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2017 reasons therefor. [Montes v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No.

143797, 4
I. What trial court outside Metro Manila has exclusive original May 2006]
jurisdiction over the following cases? Explain briefly your (b) The harmless error rule in relation to appeals provides that the
answers. appellate court should not reverse a judgment as a result of any
(a) An action filed on November 13, 2017 to recover the error or defect which does not affect the substantial rights of the
possession of an apartment unit being occupied by the defendant parties. [See S6 R51; Bersamin, Appeal & Review in the Philippines
by mere tolerance of the plaintiff, after the former ignored the 362]
last demand to vacate that was duly served upon and received by (c) Under the Rules of Criminal Procedure, the public
him on July 6,2016. prosecutor conducts an inquest instead of a preliminary
(b) A complaint in which the principal relief sought is the investigation when a person is lawfully arrested without a warrant
enforcement of a seller's contractual right to repurchase a lot with involving an offense which requires a preliminary investigation. [S6
an assessed value of P15,000.00. R112]
(a) It would be either the MTC or the RTC depending upon the V. After working for 25 years in the Middle East, Evan returned
assessed value of the apartment unit. to the Philippines to retire in Manila, the place of his birth and
Under B.P. Blg. 129, jurisdiction over real actions is vested in childhood. Ten years before his retirement, he bought for cash in
the MTC if the assessed value of the real property involved does his name a house and lot in Malate, Manila. Six months after his
not exceed P20,000 and in the RTC if such assessed value exceeds return, he learned that his house and lot were the subject of
P20,000. The action to recover possession can no longer be one for foreclosure proceedings commenced by ABC Bank on the basis of
unlawful detainer since it was brought beyond one year from the a promissory note and a deed of real estate mortgage he had
last demand to vacate. allegedly executed in favor of ABC Bank five years earlier.
Knowing that he was not in the country at the time the
(b) Exclusive original jurisdiction is vested in the MTC. promissory note and deed of mortgage were supposedly
The Supreme Court has held that where the ultimate relief executed, Evan forthwith initiated a complaint in the RTC of
sought by an action is the assertion of title to real property, the Manila praying that the subject documents be declared null and
action is a real one and not one incapable of pecuniary estimation. void.
[Brgy. Piapi v. Talip, 7 Sep 2005] ABC Bank filed.a motion to dismiss Evan's complaint on the
Here the ultimate relief sought by the complaint is the ground of improper venue on the basis of a stipulation in both
assertion of title since the seller seeks to exercise his right to documents designating Quezon City as the exclusive venue in the
repurchase. Hence the action is a real one and jurisdiction is vested event of litigation between the parties arising out of the loan and
in the MTC since the assessed value does not exceed P20,000. mortgage.
Should the motion to dismiss of ABC Bank be granted?
II. Santa filed against Era in the RTC of Quezon City an action Explain your answer.
for specific performance praying for the delivery of a parcel of
land subject of their contract of sale. Unknown to the parties, the SUGGESTED ANSWER:
case was inadvertently raffled to an RTC designated as a special No, the motion to dismiss of ABC Bank should not be granted.
commercial court. Later, the RTC rendered judgment adverse to In a case involving similar facts, the Supreme Court held that
Era, who, upon realizing that the trial court was not a regular RTC, a party is not bound by a venue stipulation where he directly assails
approaches you and wants you to file a petition to have the on the ground of forgery the validity of the contracts containing the
judgment annulled for lack of jurisdiction. venue stipulation. The reason is that such a party cannot be
What advice would you give to Era? Explain your answer. expected to comply with the venue stipulation since his compliance
(4%) therewith would mean an implicit recognition of the validity of the
contracts he assails. [Briones v. Cash Asia Credit Corp., 14 January
SUGGESTED ANSWER: 2015, Perlas-Bernabe, J.]
The advice I would give to Era is that the petition for
annulment of judgment on lack of jurisdiction will not prosper. VI. Hanna, a resident of Manila, filed a complaint for the
The Supreme Court has held that a special commercial court partition of a large tract of land located in Oriental Mindoro. She
is still a court of general jurisdiction and can hear and try a non- impleaded her two brothers John and Adrian as defendants but
commercial case. [Concorde Condominium Inc. v. Baculio, 17 Feb did not implead Leica and Agatha, her two sisters who were
2016, Peralta, J.]. permanent residents of Australia.
