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1) What is a Link? A connection between two devices.


2) What are the layers of the OSI reference model?
3) What is backbone network?
A backbone network is a centralized infrastructure that is designed to distribute different routes and data to
various networks. It also handles management of bandwidth and various channels.
4) What is a LAN? Connection between different devices locally.
5) What is a node? a point or joint [PC etc] where a connection takes place.
6) What are routers? Routers can connect two or more network segments [LANs/broadcast domains]. It
operates at OSI Network Layer. Routing table  best path.
8) What is anonymous FTP?
Anonymous FTP is a way of granting user access to files in public servers. Users that are allowed access to
data in these servers do not need to identify themselves, but instead log in as an anonymous guest.
9) What is subnet mask? Identifies the network and host side of an IP address.
10) What is the maximum length allowed for a UTP cable? 90-100 m [* repeaters/switches]
11) What is data encapsulation?
The process of breaking down information into smaller manageable chunks before it is transmitted across
the network. It is also in this process that the source and destination addresses are attached into the headers,
along with parity checks.
12) Describe Network Topology
13) What is VPN?
A technology that allows a secure tunnel to be created across a network such as the Internet.
14) Briefly describe NAT. Network Address Translation
15) What is the job of the Network Layer under the OSI reference model?
The Network layer is responsible for data routing, packet switching and control of network congestion.
Routers operate under this layer.
16) How does a network topology affect your decision in setting up a network?
17) What is RIP? Routing Information Protocol
18) What are different ways of securing a computer network?
Anti-virus, anti-malware, authentication, ACLs, firewalls
19) What is NIC?
Network Interface Card. This is a peripheral card that is attached to a PC in order to connect to a network.
Every NIC has its own MAC address that identifies the PC on the network.
20) What is WAN?
Wide Area Network. It is an interconnection of computers and devices that are geographically dispersed
21) What is the importance of the OSI Physical Layer?
The physical layer does the conversion from data bits to electrical signal, and vice versa. This is where
network devices and cable types are considered and setup.
22) How many layers are there under TCP/IP?
23) What are proxy servers and how do they protect computer networks?
Proxy servers primarily prevent external users who identifying the IP addresses of an internal network.
Without knowledge of the correct IP address, even the physical location of the network cannot be identified.
Proxy servers can make a network virtually invisible to external users.
24) What is the function of the OSI Session Layer?
This layer provides the protocols and means for two devices on the network to communicate with each other
by holding a session.
25) What is the importance of implementing a Fault Tolerance System? Are there limitations?
A fault tolerance system ensures continuous data availability.
26) What does 10Base-T mean?
27) What is a private IP address?
28) What is NOS?
NOS, or Network Operating System, is specialized software whose main task is to provide network
connectivity to a computer in order for it to be able to communicate with other computers and connected
devices.
29) What is DoS? Prevents access
30) What is OSI and what role does it play in computer networks?
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31) What is the purpose of cables being shielded and having twisted pairs?
Crosstalks are electromagnetic interferences or noise that can affect data being transmitted across cables.
32) What is the advantage of address sharing?
33) What are MAC addresses?
MAC, or Media Access Control, uniquely identifies a device on the network. It is also known as physical
address or Ethernet address. A MAC address is made up of 6-byte parts. [48 bits]
34) What is the equivalent layer or layers of the TCP/IP Application layer in terms of OSI reference
model?
35) How can you identify the IP class of a given IP address? Looking at the octet
36) What is the main purpose of OSPF?
37) What are firewalls?
Firewalls serve to protect an internal network from external attacks.
Firewall is a network security system that is used to protect computer networks from unauthorized access. It
prevents malicious access from outside to the computer network. A firewall can also be built to grant limited
access to the outside users. The firewall consists of a hardware device, software program or a combined
configuration of both. All the messages that route through the Firewall are examined by specific security
criteria and the messages which meet the criteria are successfully traversed through the network or else those
messages are blocked.
38) Describe star topology
Star topology consists of a central hub that connects to nodes. This is one of the easiest to setup and
maintain.
39) What are gateways?
Gateways provide connectivity between two or more network segments.
40) What is the disadvantage of a star topology?
One major disadvantage of star topology is that once the central hub or switch get damaged, the entire
network becomes unusable.
41) What is SLIP?
SLIP, or Serial Line Interface Protocol, is actually an old protocol developed during the early UNIX days.
This is one of the protocols that are used for remote access.
42) Give some examples of private network addresses.
43) What is tracert?
Tracert is a Windows utility program that can used to trace the route taken by data from the router to the
destination network.
44) What are the functions of a network administrator?
A network administrator has many responsibilities that can be summarize into 3 key functions: installation
of a network, configuration of network settings, and maintenance/troubleshooting of networks.
45) Describe at one disadvantage of a peer to peer network.
When you are accessing the resources that are shared by one of the workstations on the network, that
workstation takes a performance hit.
46) What is Hybrid Network?
A hybrid network is a network setup that makes use of both client-server and peer-to-peer architecture.
47) What is DHCP?
48) What is the main job of the ARP?
The main task of ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is to map a known IP address to a MAC layer
address.
49) What is TCP/IP?
50) How can you manage a network using a router?
51) What protocol can be applied when you want to transfer files between different platforms, such
between UNIX systems and Windows servers?
Use FTP (File Transfer Protocol) for file transfers between such different servers. This is possible because
FTP is platform independent.
52) What is the use of a default gateway?
Default gateways provide means for the local networks to connect to the external network.
53) One way of securing a network is through the use of passwords. What can be considered as good
passwords?
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54) What is the proper termination rate for UTP cables?


