steam impressively demonstrated by
letting the flywheel rotate slowly through the hand. For this purpose a higher boiler
pressure is sensible. By opening the steam valve the timing of the inlet flow of the
steam
can be clearly shown.
Experiment 2 – Plotting the steam pressure curve
Performing the experiment

– To achieve an exact temperature measurement, a small amount of steam must flow


past
the temperature sensor T3. Open the steam valve a little on the steam engine.
– Slowly increase the pressure in the boiler and at the same time note the temperature
T3
and pressure p1. Stop the experiment at 3 bar.
– The steam pressure can now be plotted against the temperature.

Experiment 3 – Demonstration of additional evaporation


Performing the experiment
– At 3 bar open the steam valve slightly and allow the steam engine to rotate slowly
without load.
– Observe the water level gauge. The water level is steady and can be clearly seen.
– Fully open the steam valve. To do this, apply a load to the steam engine with 2 bulbs.
Observe the water level gauge.
Experiment 4 – Demonstration of additional feed
Performing the experiment
– The water level should be in the lower third of the water level gauge.
– At 3 bar add, add plenty of water using the feed water pump and observe the
manometer. The pressure reduces rapidly. The cold water draws energy from the
content
of the boiler and the production of steam collapses.
Experiment 5 – Calculations
Performing the experiment

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– Adjust the gas flow rate to maximum.
– Set the cooling water flow rate to 50 L/h.
– Manually start the steam engine and leave to run at low speed without load.
– Adjust the steam valve so that a pressure of 4.0 bar is maintained.
– Set the gas flow rate to 50 L/h.
– Turn on two bulbs as a load.
– Wait until the system has reached a steady state. During this process do not forget to
add water.
Once a steady state has been reached, the measurements can be made.
– Place the measuring tank under the condensate drain valve V5 and open the valve.
Pour
away accumulated condensate and plate the measuring tank underneath again.

– Read and note all measured values. The table in the Appendix can be used for this
purpose.
– Repeat the reading every 5min and ensure that the measured values change as little
as
possible End the experiment after 10...20min. Determine the amount of condensation
using the measuring vessel.

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Lab#12…….Experiment#11
11- Absorption Refrigeration System

Introduction:
In refrigeration engineering are mainly two different types of systems found:
– Compression refrigeration systems
– Absorption refrigeration systems
Absorption refrigeration systems are powered by thermal energy while compression
refrigeration systems require a mechanical drive. The ET 480 absorption refrigeration
system demonstration model is a fully functional absorption refrigeration system. The ET
480 is heated with propane gas or electrically and works with an ammonia/water mixture.
The clear table-top arrangement makes the different circuits easy to understand.
Temperature transducers at obvious points in the media circuits clearly indicate the
individual sections of the refrigeration process.
Objectives of unit, target group and learning content
The ET 480 demonstration model is designed for use in education and training.
The learning objectives are:
• To demonstrate the fundamental principle of an absorption refrigeration system.

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• To learn about absorption refrigeration systems and their main components.
• To learn about operating behavior under load.

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Experiments
The selection of experiments makes no claims of completeness but is intended to be used
as a stimulus for your own experiments. The results shown are intended as a guide only.
Depending on the construction of the individual components, experimental skills and
environmental conditions, deviations may occur in the experiments. Nevertheless, the laws
can be clearly demonstrated.
NOTICE
Before starting a measuring series, reset the power display using the RST button.
Experiment aim
Demonstration experiments, electric heater, operating behavior under load (counter heater).

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