Hence the special commercial court had jurisdiction to try Arguing that there could be no final determination of the
and decide the action for specific performance and to render a case without impleading all indispensable parties, John and
judgment therein. Adrian moved to dismiss the complaint.
Does the trial court have a reason to deny the motion?
IV. Give brief answers to the following: Explain your answer.
(a) What is the doctrine of hierarchy of courts?
(b) What is the Harmless Error Rule in relation to appeals? SUGGESTED ANSWER:
(c) When does a public prosecutor conduct an inquest instead of Yes, the trial court has a reason to deny the motion to dismiss.
a preliminary investigation? Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, non-joinder of parties,
A: even indispensable ones, is not a ground of a motion to dismiss.
(a) The doctrine of hierarchy of courts provides that where there [S11 R3; Vesagas v. CA, 371 SCRA 508 (2001)]
is a concurrence of jurisdiction by courts over an action or
proceeding, there is an ordained sequence of recourse to such VII. Elise obtained a loan of P3 Million from Merchant Bank.
courts beginning from the lowest to the highest. A direct Aside from executing a promissory note in favor of Merchant
invocation of the Supreme Court’s original jurisdiction should be Bank, she executed a deed of real estate mortgage over her house
allowed only when there are special and important and lot as security for her obligation. The loan fell due but
remained unpaid; hence, Merchant Bank filed an action against Here the first dismissal by the plaintiff was not in a
Elise to foreclose the real estate mortgage. A month after, and competent court as the RTC in Makati City did not have subject-
while the foreclosure suit was pending, Merchant Bank also filed matter jurisdiction over an action seeking to recover P350,000.
an action to recover the principal sum of P3 Million against Elise Hence Agatha’s third complaint is not barred by the Two-Dismissal
based on the same promissory note previously executed by the Rule.
In opposing the motion of Elise to dismiss the second action IX. Abraham filed a complaint for damages in the amount of
on the ground of splitting of a single cause of action, Merchant P750,000.00 against Salvador in the RTC in Quezon City for the
Bank argued that the ground relied upon by Elise was devoid of latter's alleged breach of their contract of services. Salvador
any legal basis considering that the two actions were based on promptly filed his answer, and included a counterclaim for
separate contracts, namely, the contract of loan evidenced by the P250,000.00 arising from the allegedly baseless and malicious
promissory note, and the deed of real estate mortgage. claims of Abraham that compelled him to litigate and to engage
Is there a splitting of a single cause of action? Explain your the services of counsel, and thus caused him to suffer mental
answer. anguish.
Noting that the amount of the counterclaim was below the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: exclusive original jurisdiction of the RTC, Abraham filed a motion
Yes, there is a splitting of a single cause of action. to dismiss vis-a-vis the counterclaim on that ground.
Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, there is a splitting of a Should the counterclaim of Salvador be dismissed? Explain
single cause of action if two or more suits are instituted on the basis your answer.
of the same cause of action. [S4 R2]. A cause of action is the act or
omission by which a party violates a right of another. [S2 R2]. SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Here, both suits, the foreclosure and the collection suit, arose No, the counterclaim of Salvador should not be dismissed on
from the same cause of action, that is, the non-payment by Elise of the ground of lack of jurisdiction.
her P3 million loan from Merchant Bank. The fact that the two In an original action before the RTC, the RTC has jurisdiction
actions were based on separate contracts is irrelevant, what over a compulsory counterclaim regardless of its amount. [See S7
matters is that both actions arose from the same cause of action. R6]
Here Salvador’s counterclaim for damages arising from the
VIII. alleged malicious and baseless claims of Abraham is a compulsory
A. Laura was the lessee of an apartment unit owned by counterclaim as it arises from Abraham’s complaint. Hence the RTC
Louie. When the lease expired, Laura refused to vacate the has jurisdiction over Salvador’s counterclaim even if it did not
property. Her refusal prompted Louie to file an action for unlawful exceed the jurisdictional amount of P400,00
detainer against Laura who failed to answer the complaint within
the reglementary period. X. On the basis of an alleged promissory note executed by
Louie then filed a motion to declare Laura in default. Should Harold in favor of Ramon, the latter filed a complaint for
the motion be granted? Explain your answer. P950,000.00 against the former in the RTC of Davao City. In an
unverified answer, Harold specifically denied the genuineness of
B. Agatha filed a complaint against Yana in the RTC in the promissory note.
Makati City to collect P350,000.00, an amount representing the During the trial, Harold sought to offer the testimonies of
unpaid balance on the price of the car Yana had bought from the following: (1) the testimony of an NBI handwriting expert to
Agatha. Realizing a jurisdictional error in filing the complaint in prove the forgery of his signature; and (2) the testimony of a
the RTC, Agatha filed a notice of dismissal before she was served credible witness to prove that if ever Harold had executed the
with the answer of Yana. The RTC issued an order confirming the note in favor of Ramon, the same was not supported by a
dismissal. consideration.