The proper termination for unshielded twisted pair network cable is 100 ohms.
55) What is netstat?
Netstat is a command line utility program. It provides useful information about the current TCP/IP settings
of a connection.
56) What is the number of network IDs in a Class C network?
For a Class C network, the number of usable Network ID bits is 21. The number of possible network IDs is
2 raised to 21 or 2,097,152. The number of host IDs per network ID is 2 raised to 8 minus 2, or 254.
57) What happens when you use cables longer than the prescribed length?
Cables that are too long would result in signal loss. This means that data transmission and reception would
be affected, because the signal degrades over length.
58) What common software problems can lead to network defects?
59) What is ICMP?
ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol. It provides messaging and communication for protocols within
the TCP/IP stack. This is also the protocol that manages error messages that are used by network tools such
as PING.
60) What is Ping?
Ping is a utility program that allows you to check connectivity between network devices on the network.
You can ping a device by using its IP address or device name, such as a computer name.
61) What is peer to peer?
Peer to peer are networks that does not reply on a server. All PCs on this network act as individual
workstations.
62) What is DNS?
63) What advantages does fiber optics have over other media?
One major advantage of fiber optics is that is it less susceptible to electrical interference. It also supports
higher bandwidth, meaning more data can be transmitted and received. Signal degrading is also very
minimal over long distances.
64) What is the difference between a hub and a switch?
A hub acts as a multiport repeater. However, as more and more devices connect to it, it would not be able to
efficiently manage the volume of traffic that passes through it. A switch provides a better alternative that can
improve the performance especially when high traffic volume is expected across all ports.
65) What are the different network protocols that are supported by Windows RRAS services?
There are three main network protocols supported: NetBEUI, TCP/IP, and IPX.
66) What are the maximum networks and hosts in a class A, B and C network?
For Class A, there are 126 possible networks and 16,777,214 hostsFor Class B, there are 16,384 possible
networks and 65,534 hostsFor Class C, there are 2,097,152 possible networks and 254 hosts
67) What is the standard color sequence of a straight-through cable?
orange/white, orange, green/white, blue, blue/white, green, brown/white, brown.
68) What protocols fall under the Application layer of the TCP/IP stack?
69) You need to connect two computers for file sharing. Is it possible to do this without using a hub or
router?
Yes, you can connect two computers together using only one cable. A crossover type cable can be use in this
scenario. In this setup, the data transmit pin of one cable is connected to the data receive pin of the other
cable, and vice versa.
70) What is ipconfig?
Ipconfig is a utility program that is commonly used to identify the addresses information of a computer on a
network. It can show the physical address as well as the IP address.
71) What is the difference between a straight-through and crossover cable?
A straight-through cable is used to connect computers to a switch, hub or router. A crossover cable is used to
connect two similar devices together, such as a PC to PC or Hub to hub.
72) What is client/server?
Client/server is a type of network wherein one or more computers act as servers. Servers provide a
centralized repository of resources such as printers and files. Clients refers to workstation that access the
server.
73) Describe networking.
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Networking refers to the inter connection between computers and peripherals for data communication.
Networking can be done using wired cabling or through wireless link.
74) When you move the NIC cards from one PC to another PC, does the MAC address gets
transferred as well?
Yes, that's because MAC addresses are hard-wired into the NIC circuitry, not the PC.
75) Explain clustering support
Clustering support refers to the ability of a network operating system to connect multiple servers in a fault-
tolerant group. The main purpose of this is the in the event that one server fails, all processing will continue
on with the next server in the cluster.
76) In a network that contains two servers and twenty workstations, where is the best place to install
an Anti-virus program?
An anti-virus program must be installed on all servers and workstations to ensure protection. That's because
individual users can access any workstation and introduce a computer virus when plugging in their
removable hard drives or flash drives.
77) Describe Ethernet.
Ethernet is one of the popular networking technologies used these days. It was developed during the early
1970s and is based on specifications as stated in the IEEE. Ethernet is used in local area networks.
78) What are some drawbacks of implementing a ring topology?
In case one workstation on the network suffers a malfunction, it can bring down the entire network. Another
drawback is that when there are adjustments and reconfigurations needed to be performed on a particular
part of the network, the entire network has to be temporarily brought down as well.
79) What is the difference between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA?
CSMA/CD, or Collision Detect, retransmits data frames whenever a collision occurred. CSMA/CA, or
Collision Avoidance, will first broadcast intent to send prior to data transmission.
80) What is SMTP?
81) What is multicast routing?
Multicast routing is a targeted form of broadcasting that sends message to a selected group of user, instead
of sending it to all users on a subnet.
82) What is the importance of Encryption on a network?
Encryption is the process of translating information into a code that is unreadable by the user.
83) How are IP addresses arranged and displayed?
84) Explain the importance of authentication.
Authentication is the process of verifying a user's credentials before he can log into the network.
85) What do mean by tunnel mode?
This is a mode of data exchange wherein two communicating computers do not use IPSec themselves.
Instead, the gateway that is connecting their LANs to the transit network creates a virtual tunnel that uses the
IPSec protocol to secure all communication that passes through it.
86) What are the different technologies involved in establishing WAN links?
Analog connections - using conventional telephone lines; Digital connections - using digital-grade telephone
lines; switched connections - using multiple sets of links between sender and receiver to move data.
87) What is one advantage of mesh topology?
In the event that one link fails, there will always be another available. Mesh topology is actually one of the
most fault-tolerant network topology.
88) When troubleshooting computer network problems, what common hardware-related problems
can occur?
A large percentage of a network is made up of hardware. Problems in these areas can range from
malfunctioning hard drives, broken NICs and even hardware startups. Incorrectly hardware configuration is
also one of those culprits to look into.
89) What can be done to fix signal attenuation problems?
A common way of dealing with such a problem is to use repeaters and hub, because it will help regenerate
the signal and therefore prevent signal loss. Checking if cables are properly terminated is also a must.
90) How does dynamic host configuration protocol aid in network administration?
91) Explain profile in terms of networking concept?
Profiles are the configuration settings made for each user.
92) What is sneakernet?
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Sneakernet is believed to be the earliest form of networking wherein data is physically transported using
removable media, such as disk, tapes.
93) What is the role of IEEE in computer networking?
IEEE, or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is an organization composed of engineers that
issues and manages standards for electrical and electronic devices.
94) What protocols fall under the TCP/IP Internet Layer?
There are 4 protocols that are being managed by this layer. These are ICMP, IGMP, IP and ARP
95) When it comes to networking, what are rights?
Rights refer to the authorized permission to perform specific actions on the network. Each user on the
network can be assigned individual rights, depending on what must be allowed for that user.
96) What is one basic requirement for establishing VLANs?
A VLAN is required because at switch level there is only one broadcast domain, it means whenever new
user is connected to switch this information is spread throughout the network. VLAN on switch helps to
create separate broadcast domain at switch level. It is used for security purpose.
97) What is IPv6?
98) What is RSA algorithm?
RSA is short for Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm. It is the most commonly used public key encryption
algorithm in use today.
99) What is mesh topology?
Mesh topology is a setup wherein each device is connected directly to every other device on the network.
Consequently, it requires that each device have at least two network connections.
100) what is the maximum segment length of a 100Base-FX network?
The maximum allowable length for a network segment using 100Base-FX is 412 meters. The maximum
length for the entire network is 5 kilometers.

