Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

CUTTING TEMPERATURES &

CUTTING FLUIDS
By
M. Satyadev,
Assistant Professor,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
RGUKT
Why to study this Module?
1. Why temperature is generated during cutting process?

2/20/2019
2. What are the sources of heat generation?

3. How to determine the cutting temperature?

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
4. What are the experimental technique to determine cutting temperatures?

5. How to reduce the cutting temperature?

6. What is the role of cutting fluids in machining?

7. What are the essential properties required for cutting fluids?

2
Purpose of determination of cutting temperature:
1. Assessment of Machinability for a given work-tool combination

2/20/2019
2. Design, selection and use of cutting tools

3. Evaluation of role of variation of the different machining parameters on cutting temperatures

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
4. Analysis of distribution of temperature and thermal stresses in tool, job and chip

Cutting temperature determined in two ways:


1. Analytical
2. Experimental

3
Sources of Heat:

1. Primary shear zone

2/20/2019
2. Secondary deformation
zone
3. Flank wear zone

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
Factors affecting this heat generation in Machining
1. Size and shape of the tool and work piece
material
2. Thermal conductivity of tool and work piece
material
3. Machining conditions and tool geometry
4. Conditions of cutting edge

4
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
At high speeds chip will take most of the heat compared to tool and work part due to less
convection/conduction.
85-90% of heat goes into chip, rest of the amount is shared by the tool and the job. 5
Effect of cutting temperature on Job and tool:
1. Dimensional inaccuracy of the product due to thermal distortion as well as expansion and
contraction of material

2/20/2019
2. Damage to the machined surface due to corrosion, oxidation, burning, etc.

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
3. Development of tensile residual stresses on the surface and sub surface.

4. Reduction in tool life

5. Rapid failure of cutting edges and tool tip by plastic deformation.

6. Thermal flaking and fracturing at the cutting edge due to thermal shocks

7. Built up edge formation.

6
Hot Machining:
• This technique is useful in machining High Strength Temperature Resistant (HSTR)
alloys.

2/20/2019
• In this technique heat is applied to the work material in order to reduce the shear strength
in the vicinity of shear zone.

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
• This causes reduction in the magnitude of cutting forces and cutting power consumption.
Ex: Ni-base Super alloys, Ni-hard steel, Hadfield steels, etc.,

7
Analytical Techniques:
Shear Plane Temperatures:
This is based on Energy Balance Techniques

2/20/2019
Aq  P ZV c  FV F 
s J   O

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
 1

C v1 V ca1b1 cos ec


1
Where A is the fraction of shear energy that is converted into heat,
q1 is the fraction heat enters into the chip from primary shear zone
J is the mechanical equivalent of heat
Cv is the volume specific heat of the chip
ρ1 is density of chip material
a1 is uncut chip thickness
b1 is the width of cut 8
Vc is cutting velocity
β is shear angle
Chip Tool Interface Temperature:
Based on the Buckingham’s Pi-Theorem
Physical Symbol Units

2/20/2019
Quantity
Temperature θ K

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
Chip Thickness a1 L
Cutting speed Vc L/T
Thermal λ ML/T3K
Conductivity
Volume of ρc M/LT2K
specific heat
Specific cutting Ec M/LT2
energy

There are four fundamental variables and so we have four repeating variables in the Pi-Theorem 9
they are chip thickness, cutting velocity, volume specific heat and specific cutting energy.

C  i
Q v
1
E c

C V a

2/20/2019

c 1
Q 2
v


Q2 

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
n
Q C
1

n=0.25 approximately based on the research work

10
Experimental Techniques:
1. Use of De-colourising Agent

2. Calorimetric Method

2/20/2019
3. Using Thermocouple principle
I. Tool-work Thermocouple technique

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
II. Moving Thermocouple technique
III. Embeded Thermocouple technique
IV. Compound rake tool Method

4. Use of Photocell

5. Infrared photographic technique

11
Calorimetric Method:
This method is quite simple and inexpensive but not accurate enough. It gives only the average
temperature.

2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
v  c 
chip chip chip chip 
 w  v w  c   
w w w a
12
Seebeck Effect:

2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
Thermocouple design is based on the seebeck effect. It states that when the junctions of a thermocouple
are at different temperatures, the differences in the electron emission rates setups a thermos electric
potential which will cause the current flow in the circuit. 13
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
14
Tool-Work Thermocouple Technique:
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
15
Moving Thermocouple Technique:
This technique is used to know the gradual rise in temperature of continuous chips at low and
moderate cutting velocity

2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
16
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
17
Embedded Thermocouple Technique:
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
18
Compound Rake Tool Method:
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
19
Photo cell technique:
Metal Cutting & Machine Tools
2/20/2019
Mechanism of Machining
20



  O
O
1  tan
C P a1 
 
Chip Tool Contact Length:
Variation of different machining parameters on
cutting temperature:

2/20/2019
V  S o sin   t
0.24
0.4 0.105
C

 S
c

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
c 0.086

t r t S o 
0.054
0.11

21
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
22
1. Large positive rake helps in reducing the cutting forces and hence in reducing the amount of
heat generation

2/20/2019
2. Negative inclination angle also reduce the tool temperature

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
3. Reasonable increase in the clearance angle reduces the generation of additional heat by
reducing the rubbing at work tool interface.