Three months later, Agatha filed another complaint against May Ramon validly object to the proposed testimonies?
Yana based on the same cause of action this time in the MeTC of Give a brief explanation of your answer.
Makati City. However, for reasons personal to her, Agatha
decided to have the complaint dismissed without prejudice by SUGGESTED ANSWER:
filing a notice of dismissal prior to the service of the answer of 1) Ramon may validly object to the proposed testimony of
Yana. Hence, the case was dismissed by the MeTC. an NBI handwriting expert to prove forgery.
A month later, Agatha refiled the complaint against Yana in Under S8 R8, the genuineness and due execution of an
the same MeTC. actionable document is deemed admitted by the adverse party if
May Yana successfully invoke the Two-Dismissal Rule to bar he fails to specifically deny such genuineness and due execution.
Agatha’s third complaint? Explain your answer. Here the genuineness and due execution of the promissory
note, which is an actionable document, was impliedly admitted by
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Harold when he failed to deny the same under oath, his answer
being unverified. Hence Harold is precluded from setting up the
(A) No, a Motion to declare the defendant in default is a defense of forgery and thus Ramon may object to the proposed
prohibited motion in ejectment cases pursuant to S13.8 R70. testimony seeking to prove forgery.

(B) No, Yana may not successfully invoke the Two-Dismissal 2) Ramon may not validly object to the proposed testimony
Rule to bar Agatha’s third complaint showing that the note was not supported by a consideration.
Under the Two-Dismissal Rule, the notice of dismissal The Supreme Court has held that an implied admission under
operates as an adjudication upon the merits provided it is filed by S8 R8 does not preclude the adverse party from introducing
a plaintiff who has once dismissed in a competent court an action evidence that the actionable document was not supported by a
based on or including the same claim. [S1 R17] consideration. The reason is that such evidence is not inconsistent
with the implied admission of genuineness and due execution. petition for review under R42. The petition may raise questions
[Acabal v. Acabal, 31 March 2005] both of fact and law. [S2 R42]
The fact that the defense of lack of consideration is
inconsistent with Harold’s defense of forgery is also not XII.
objectionable. A. Judgment was rendered against defendant Jaypee in an
Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, a party may set forth two action for unlawful detainer. The judgment ordered Jaypee to
or more statements of defense alternatively or hypothetically. [S2 vacate and to pay attorney's fees in favor of Bart, the plaintiff.
R8] To prevent the immediate execution of the judgment,
would you advise the posting of a supersedeas bond as counsel
XI. for Jaypee?
A. Teddy filed against Buboy an action for rescission of a Explain your answer briefly.
contract for the sale of a commercial lot. After having been told
by the wife of Buboy that her husband was out of town and would B. A temporary restraining order (TRO) was issued on
not be back until after a couple of days, the sheriff requested the September 20, 2017 by the RTC against defendant Jeff enjoining
wife to just receive the summons in behalf of her husband. The him from entering the land of Regan, the plaintiff.
wife acceded to the request, received the summons and a copy of On October 9, 2017, upon application of Regan, the trial
the complaint, and signed for the same. court, allegedly in the interest of justice, extended the TRO for
another 20 days based on the same ground for which the TRO was
(a) Was there a valid service of summons upon Buboy? issued.
Explain your answer briefly. On October 15, 2017, Jeff entered the land subject of the
(b) If Buboy files a motion to dismiss the complaint based TRO.
on the twin grounds of lack of jurisdiction over his person and May Jeff be liable for contempt of court? Why?
prescription of the cause of action, may he be deemed to have
voluntarily submitted himself to the jurisdiction of the court? SUGGESTED ANSWER:
Explain your answer briefly. (3%) (A) No, as counsel for Jaypee I would not advise the posting of
a supersedeas bond.
B. What is the mode of appeal applicable to the following Under the R70, a supersedeas bond is necessary to prevent
cases, and what issues may be raised before the reviewing immediate execution only if the judgment awarded rents,
court/tribunal? damages, and costs.