1. Question 1. Name Three Steps Which You Would Use To Troubleshoot Ftp Server Related
Problems.?
Answer :
Test basic connectivity with ping, Check with nmap if the ports are open (20 and 21). Check if a firewall
is restricting traffic to the server.
2. Question 2. How Would You Troubleshoot Dns Problems?
Answer :
Ping the DNS server and check the response. Check with wireshark if DNS request and response packets
are being sent and received.
3. Question 3. Name Three Steps Which You Would Use To Troubleshoot Internet Related
Problems.?
Answer :
Check the connectivity with the default gateway. Check if the DNS server is configured on the PC. Check
if the appropriate port number is active using nmap on the DNS server.
4. Question 4. How Would You Troubleshoot Dhcp Server Related Issues.?
Answer :
Check the IP connectivity with the DHCP server from a system configured on the network. Test if the
DHCP client and server service is started on the DHCP server and the client. Test if the DHCP server
service is reachable using nmap.
5. Question 5. A User Is Unable To Telnet Into The Router. Explain The Methodology Of
Troubleshooting.?
Answer :
Check the IP connectivity using ping. Check if port 23 is open on the router using nmap.
6. Question 6. A User Is Able To Ping Ip Addresses On The Internet , But Unable To Access It Via
Domain Names. Should The Dns Server Be Configured On The Gateway Or The Client.
Answer :
The DNS server can be a public server or the gateway address. If it is the gateway address, the DNS
server address should be configured on the gateway. The DNS server should also be configured on the
users TCP/IP adapter.
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7. Question 7. What Are The Differences Among Router, Switch And Hub?
Answer :
Hub (layer 1 Device):
o Hubs, also known as repeaters, are network devices that can operate on layer-1 (I.e. the physical
layer) to connect network devices for communication.
o A common connection point for devices in a network (Physical Layer-Layer1). When a packet
arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all
packets.
Switch (layer 2 Device)::
o Switches are network devices that operate on layer-2 of OSI model of communication.
o Switches are also known as intelligent hubs.
In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. Switches operate at the
data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer(layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model .
Router (layer 3 Device):
o Routers are the network devices that operate at Layer-3 of OSI model of communication.
o As layer-3 protocols have access to logical address (IP addresses) so routers have the capability
to forward data across networks.
o Sometimes routers are also known as layer-3 switches.
A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks,
commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP [Network Layer (Layer3)]
8. Question 8. What Are The Types Of Lan Cables Used?
Answer :
o Straight Cable
o Cross Cable
Question 9. What Is A Cross Cable?
Answer :
Its used to connect same type of devices without using a switch/hub so that they can communicate.
Question 10. What Could Be The Maximum Length Of The Lan Cable?
Answer :
The theoretical length is 100 meters but after 80 meters you may see drop in speed due to loss of signal.
Question 11. What Would You Use To Connect Two Computers Without Using Switches?
Answer :
Cross cable.
Question 12. What Is Ipconfig Command? Why It Is Used?
Answer :
IPCONFIG command is used to display the IP information assigned to a computer.
From the output we can find out the IP address, DNS IP address, gateway IP address assigned to that
computer.
Question 13. What Is Apipa Ip Address? Or What Ip Address Is Assigned To The Computer
When The Dhcp Server Is Not Available?
Answer :
When DHCP server is not available the Windows client computer assignes an automatic IP address to
itself so that it can communicate with the network cmputers. This ip address is called APIPA. ITs in the
range of 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255
APIPA stands for Automatic private IP addressing.
Question 14. What Is A Domain? What Is The Difference Between A Domain And A
Workgroup?
Answer :
Domain is created when we install Active Directory. It's a security boundary which is used to manage
computers inside the boundary. Domain can be used to centrally administor computers and we can govern
them using common policies called group policies. We can't do the same with workgroup.
Domain: Collecton of clients controlled by the server called Domain
Work Group : Colletion of Client network called Work Group
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Question 15. What Is Ping Utility?


