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# SVS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

QUESTION BANK

## Subject : SOLID STATE DRIVES

Regulations : 2013

Branch : EEE

## Year & Semester : III/VI

UNIT 1 DRIVE CHARACTERISTICS

1. What are active and passive load torques ?(May 2015)(June 2014)
Load torque which has the potential to drive the motor under equilibrium
conditions are called active load torque. Examples lift and hoists.

The load torque which always opposes the motion and change their sign on the
reversal of motion are called passive load torque.

## 2. What are the typical elements of electrical drives (Dec 2017)

 Source
 Power modulator
 Electric motor
 Sensor
 Control unit

3. List out the examples of active load torque in drive system. ?(May 2017)
 Lifts
 Locomotives
 Compressors
 Electrical Vehicles
4. Comment on the stability of the load speed torque characteristics shown below ( May
2017)

The point at which motor torque(TM) and load torque(T) meet is called as stead state
stability

## 5. What is an electrical drive? (Nov 2014)

System employed for motion control are called drives, drives employing electrical motor
for motion control is called electrical drives .

## 6. What is regenerative braking? (Nov 2014)

In the regenerative braking operation, the motor operates as a generator, while it
is still connected to the supply here, the motor speed is greater that the synchronous
speed.
Mechanical energy is converter into electrical energy, part of which is returned to the
supply and rest as heat in the winding and bearing.

7. State the condition for stability of motor and load system.(June 2014)(May 2016)
a. Load torque(Tl) should be always greater than or equal to the motor torque (T M).
b. Drive should operate in steady state speed
c. Transient conditions are neglected.

## 8. Define dynamic torque.(Nov 2013)

The torque which exits during transient operation (starting and braking) is called dynamic
torque. Which depends on the momentum of inertia (J) and change in speed (dω/dt)

9. What are the three modes of operation of an electrical drive (Nov 2013)
What are the different modes of operation of electric drive? (Dec 2017)
b. Acceleration
c. De acceleration
10. Write the equation which describes the motor load system.(Dec 2012)
𝐽𝑑ὠ ὠ𝑑𝐽
𝑇𝑚 − 𝑇𝑙 = +
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
Tm= motor torque
J=momentum of inertia
ὠ = angular speed.

## 11. Compare AC and DC derives (Dec2012).

s.no DC DRIVE AC DRIVE
1 It requires frequent maintenance Less maintenance
2 Commutator makes the motor No commutator are used and cost is less
bulky and costly
3 Power /weight ratio is small Power /weight ratio is high
4 It is used certain location It can used in all location.

12. Sketch the speed –torque characteristics for fan type load.(May2016)

## 13. List the advantages of electrical drives

i. Availability of electric drives over a wide range of power a few watts to mega watts.
ii. Ability to provide a wide range of torques over wide range of speeds.
iii Electric motors are available in a variety of design in order to make them compatible

## 14. What are the types of electrical drive?

Group electric drives (Shaft drive),
Individual Drives,
Multi motor electric drives.
15. What are the factors influencing in selection of electrical drives?

## 1. Shaft power & speed 11. Speed range

2. Power range 12. Efficiency
3. Starting torque 13. Influence on the supply network
4. Maintenance 14. Special competence
5. Total purchase cost 15. Cost of energy losses
6. Influence on power supply 16. Environment
7. Availability 17. Accessibility
8. Nature of electric supply 18. Nature of load
9. Types of drive 19. Electrical Characteristics
10.Service cost 20. Service capacity & rating

## 16. What are the classes of duties?

1. Continuous duty
2. Short time duty operation of motor Main classes of duties
3. Intermittent periodic duty
4. Intermittent periodic duty with starting
5. Intermittent periodic duty with starting & braking
7. Continuous duty with starting & braking
8. Continuous duty with periodic load changes

17. How a motor rating is determined in a continuous duty and variable load ?
1. Method of Average losses
2. Method of equivalent power
3. Method of equivalent current
4. Method of equivalent Torque

## 18. Write basic block diagram of electrical drive.

UNIT -2 CONVERTER/CHOPPER FED DRIVES

1. Write down the speed torque chart eristic of separately excited dc motor (JUNE 2014)
For separately excited motor speed
𝐸𝑏
𝑁∝ Ф