4. Reduction in principle cutting edge angle helps to reduce cutting temperature by reducing
energy input per unit cutting edge length

5. The magnitude of cutting forces increases proportionally with increase in feed and depth of
cut. So it will raise the cutting temperature.

23
General Methods to Reduce the cutting temperature:

1. Through proper selection of cutting tool and its geometry

2/20/2019
2. Optimum selection of cutting velocity and feed without sacrificing MRR

3. Proper selection and application of cutting fluid

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids

   
0.25

 c V c s o

0.5
sin 
power  P zV c  t s o s f V c

24
Fundamentals of Friction Process:
The Classical laws of friction for dry, smooth surfaces in sliding contact were noted by Amonton
1. The coefficient of friction is independent of geometrical area of contact.

2/20/2019
2. The coefficient of friction is independent of applied loads.

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
3. The coefficient of friction is independent of sliding speeds

4. The coefficient of friction depends on the material in contact

These laws are further modified by Holm, Bowden..etc lead to laws of friction
1. The frictional resistance is proportional to the actual area of contact

2. The frictional resistance is independent of the geometrical area of contact

3. The frictional resistance depends up on the velocity but is nearly constant for wide range
of velocity
25
4. The coefficient of friction depends on the material in contact
Frictional resistance in metal cutting:
This may be due to the following three reasons
1. Mechanical interlocking of asperities

2/20/2019
2. A ploughing of the surface asperities by the harder of two metal through softer.

3. Welding of the surface asperities of one metal of the other resulting in metallic

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
junctions

26
The obeyance of Amontons law is applicable

2/20/2019
only in the zone I.
The growth of real area of contact depends
upon:

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
1. Height and density of asperity
distribution
2. Elastic modulus, yield point and
geometric properties of the material in
contact
3. Characteristics of the materials work
hardening

27
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
28
Stagnant Zone in Cutting Operation:
Theory of Cutting Fluid action at chip tool interface:
Cutting fluids are used for the following purpose:
1. Cooling purpose
2. Friction reduction

2/20/2019
3. To protect the finished surface from corrosion
4. To wash away the chips

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
29
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
This figure show the relationship between cutting ratio (inverse of chip reduction ratio)
which is a measure of deformation directly related to chip friction.

30
2/20/2019
Metal cutting & machine tools
Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
As the chip moves up the tool face, it contact mainly at the tops of the asperities in the point
contact zone creating capillarity's between the chip and the tool. Under the condition of high
pressure and temperature at the nascent chip surface is highly reactive chemical action
produces weak solid to keep chip and tool apart by reducing friction.
Ex: During machining of steel, cutting fluid with chlorine additive is used. It forms iron
31
chloride which has low shear strength value.
The properties which are essential for penetration into the capillarities between the chip and
tool are
1. Wetting and spreading
2. Surface tension

2/20/2019
3. Small fat molecules.

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
 sv
  sl  lv cos 

cos     sv sl

 lv

32
Essential Properties of cutting fluids:
1. For cooling:
I. High specific heat, thermal conductivity, and film coefficient
II. Spreading and wettability

2/20/2019
2. For Lubrication:
A. High lubricity without gumming and foaming
B. Wetting and spreading

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
C. High film boiling temperature
3. Should be non-corrosive to the materials of M-F-T-W
4. High resistance to bacterial growth
5. Non-toxic in nature
6. Less volatile and high flash point
7. Easily available and less cost

33
Method of application of Cutting fluid:
1. Mist Cooling:
Mist is rapidly formed mixture of highly compressed air and finely divided particles of coolant

2/20/2019
2. Z-Z method of application:

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
34
The other technique are Drop-by-Drop under gravity, Flood under gravity, In the form of
liquid jets
Types of Cutting Fluids:
Air Blast or compressed air only: Air blast is commonly used for machining Cast Iron type of
material

2/20/2019
Water: It is a good coolant but lack of corrosion resistant properties makes it usage limited but
where ever coolant properties are required then it may be used.

Metal cutting & machine tools


Cutting temperatures & cutting fluids
Soluble Oils: Oils + Emulsifying agents + Water = Soluble oils. This is very commonly used oils.

Cutting Oils: These are usually mineral oils taken from vegetables, animal or marine which have
good wetting and lubricating properties.

Chemical fluids: Water + Organic/inorganic = chemical fluids

Semi Solid: Wax, Soaps, Pastes, Moly-disulphide, which are used to reduce the friction when they
are applied over rake surface of tool

Cryogenic Fluids: Liquid Co2 are used for effective cooling in some machining operation.
35