Answer :
PING: Packet Internet Gropper. It's a diagnostic utility, which diagnose connectivitybetween computers.
It use ICMP: Internet Control Messaging protocol to send echorequests ( usually 4 packets) and receive
echo replies (4 packets)
Question 16. What Is The Difference Between Physical Address And Logical Address?
Answer :
Physical Address: It‟s called as MAC Address (48 bit)
Logical Address : It‟s Called as Ip Address (IPv4 -32 bit & IPv6 -128 bit)
Question 17. What Is The Range Of Addresses In The Classes Of Internet Addresses?
Answer :
ClassA : 1-126 N.H.H.H 1.0.0.1 to126.255.255.254 - 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks.
ClassB : 128 -191 N.N.H.H 1 28.1.0.1 to191.255.255.254 - 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks.
ClassC: 192- 223 N.N.N.H 192.0.1.1 to223.255.254.254 - 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks.
ClassD : 224-239 - Reserved for multicast groups.
ClassE: 240-254 - Reserved for future use.
Ranges 127.x.x.x are reserved for loopback or local host
Range of 169.254.X.X is APIPA, stands for automatic private IP addressing
Question 18. What Is The Difference Between Public And Private Ip Addresses?
Answer :
Public IP addresses:
A public IP address is any valid address, or number, that can be accessed over the Internet. Internet
standards groups, such as the Network Information Center (NIC) or the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority (IANA), are the organizations responsible for registering IP ranges and assigning them to
organizations, such as Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
Private IP addresses:
A private IP address is any number or address assigned to a device on a private TCP/IP Local Area
Network that is accessible only within the Local Area Network. For a resource inside the Local Area
Network to be accessible over the Internet, a device within the Local Area Network must be connected to
the Internet with a public IP address, and the networking must be appropriately configured.
The same Internet standards organizations have reserved the following three IP address ranges
that will never be registered publicly:
First IP in block Last IP in block
10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
Question 19. Crimping Types & Colour Coding?
Answer :
1.Straight Crimping : Communication bw the Difference Devices
Ex.( System To Switch & Switch to System or Modem)
2.Cross Crimping : Communication bw the same Devices
Ex.( System To system & Switch to switch)
Straight:
o Orange white orange Orange white orange
o Green white blue Green white blue
o Blue white green Blue white green
o Brown white Brown Brown white Brown
Crosss:
o Orange white orange Green white Green
o Green white blue Orange white blue
o Blue white green Blue white Orange
o Brown white Brown Brown white Brown
Question 20. What Is A Gateway?
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Answer :
A default gateway is a routing device used to forward all traffic that is not addressed to a destination
within the local network or local subnet. If you don‟t have a default gateway, it is not possible to
communicate with the network device/host of different networks.
Question 21. What Is Subnet Mask?
Answer :
Subnet mask is used for identify the Network.
Example:
For a class A address, a standard subnet mask is 255.0.0.0,
For a class B address, a standard subnet mask is 255.255.0.0,
For a class C address, a standard subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
Hub Switch Router
Hub is least expensive, least Switches work similarly like Hubs The router is smartest and most
intelligent and least complicated of but in a more efficient manner. complicated out of these three. It
the three. It creates connections dynamically comes in all shapes and sizes.
It broadcast all data to every port and provides information only to the Routers are similar like little
which may cause serious security and requesting port computers dedicated for routing
reliability concern network traffic
In a Network, Hub is a common Switch is a device in a network which Routers are located at gateway and
connection point for devices forwards packets in a network forwards data packets
connected to the network. Hub
contains multiple ports and is used to
connect segments of LAN