## Here flux is constant

𝑁 ∝ 𝐸𝑏
𝑁 = 𝐾𝑚 𝐸𝑏 Where Km is motor constant

Torque equation
𝑇 ∝ Ф 𝐼𝑎 ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑥 𝑖𝑠 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

𝑇 = 𝐾𝑚 𝐼𝑎

## 2.Write down the advantages of chopper fed drives (JUNE 2014)

 High efficiency
 Flexibility in controls
 Regeneration down to low speed is possible
 Small size

## 3.Write the control strategies of chopper. (JUNE 2014)

There are two types control strategies
o Time ratio control
o Current limit control

4.Write down the speed torque equation of fully converter fed dc separately excited dc motor.
(JUNE 2014)

Speed equation

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼 𝑅𝑎 1
ὠ = (2𝑉𝑚 )− 𝑇 ∗
𝜋𝐾𝑚 𝐾𝑚 𝐾𝑚

ὠ = 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑
Km is motor constant
Ra = armature resistance
T = torque of the motor
Ia= armature current.

𝑇 = 𝐾𝑚 𝐼𝑎

5.What are the advantages of chopper fed drives over converter fed drives?(DEC 2014)
Write any two advantages of chopper fed drives? (DEC 2014)(MAY 2009)
 High efficiency
 Flexibility in controls
 Regeneration down to low speed is possible
 Small size

## 6.What is the necessity of freewheeling diode in a converter circuit? (DEC 2014)

 Input power factor is improved
 Make the load current continuous

## 7.What is the necessity of converter fed dc drives? (DEC 2014)

Converter are fed to the dc drives to
o Control speed in smooth
o Improve the efficiency

## 8.List out the drawbacks of ac-dc converter fed dc drive.(MAY 2011)

Distortion of supply due to harmonics
Low input power factor when drives operate at low speed
Ripple in motor current due pulsating dc in the output of the converter

## 9.What is TRC scheme? .(MAY 2011)

In the time ratio control , the value of the T ON /T ,(duty cycle was varied ). This can done
in two methos
o Constant frequency method (PWM)
o Variable frequency method (FM)
10. When the discontinuous conduction mode expected with the operation converter fed dc
drives? (MAY 2007)
 Low value of load inductance
 High value of firing angle
 Low value of load current
11. What are the uses of phase controlled rectifier fed dc drives ?
o Rolling mils
o Paper mills
o Printing presses
o Hoists

12. What are the advantages in operating chopper at higher frequency ?(MAY 2008)
The operation at a high frequency improves motor performance by reducing current
ripple and eliminating discontinuous conduction.
13. Draw the circuit diagram of a regenerative chopper fed separately excited dc motor

.(MAY 2006)

## 14. What are the applications of copper fed drives?(May 2016)

 Cranes
 Traction
 Battery operated vehicles
 Sub way cars
15. Draw the speed torque characteristic of single phase fully controlled converter fed
separately excited dc drives with different firing angles. (May 2016)

16. What are the speed control methods of DC motor? ( Dec 2017)
Conventional methods
 Armature voltage control
 Field current control

##  Converter fed dc motor

 Chopper fed dc motor
17. What are the advantages in operating chopper at high frequency? ( Dec 2017)
The operation at a high frequency improves motor performance by reducing current
ripple and eliminating discontinuous conduction

## 18. What is armature voltage control?(May 2017)

𝑁 ∝ 𝐸𝑏
Eb = V- IA RA
By controlling the armature voltage we can control the speed of the dc motor with
respect to constant field current.
Here the speed control can achieve below the rated speed.
19. List the disadvantages of frequency modulation in generating PWM waveform. (May
2017)
 Filter design is very difficult for wide range of frequency variation.
 Generate more harmonics
 Large off time may produce discontinuous load current
Unit III

## INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVES

1. What are the drawbacks of stator voltage controlled induction motor drive (JUNE 2014)
 The input power factor is very low
 Voltage and current waveforms are highly distorted due to harmonics
 Operating efficiency is low as resistance losses are high
 Performance is poor under running condition at low speed
2. Write any two advantages of vector control. (JUNE 2014) (APRIL 2011)
 Smooth speed control
 Small input current and improved power factor at low frequency
 Higher starting torque
3. What are the different methods of speed control of induction motor drive? (DEC2014)
 Stator voltage control
 Supply frequency control
 Rotor resistance control
 Slip power recovery control
4. Distinguish between VSI and CSI. (DEC2014 )(May 2016)
Voltage source inverter Current source inverter
Input voltage is maintained constant Input current is maintained constant
It requires feedback diodes It does not requires feedback diodes
It used for multi motor drives It is not used for multi motor drives
Low cost High cost
Fast dynamic response Slower dynamic response

5. What are the various applications of stator voltage control scheme?(APRIL 2011)
They are mainly used in low power application such as
o Fans
o Blowers
o Centrifugal pumps

## 6. What is the meant by constant slip speed control? (JUNE 2014)

For constant slip speed motor current and torque are constant values at all frequency and motor
current and torque can be controlled by controlling the slip speed

7. Why stator voltage control preferred for fan and pump drives? (JUNE 2014)(May 2015)
Stator voltage control method is suitable for application where torque demand reduces with
speed, which point towards its suitability for fan and pump drives.

8. What are the draw backs of variable stator voltage control? (NOV 2013)(May2012)(May2016)

## Voltage and current waveforms are highly distorted due to harmonics

Performance is poor
Operating efficiency is low.
9. Define slip power. (NOV 2013).
The portion of air gap power, which is not converted into mechanical power, is called slip power.
Slip power is nothing but multiplication of slip and air gap power.

## 10. Compare static krammer and scherbius system.( May 2011)

Krammer system scherbius system.

Slip power can flow in one direction (rotor Slip power can flow in both direction (rotor
to supply) to supply and supply to source)
This method only applicable for below This method applicable for both below and
speed operation above application

## 11. Give the advantages of vector control method (May 2011)

It produce high dynamic response
It provides independent control of flux and torque
The control characteristic is linearized
12. Constant torque loads are not suitable for ac voltage controller fed induction motor drive. why?(
May 2011)
By reducing stator voltage the torque also changes, because torque is proportional to voltage
square .therefore this method is not suitable for constant torque loads
TαV2
13. What is slip power recovery system?(May2013)
The portion of air gap power, which is not converted into mechanical power, is called slip power.
Slip power is nothing but multiplication of slip and air gap power.

## 14. What is a super synchronous operation? (May2013)

The sub synchronous speed operation means ,the SRIM speed can be controlled below
synchronous speed. The slip power is feedback to the supply

## 15. Give the demerits of CSI fed induction motor.(Nov 2011)

Due to high inductance cost increases
Low dynamic response
Not suitable for multi motor drives
16. Discuss the constant torque and power mode with respect to induction motor.(May2017)
Constant torque mode Constant power mode
v/f control is applied Volatge and slip frequency is
constant and frequency is
varied
It soperated til rated frequency It operates above rated
frequency .
Maxmimum torque is constant Here maximum torque reduces
as frequency increases
17. What is energy efficient drive? (May2017)
Energy efficiency in electric drives is taken strongly through energy parameters - efficiency η and
power factor k (in special case cos φ). Considering electric drive as system of working machine,
motor and power converter, the influence of components is evaluated. And it should comprise
cost and power usage such drives are called energy efficient drive.

18. What are the advantages of induction motor over dc motors? (Dec 2017)
 Low cost
 More efficient
 Less maintenance
19. Draw the speed torque characteristics of induction motor. (Dec 2017)
UNIT IV

## 1. Why self control synchronous motor is free from hunting oscillation?

(May 2015) (Nov 2012)(Dec 2017)
In self control mode the supply frequency is changed so that ,the synchronous speed is
same as that of rotor speed .hence the rotor cannot pull out of step and hunting
oscillation.

