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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

According to Campbell and Svenson (1992), time management refers to the way students
manage their time in order to have better academic performance which is invaluable for
academic success. Thus, it is important for students to know the first step of time management i.
e. giving priority to the important matters, and should remain focused on issues essential for
success [5, p. 35]. In line with these notions, Gloe (1999) argued that the techniques of time
management are the best ways to manage course materials successfully. These includes group
discussion, exchanging ideas and sharing views on key points, which ultimately help students to
perform better in the examination leads to superior academic performance [6, p. 440]. Other
researchers have described time management as the way by which an individual more efficiently
accomplishes tasks and goals; having balance, flexibility, and control over time; setting priorities
and scheduling tasks [7, p. 763]. Recently, Kaushar (2013) found that time management plays a
vital role in students’ academic performance. The researcher also argued that lack of time
management skills act as the barrier to better academic performance [8, p. 59].

According to Sansgiry, Kawatkar, Dutta, and Bhosle (2004), the basic time management
skills begin with prioritizing, placing more emphasis on important tasks, being able to say ‘no’ to
less important issue, and being able to stop and start immediately specific activities at pre-set
schedules. They have also argued that implementing such strategy related to time management,
one must engage in a “to do” list and need discipline to stay focused with the list in order to have
better management of one’s available time.Other important issues related to time management
which includes developing effective study habits, critically analyzing problems and assignments,
knowing one’s peak hour of concentration, learning effective memorization techniques, thinking
aloud and most importantly, avoid procrastination [3, p. 7].

Britton and Tesser (1991) tested their hypothesis that grade point averages could be
predicted by time management practices. They had ninety students in Georgia answer a 35-
question time management survey and submit their SAT scores. They found that two time
management components directly affect the cumulative GPA; planning — including utilizing
short and long term goals -- and time attitudes, or, the perception of how their time needs to be
spent. Learners that practiced both planning and positive time attitudes found that they had much
more time to complete their tasks because they felt more in control of how their time was spent
therefore knowing when they had to say “no” to activities. It was also found that the students
who reported using goal-oriented time management had a higher overall GPA. This seems to
indicate that time management practices do have an influence on college academic achievement,
but that’s not all they affect [9, p. 405].

Academic performance is the outcome of education, that is, the extent to which a student,
teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic performance is commonly
measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it
is best tested or which aspects are more important. Academic performance seems to increase
when time management skills are well-handled. Time management is a skill that perhaps impacts
the student’s academic performance. Prioritization of tasks may make studying and schoolwork
less overwhelming and more enjoyable. Academic stress occurs when students feel the pressure
of cramming for exams, rushing through homework and getting minimal sleep because of
disorganizations and worry. Effective time management techniques should not only be applied to
the students’ academic life but to their overall schedule to achieve success and peace of mind.
Grades in higher institutions often depend on the completion of a range of tasks, including those
with various deadlines, lengths and priorities. This multiple tasks, and then grades are
determined by the quality of efforts put in. Thus, academic performance would be expected to be
influenced by time management skills. Therefore, as increasing demands are placed on students,
students’ ability to manage time becomes an essential component for academic success.

Prediction of academic performance and the investigation of the factors related to

academic success are very important area in higher education research (Ruban & McCoach,
2005). Recently, Karimi (2010) reported factors that have influence on academic performance as
ability, motivation, self-efficacy, locus of control and goal orientations, self-regulatory learning
strategies, personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and
openness-to-experience, international student status, prior academic performance, gender, and
age. Social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) explains the processes,
through which people develop educational and vocational interests make academic and
occupational choices and having success and stability in their educational and work life.
According to this theory, two important factors that can affect academic performance were
academic burnout and time management.

Макашева А. М. (2016). Effect of time management skills on students’ academic performance.

Retrieved from: http://yun.moluch.ru/archive/5/296/

Adebayo, F. A. (2015). Time Management and Students Academic Performance in Higher

Institutions, Nigeria — A Case Study of Ekiti State. Retrieved from:

Ocal, K. (2015). Academic Performance: The Effects of Burnout and Time Management Skills.
Retrieved from: https://www.eera-ecer.de/ecer-