TCP UDP
TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol UDP is stands for User Datagram Protocol or Universal
Datagram Protocol
Once the connection is setup, data can be sent bi- UDP is connectionless, simple protocol. Using UDP,
directional i.e. TCP is a connection oriented protocol messages are sent as packets
The speed of TCP is slower than UDP UDP is faster compared to TCP
TCP is used for the application where time is not critical UDP is suitable for the applications which require fast
part of data transmission transmission of data and time is crucial in this case.
TCP transmission occurs in a sequential manner UDP transmission also occurs in a sequential manner but
it does not maintain the same seq when it reaches the D
It is heavy weight connection It is lightweight transport layer
TCP tracks the data sent to ensure no data loss during UDP does not ensure whether receiver receives packets
data transmission are not. If packets are misses then they are just lost

Workgroup Domain
All computers are peers and no computer has control over Network admin uses one or more computer as a server
another computer and provide all accesses, security permission to all other
computers in a network
In a Workgroup, each computer maintains their own The domain is a form of a computer network in which
database computers, printers, and user accounts are registered in a
central database.
Each computer has their own authentication rule for every It has centralized authentication servers which set the rule
user account of authentication
Each computer has set of user account. If user has If user has an account in a domain then user can login to
account on that computer then only user able to access the any computer in a domain
computer
Workgroup does not bind to any security permission or Domain user has to provide security credentials whenever
does not require any password they are accessing the domain network
Computer settings need to change manually for each In a domain, changes made in one computer
computer in a Workgroup automatically made same changes to all other computers
in a network
All computers must be on same local area network In a domain, computers can be on a different local nw
In a Workgroup, there can be only 20 computers con. In a domain, thousands of computers can be connected
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Internet: Applications are accessed by anyone from any location using the web.
Intranet: It allows limited access to the users in the same organization.
Extranet: External users are allowed or provided with access to use the network application of the org.

Given below are the 3 types of VPN's:


#1) Access VPN: Access VPN's provides connectivity to the mobile users and telecommuters. It is an
alternative option for dial-up connections or ISDN connections. It provides low-cost solutions and a wide
range of connectivity.
#2) Intranet VPN: They are useful for connecting remote offices using shared infrastructure with the same
policy as a private network.
#3) Extranet VPN: Using shared infrastructure over an intranet, suppliers, customers, and partners are
connected using dedicated connections.

Q What is SNMP?
Ans: SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. It is a network protocol used for collecting
organizing and exchanging information between network devices. SNMP is widely used in network
management for configuring network devices like switches, hubs, routers, printers, servers.
SNMP consists of the below components:
 SNMP Manager
 Managed device
 SNMP Agent
 Management Information Base (MIB)
SNMP is a part of TCP/IP suite. There are 3 main versions of SNMP which include SNMPv1, SNMPv2, and
SNMPv3.
Q #26) Differentiate Communication and Transmission?
Ans) Through Transmission the data gets transferred from source to destination (Only one way). It is treated
as the physical movement of data.
Communication means the process of sending and receiving data between two media (data is transferred
between source and destination in both ways).