2. When can a synchronous motor can be load commutated?( Nov 2014) (Nov 2013)
When the synchronous motor operates at a leading power factor ,thyristors of the load
side converter can commutated by the motor induced voltages in the same way as the
thyristors of a line commutated converter are commutated by line voltages

3. Write down the torque equation of the synchronous motor ? (Nov 2014)
3𝑉𝐸
( ) ∗ 𝑆𝐼𝑁𝜭
𝑋𝑠 ὠ𝑠

## 4. Define self control technique of synchronous motor. (May 2014)

In self control mode, the stator supply frequency is changed in proportion to the rotor
speed so that the rotating field produced by the stator always moves at the same speed
as the of rotor

## 5. Write any two applications of synchronous motor drives? (May 2014)(May2017)

i. High power and high speed compressors
ii. Blowers
iii. Induced and forced draft fans
iv. Main line tractions
v. Servo drives

6. What are the modes of adjustable frequency control in synchronous motor drives? (Nov
2013)
i. Self control mode
ii. True Synchronous mode or separate mode

## 7. When is synchronous motor said to be self –controlled ?( MAY 2013)

In self control mode, the stator supply frequency is changed in proportion to the rotor
speed so that the rotating field produced by the stator always moves at the same speed
as the of rotor
8. What are the advantages of PMSM. ( MAY 2013) ( MAY 2012)(Dec 2017)
i. Elimination of field copper losses
ii. High power density
iii. Low rotor inertia
iv. Robust construction

## 9. Mention different types of PMSM(Nov 2012)

According to construction
Surface mounted PMSM interior mounted PMSM
According to the nature of voltage induced
Sinusoidal excited trapezoid ally excited

## 10. Mention some application of PMSM. (Nov 2011)

i. Machines tools
ii. Robots

11. What is the necessity of delay circuit in open loop v/f control, synchronous motor drives
(May 2011)
The delay circuit in open loop v/f used because the rotor speed is able to track the
changes in frequency.
12. What is self control mode of synchronous motor (May2016)
In self control mode, the stator supply frequency is changed in proportion to the rotor
speed so that the rotating field produced by the stator always moves at the same speed
as the of rotor. It is called as self control mode.

## 13. Write the torque equation of salient pole synchronous motor(May2016)

14. Compare sinusoidal PMAC with trapezoidal PMAC motor.(May 2017)
sinusoidal PMAC trapezoidal PMAC
Stator as distributed winding Stator has concentrated winding
Induced voltage in sinusoidal waveform Induced voltage in trapezoidal wave form
UNIT V

DESIGN OF CONTROLLERS

1. What are the roles of inner current control and outer speed control loops? (May
2015)(Dec2017)
The roles of outer speed control loops to control the speed above and below the rated
speed. Inner current loops used to limit the converter and motor current, torque below
safe limit

## 2. State the methods speed controllers. (May 2015)

Proportional controller
Proportional –integral controller

3. What is the function of current control loop in closed loop speed control system? (Nov
2014) (Nov 2011)
The function of current control loop in closed loop speed control system used to limit the
converter and motor current, torque below safe limit

## 4. Write down the advantages of PI controller.(May 2014) (May 2011)

It is used to reduce the steady state error and reduces the forward gain required

5. What is the field weakening mode control dc drives? (Nov 2013) (May 2013) (May
2012) (Nov 2011)
The dc motor speed can be varied by varying the field current and armature voltage is
kept constant. The field current can be controlled by using power converter. By using
this method the motor field decreases. This is called field weakening mode

6. Name any two simulation packages used for drive system .(Nov 2013)
PSIM
7. What is the mechanical time constant of dc machines? (Nov 2012)
𝐽
𝜏=
𝐵
J= momentum of inertia
B= damping co-efficient.