OSI model has seven layers. They are listed below,


 Physical Layer (Deals with transmission and reception of unstructured data through a physical
medium)
 Data Link Layer (Helps in transferring error-free data frames between nodes)
 Network Layer (Decides the physical path that should be taken by the data as per the network
conditions)
 Transport Layer (Ensures that the messages are delivered in sequence and without any loss or
duplication)
 Session Layer (Helps in establishing a session between processes of different stations)
 Presentation Layer (Formats the data as per the need and presents the same to Application layer)
 Application Layer (Serves as the mediator between Users and processes of applications).
Other concepts:
 Network – A set of computers or devices connected together with a communication path to share
data.
 Networking – The design and construction of a network are termed as networking.
 Link – The physical medium or the communication path through which the devices are connected in
a network is called as a Link.
 Node – The devices or the computers connected to the links are named as nodes.
 Router / Gateway – A device/computer/node that is connected to different networks is termed as a
Gateway or Router. The basic difference between these two is that Gateway is used to control the
traffic of two contradictory networks whereas router controls the traffic of similar networks.
 The router is nothing but a switch which processes the signal/traffic using routing protocols.
 Protocol – A set of instructions or rules or guidelines that are used in establishing communications
between computers of a network is called as Protocol.
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 Unicasting – When a piece of information or a packet is sent from a particular source to a specified
destination then it is called as Unicasting.
 Anycasting – Sending the datagrams from a source to the nearest device among the group of servers
which provide the same service as the source is termed as Anycasting.
 Multicasting – Sending one copy of data from a single sender to multiple clients or receivers
(selected clients) of the networks which are in need of such data.
 Broadcasting – Sending a packet to each device of the network is termed as broadcasting.
The main characteristics of networking are mentioned below,
 Topology: This deals with how the computers or nodes are arranged in the network. The computers
are arranged physically or logically.
 Protocols: Deals with the process how the computers communicate with one another.
 Medium: This is nothing but the medium used by the computers for communication.

Q #32) How many types of modes are used in data transferring through networks?

1) Simplex: Data transferring which takes place only in one direction is called Simplex. In Simplex mode,
the data gets transferred either from sender to receiver or from receiver to sender.
Eg: Radio signal, the print signal given from computer to printer etc.
2) Half Duplex: Data transferring can happen in both directions but not at the same time. Alternatively, the
data is sent and received.
Eg: Browsing through the internet, a user sends the request to the server and later the server processes the
request and sends back the web page.
3) Full Duplex: Data transferring happens in both directions that too simultaneously.
Eg: Two lane road where traffic flows in both the directions, communication through telephone etc.

Bus Star Ring Mesh

Q #34) What is the full form of IDEA?


Ans) IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm.
Q #35) Define Piggybacking?
Ans) In data transmission if the sender sends any data frame to the receiver then the receiver should send the
acknowledgment to the sender. The receiver will temporarily delay (waits for the network layer to send the
next data packet) the acknowledgment and hooks it to the next outgoing data frame, this process is called
as Piggybacking
Q #36) In how many ways the data is represented and what are they?
Audio, video, images, numbers, text
Q #37) What is the full form of ASCII?
Ans) ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
Q #39) Define Round Trip Time?
Ans) The time taken for a signal to reach the destination and travel back to the sender with the
acknowledgment is termed as Round Trip time (RTT). It is also called as Round Trip Delay (RTD).
Q #43) What is the difference between Firewall and Antivirus?
Ans) Firewall and Antivirus are two different security applications used in networking. A firewall acts as a
gatekeeper which prevents unauthorized users to access the private networks as intranets. A firewall
examines each message and blocks the same which are unsecured.
Antivirus is a software program that protects a computer from any malicious software, any virus, spyware,
adware etc.

Note: A Firewall cannot protect the system from virus, spyware, adware etc.
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Q #44) Explain Beaconing?


Ans) If a network self-repair its problem then it is termed as Beaconing. Mainly it is used in token ring and
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) networks. If a device in the network is facing any problem, then it
notifies the other devices that they are not receiving any signal. Likewise, the problem gets repaired within
the network.
Q #45) Why the standard of an OSI model is termed as 802.xx?
Ans) OSI model was started in the month of February in 1980. So it is standardized as 802.XX. In this „80‟
stands for the year 1980 and „2‟ represents the month February.
Q #47) How can a network be certified as an effective network? What are the factors affecting them?
Ans) A network can be certified as an effective network based on below-mentioned points,
 Performance: A network‟s performance is based on its transmitted time and response time. The
factors affecting the performance of a network are hardware, software, transmission medium types
and the number of users using the network.
 Reliability: Reliability is nothing but measuring the probability of failures occurred in a network and
the time taken by it to recover from it. The factors affecting the same are the frequency of failure and
recovery time from failure.
 Security: Protecting the data from viruses and unauthorized users. The factors affecting the security
are viruses and users who do not have permission to access the network.
** The main difference between Internet and Ethernet is security. Ethernet is safer than the internet as
Ethernet is a closed loop and has only limited access.

Q #52) Explain Data Encapsulation?


Ans) Encapsulation means adding one thing on top of the other thing. When a message or a packet is passed
through the communication network (OSI layers), every layer adds its header information to the actual
packet. This process is termed as Data Encapsulation.

Q #53) How are networks classified based on their connections?