8. What is the role of current limiter in the closed loop control of dc machines ?(Nov 2012)
The function of current control loop in closed loop speed control system used to limit the
converter and motor current, torque below safe limit
9. Write any two advantages of closed loop control system(May 2012)
i. System protection
ii. Greater accuracy
iii. Improved dynamic response
v.
10. What is the necessity of inner current control loop is employed in closed operation dc
motor (May 2016)
The roles of outer speed control loops to control the speed above and below the rated
speed. Inner current loops used to limit the converter and motor current, torque below
safe limit.
11. Basic block diagram of a operation dc motor (May 2016)

## 12. Highlights the factors to be considered for converter selection.(May 2017)

 Rating of the converter
 Number of power switch usage

13. How speed and current controller are implemented in drives .(May 2017)
Using current sensor
Using tachogenerator
PART B

UNIT 1

1. Explain the speed torque characteristics of multi quadrant operation in speed torque plane
(Nov 2014) (Nov 2011) (May 2011)
2. Drive the mathematical condition for steady state stability of equilibrium point. (May
2011)(May2016)
3. Drive the condition for steady state stability of equilibrium (June 2012)
4. Drive the equation for equivalent moment of inertia and load torque of loads with translational
motion (June 2012)
5. Explain the different modes of operation of a low speed hoist.(June 2012)(Nov 2013)(May
2014)
6. Write about drives and compare DC and AC drives .(Nov 2011)
7. what are the different modes of operation of electric drives and explain it.(Nov 2011)
8. State the essential parts of electrical drive. What is the function of power modulator? (Nov
2012)
9. Drive the fundamental torque equation for a motor a motor load system (Nov 13)
10. Explain in details about steady state stability of equilibrium point in electrical drive. (Nov 13)
11. Classify the electrical loads according to the speed- torque characteristic and explain with
examples. (Nov 13)
12. Drive the mathematical condition to obtain steady state stability of equilibrium point.(May
2014) (Nov 2014)
13. draw and explain the speed characteristics of various types of loads (May 2015) )(May2016)
14. Explain in detail about multi quadrant dynamics in speed torque plane(May2016)

UNIT 2
1. Explain the continuous and discontinuous conduction modes of operation of 3 phase fully
controlled converter fed separately excited dc motor drive with steady state analysis. (May
2011)
2. Explain control strategies of chopper in detail. (May 2011) (Nov 2011)
3. Explain the continuous and discontinuous conduction modes of operation of single phase fully
controlled converter fed separately excited dc motor drive with steady state analysis.
(May 2011)(May 2013) (Nov 2013)(May 2014) (Nov 2014) (May 2015) )(May2016)
4. Discuss the four quadrant operation of DC – DC converter.
(May 2011) (May 2012) (May 2013 )(May 2014) (Nov 2014) (May 2015) )(May2016)
5. Explain the discontinuous conduction mode of operation of fully controlled converter fed
separately excited dc motor in details with necessary waveforms and equations
(May 2012)
6. Discuss the two quadrant operation of chopper fed dc drive system. (Nov 2011)
7. Derive the expression for critical speed which separates the continuous conduction mode
from discontinuous conduction mode of operation of single phase fully controlled rectifier fed
separately excited dc motor. (Nov 2012)
8. Explain the chopper control of DC series motor (Nov 2012)
9. Explain how regenerative braking is obtained series motor with chopper control.
(Nov 2014)

10. Explain in detail the regenerative operation of three phase fully controlled rectifier control of
separately excited DC motor (Nov 2014)
11. A 220V, 1200 rpm , 15A separately excited motor has an armature resistance and inductance of
1.8 ohm and 32mH respectively. This motor is controlled by a single phase fully controlled
rectifier with an ac source voltage of 230V, 50Hz.Identify the modes and calculate developed
torque for α =60 degree and speed is 450 rpm. (Nov2011)
12. A 200V , 875 rpm,150A separately excited DC motor has armature resistanceof 0.06 ohm. It is
fed from single phase fully controlled rectifier with an a ac voltage of 220V,50Hz.Assuming
continuous condition, calculate.
i. Fring angle for rated motor torque and 750 rpm.
ii. Firing angle for rated motor torque and (-500)rpm. (Nov 2012)
13. A 220V, 1500 rpm, 10A separately excited motor has armature resistance of 1 ohm. It is fed
from a single phase fully controlled rectifier with a ac voltage of 230V 50 Hz .Assuming
i. Motor speed at the firing angle of 30 degree and torque of 5Nm.
iii. Developed torque at the firing angle of 1000 rpm. (Nov 2014)