Server-client & P2P
Q #54) Define Pipelining?
Ans) In Networking when a task is in progress another task gets started before the previous task is finished.
This is termed as Pipelining.
Q #55) What is an Encoder?
Ans) Encoder is a circuit that uses an algorithm to convert any data or compress audio data or video data for
transmission purpose. An encoder converts the analog signal into the digital signal
Q #57) How can you recover the data from a system which is infected with Virus?
Ans) In another system (not infected with a virus) install an OS and antivirus with the latest updates. Then
connect the HDD of the infected system as a secondary drive. Now scan the secondary HDD and clean it.
Then copy the data into the system.
Q #58) Describe the key elements of protocols?
 Syntax: It is the format of the data. That means in which order the data is displayed.
 Semantics: Describes the meaning of the bits in each section.
 Timing: At what time the data is to be sent and how fast it is to be sent.
Q #59) Explain the difference between baseband and broadband transmission?
 Ans) Baseband Transmission: A single signal consumes the whole bandwidth of the cable
 Broadband Transmission: Multiple signals of multiple frequencies are sent simultaneously.

Q #60) Expand SLIP?


 Ans) SLIP stands for Serial Line Interface Protocol. SLIP is a protocol used for transmitting IP
datagrams over a serial line.
What is ICMP?
ICMP is the Internet Control Message Protocol. Most users will recognize the name through the use of tools
such as ping and traceroute, as this is the protocol that these services run over among other things. Its
primary purpose is to tell systems when they are trying to connect remotely if the other end is available. Like
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TCP and UDP, it is a part of the IP suite and uses IP port number 1. Please note, this is not TCP port 1 or
UDP port 1 as this is a different numbering scheme that for reference can be located here (For your
reference, TCP uses IP port 6, while UDP uses IP port 17). That being said, different functions of ICMP use
specific ports on TCP and UDP. For example, the „echo‟ portion of ping (the part where someone else is
able to ping you) uses TCP port 7.
What is IPX?
If you did any multiplayer PC gaming in the 90s and early 2000s, you likely knew of the IPX protocol as
„the one that actually works‟. IPX or Internetwork Packet Exchange was an extremely lightweight protocol,
which as a result for the limits of computers of the age was a very good thing. A competitor to TCP/IP, it
functions very well in small networks and didn‟t require elements like DHCP and required little to no
configuration, but does not scale well for applications like the Internet. As a result, it fell by the wayside and
is now not a required protocol for most elements.
What is Bonjour?
Although you may never have heard of this program, but if you have ever dealt with Apple devices you‟ve
seen its effects. Bonjour is one of the programs that come bundled with nearly every piece of Apple software
(most notably iTunes) that handles a lot of its automatic discovery techniques. Best described as a hybrid of
IPX and DNS,
What is Appletalk?
While we‟re on the subject of Apple, Appletalk is a protocol developed by Apple to handle networking with
little to no configuration (you may be sensing a pattern here). It reached its peak in the late 80s and early
90s, but there are still some devices that utilize this protocol. Most of its core technology has been moved
over to Bonjour, while UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) has picked up on its ideology and moved the
concept forward across many different hardware and software packages.
What are the main differences between Windows Home, Windows Pro and Windows Server?
If you were to ask a Microsoft Sales Rep this question, they would no doubt have hundreds of tweaks and
performance boosts from system to system. In reality however there are two main differences between the
Windows Home edition and Windows Professional: Joining a domain and built-in encryption. Both features
are active in Professional only, as joining a domain is nearly a mandatory requirement for businesses. EFS
(Encrypted File System) in and its successor Bitlocker are both also only present in Pro.
What are the differences between PowerShell, Command Prompt and Bash?
At a very basic level, there really isn‟t one. As you progress up the chain however, you start to realize that
there actually are a lot of differences in the power available to users (and admins) depending on how much
you know about the different interfaces. Each of these utilities is a CLI- Command Line Interface- that
allows for direct access to some of the most powerful utilities and settings in their respective operating
systems. Command Prompt (cmd) is a Windows utility based very heavily on DOS commands, but has been
updated over the years with different options such as long filename support. Bash (short for Bourne-Again
Shell) on the other hand is the primary means of managing Unix/Linux operating systems and has a great
deal more power than many of its GUI counterparts. Any Windows user that is used to cmd will recognize
some of the commands due to the fact that DOS was heavily inspired by Unix and thus many commands
have versions that exist in Bash. That being said, they may not be the best ones to use; for example while list
contents (dir) exists in Bash, the recommended method would be to use list (ls) as it allows for much easier-
to-understand formatting. Powershell, a newer Windows Utility, can be considered a hybrid of these two
systems- allowing for the legacy tools of the command prompt with some of the much more powerful
scripting functions of Bash.
What is root?
If you as a Linux admin “What is root”, you may very well get the response “root, god, what‟s the
difference?” Essentially root is THE admin, but in a Linux environment it is important to remember that
unlike in a Windows environment, you spend very little time in a “privileged” mode. Many Windows
programs over the years have required that the user be a local admin in order to function properly and have
caused huge security issues as a result. This has changed some over the years, but it can still be difficult to
remove all of the programs asking for top level permissions. A Linux user remains as a standard user nearly
all the time, and only when necessary do they change their permissions to that of root or the superuser (su).
sudo (literally- superuser do …) is the main way used to run one-off commands as root, or it is also possible
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to temporarily have a root-level bash prompt. UAC (User Account Control) is similar in theme to sudo, and
like Windows Firewall can be a pain in the neck but it does do a lot of good. Both programs allow the user
to engage higher-level permissions without having to log out of their current user session- a massive time
saver.
What is ARP?
ARP, or Address Resolution Protocol can be likened to DNS for MAC Addresses. Standard DNS allows for
the mapping of human-friendly URLs to IP addresses, while ARP allows for the mapping of IP addresses to
MAC addresses. In this way it lets systems go from a regular domain name down to the actual piece of
hardware it resides upon.
What is EFS?
The Encrypted File System, Microsoft‟s built-in file encryption utility has been around for quite some time.
Files that have been encrypted in such a way can appear in Windows Explorer with a green tint as opposed
to the black of normal files or blue for NTFS compressed files.
What is Boot to LAN?
Boot to LAN is most often used when you are doing a fresh install on a system. What you would do is setup
a network-based installer capable of network-booting via PXE. Boot to LAN enables this by allowing a pre-
boot environment to look for a DHCP server and connect to the broadcasting network installation server.
What are Terminal Services?
The ability to remote into servers without having to actually be there is one of the most convenient methods
of troubleshooting or running normal functions on a server- Terminal Services allow this capability for
admins, but also another key function for standard users: the ability to run standard applications without
having to have them installed on their local computers.
What are Shadow Copies?
Shadow copies are a versioning system in place on Windows operating systems. This allows for users to go
back to a previously available version of a file without the need for restoring the file from a standard
backup- although the specific features of shadow copies vary from version to version of the OS. While it is
not necessary to use a backup function in conjunction with Shadow Copies, it is recommended due to the
additional stability and reliability it provides. Please note- Shadow Copies are not Delta Files. Delta files
allow for easy comparison between versions of files, while Shadow Copies store entire previous versions of
the files.
What is the difference between RDP and KVM?
RDP or Remote Desktop Protocol is the primary method by which Windows Systems can be remotely
accessed for troubleshooting and is a software-driven method. KVM or Keyboard Video and Mouse on the
other hand allows for the fast-switching between many different systems, but using the same keyboard,
monitor and mouse for all. KVM is usually a hardware-driven system, with a junction box placed between
the user and the systems in question- but there are some options that are enhanced by software. KVM also
doesn‟t require an active network connection, so it can be very useful for using the same setup on multiple
networks without having cross-talk.
What is /etc/passwd?
/etc/passwd is the primary file in Unix/Linux operating system that stores information about user accounts
and can be read by all users.
What does it mean when you receive an NTFS Error: 5?
Error 5 is very common when dealing with files and directories that have very specific permissions. When
trying to copy elements from areas that have restricted permissions, or when trying to copy files to an area
that has restricted permissions, you may get this error which basically means “Access denied”. Checking out
permissions, making sure that you have the appropriate permissions to both the source and destination
locations, and making yourself the owner of those files can help to resolve this issue. Just remember that if
you are not intended to be able to view these files to return the permissions back to normal once you are
finished.
What are the differences between Local, Global and Universal Groups?
“A domain local group is a security or distribution group that can contain universal groups, global groups,
other domain local groups from its own domain, and accounts from any domain in the forest. You can give
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domain local security groups rights and permissions on resources that reside only in the same domain where
the domain local group is located.
A global group is a group that can be used in its own domain, in member servers and in workstations of the
domain, and in trusting domains. In all those locations, you can give a global group rights and permissions
and the global group can become a member of local groups. However, a global group can contain user
accounts that are only from its own domain.
A universal group is a security or distribution group that contains users, groups, and computers from any
domain in its forest as members. You can give universal security groups rights and permissions on resources
in any domain in the forest. Universal groups are not supported.”
What is SNMP?
SNMP is the “Simple Network Management Protocol”. Most systems and devices on a network are able to
tell when they are having issues and present them to the user through either prompts or displays directly on
the device. For administrators unfortunately, it can be difficult to tell when there is a problem unless the user
calls them over. On devices that have SNMP enabled however, this information can be broadcast and picked
up by programs that know what to look for. In this way, reports can be run based on the current status of the
network, find out what patches are current not installed, if a printer is jammed, etc. In large networks this is
a requirement, but in any size network it can serve as a resource to see how the network is fairing and give a
baseline of what its current health is.