14. A 220V, 1500 rpm, 10A separately excited motor has armature resistance of 2.5 ohm. The motor
is controlled by a step down chopper with a frequency of 1kHZ.the input DC voltage to the
chopper is 2250V.what will be the duty cycle of the chopper for the motor to operate at a speed
600rpm delivering the rated torque .(May 2015)

Unit III
1. Why a cycloconverter fed induction motor drive is preferred over inverter controlled
synchronous motor drive for low speed application (May 2015)
2. Explain the principle of vector control of induction motor drive. (May 2015) (Nov 2012) (May
2011)
3. Explain the four modes of operation of a static scherbius drive. (May 2015)
4. Describe VSI fed induction motor drive (Nov 2014) )(May2016)
5. Explain the static rotor resistance control in the induction motor. (Nov 2014)
6. Explain in detail about the vector control of induction motor. (Nov 2014)
7. Compare VSI and CSI fed induction motor drive.(May2014)
8. Explain the block diagram of vector control of induction motor drive. (May2014)
9. Explain the concept of v/f control scheme. (May2014) (May2013) (May2013)(Nov2012) (Nov
2011)(May 2011) )(May2016)
10. Explain the variable frequency operation of induction motor in closed loop with constant air-gap
flux. (May2014)
11. Explain about VSI induction motor drives and also closed loop control for VSI induction motor
drive.(Nov 2013)
12. Explain the variable frequency control for induction motor drive system. (Nov 2013)
13. Explain the stator voltage control of induction motor drives.(May2013)
14. Describe the closed loop speed control of VSI and CSI fed induction motor drives. (May2013)
15. Explain the closed loop speed control of CSI fed induction motor drives.(Nov 2012)
16. Make a comparison between star and delta connected ac voltage controller fed stator voltage
control method.(May 2011)
17. What are the reasons for keeping v/f ratio constant in induction motor drives (May 2011)
18. Explain the operation of constant air gap flux control technique.(May 2011)

UNIT IV

1. Explain the marginal angle control of synchronous motor drive.(May 2015) (Nov 2012) (Nov
2011)
2. What is meant by commutatorless DC motor . (May 2015)
3. Write in detail about power factor angle control of synchronous motor. (May 2015)(Nov2014)
(Nov 2013)
4. With necessary diagram explain the closed loop speed control of load commutated inverter
synchronous motor drive. (May 2015)(Nov 2013)
5. Explain self control of synchronous motor drive operated with constant margin angle
control.(Nov 2014)
6. Write brief notes on different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors. (Nov 2014) (Nov
2012)
7. Explain the v/f control method of synchronous motor drive. (May 2014) (Nov 2013) (May
2011)
8. Explain the concept of self –control technique. (May 2014)(Nov 2012) (May 2012)
9. Explain the loop operation of permanent magnet synchronous motor drive in detail .(May 2014)
(May 2012)
10. Explain the vector control of sinusoidal SPM in constant torque region. (Nov 2012)
11. Briefly explain PMSM drives. (Nov 2011)
12. Explain the concept of self –control technique of synchronous motor in detail with the operation
of rotor position (May 2016)
UNIT V
1.From basic principle drive the transfer function of separately excited DC motor load system.
(May 2015) (Nov 2014)(May 2013) (Nov 2011)
2.Explain the step by step procedure design of current controller. (May 2015)( May 2012) ( May
2012)
3.Explain the closed loop speed control for armature voltage control and field weakening mode for
DC drive . (May 2015)(May 2014)(Nov 2011) ( May 2012) ( May 2011)(May 2016)
4.Explain in detail the operation of a closed loop scheme for speed control of DC motor ,below and
above the base speed (Nov 2014) (May 2014) May 2013).
5.Drive the transfer function of speed controller.(Nov 2014)
6.Explain the design procedure of speed controller with inner current controller of a separately
excited DC motor. (May 2014)
7.Mention the factors involved in converter selection and equations involved in controller
characteristics. (May 2013) (Nov 2011)
8.Derive the closed loop transfer function of converter fed separately excited DC motor.(Nov
2012)
9.Explain the design procedure of speed controller of closed loop speed control system of
separately excited DC motor(May 2016)