Here the judgment only ordered Jaypee to vacate and to pay
(a) The decision or final order of the National Labor attorney’s fees. A supersedeas bond is not required to cover
Relations Commission. attorney’s fees. [Once v. Gonzalez, 31 March 1977]. Hence the
(b) The judgment or final order of the RTC in the exercise of posting of a supersedeas bond is not required.
its appellate jurisdiction.
(B) No, Jeff may not be liable for contempt.
Under the Rule on Preliminary Injunction, a TRO is effective
SUGGESTED ANSWER: only for a period of 20 days from service on the person sought to
A. be enjoined. It is deemed automatically vacated if the application
(a) No, there was no valid service of summons upon Buboy. for preliminary injunction is denied or not resolved within the said
The Supreme Court has held that in order that there will be period and no court shall have the authority to extend or renew the
valid substituted service of summons, the sheriff must have exerted TRO on the same ground for which it was issued. [S5 R58]
diligent efforts to effect personal service of summons within a Here the extension of the TRO by the RTC was invalid since
reasonable time. it was for the same ground for which the TRO was issued. Hence
Here there were no such diligent efforts on the part of the the TRO was deemed automatically vacated and thus Jeff may not
sheriff since he effected substituted service on his very first be liable for contempt for ignoring it.
try. Hence there was no valid service of summons upon Buboy.
(b) No, Buboy may not be deemed to have voluntarily Tomas was criminally charged with serious physical injuries
submitted himself to the jurisdiction of the court. allegedly committed against Darvin. During the pendency of the
Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, the inclusion in a motion criminal case, Darvin filed a separate civil action for damages
to dismiss of other grounds aside from lack of personal jurisdiction based on the injuries he had sustained.
shall not be deemed a voluntary appearance. [S20 R14] Tomas filed a motion to dismiss the separate civil action on
the ground of litis pendentia, pointing out that when the criminal
B. action was filed against him, the civil action to recover the civil
(a) There is no mode of appeal from a decision or final order of liability from the offense charged was also deemed instituted. He
the NLRC, since such decision or final order is final and executory insisted that the basis of the separate civil action was the very
pursuant to the Labor Code. [Art. 223]. same act that gave rise to the criminal action.

The remedy of the aggrieved party is to file a special civil Rule on Tomas' motion to dismiss, with brief reasons.
action for certiorari with the Court of Appeals. [St. Martin Funeral
Home v. NLRC, 295 SCRA 494]. Such special civil action may raise SUGGESTED ANSWER:
questions both of fact and law. [Aggabao v. COMELEC, 449 SCRA Tomas’s motion to dismiss on the ground of litis pendentia
400]. should be denied.
In cases of physical injuries, a civil action for damages,
(b) The mode of appeal applicable to judgments or final entirely separate and distinct from the criminal action, may be
orders of the RTC in the exercise of its appellate jurisdiction is a brought by the injured party. Such civil action shall proceed
independently of the criminal action (Art. 33, Civil Code; S3 R111) and to prevent a failure of justice, a party who fails to file and serve
and hence may not be dismissed on the ground of litis pendentia. a request of r admission on the adverse party of material and
2016 relevant facts at issue which are, or ought to be within the personal
Q: State at least five civil cases that fall under the exclusive knowledge of the latter, shall not be allowed to present evidence
original jurisdiction of the RTC. on such facts.
The following civil cases fall under the exclusive original jurisdiction Q: Eduardo, a resident of the City of Manila, filed before the RTC
of the RTCs: of Manila a complaint for the annulment of a Deed of Real Estate
1. Actions where the demand or the value of the property in Mortgage he signed in favor of Galaxy Bank, and the consequent
controversy exceeds P300,000, or, in Metro Manila, P400,000, foreclosure and auction sale of his mortgaged Makati property.
exclusive of damages, atty’s fees, litigation expenses, interests, and Galaxy filed a Motion to Dismiss on the ground of improper venue
costs alleging that the complaint should be filed with the RTC of Makati
2. Real actions where the assessed value of the real property since the complaint involves the ownership and possession of
exceeds P20,000, or in Metro Manila, P50,000 Eduardo’s lot. Resolve the motion with reasons.
3. Actions whose subject matter is incapable of pecuniary A:
estimation The Motion to Dismiss on the ground of improper venue should be
4. Probate cases where the gross value of the estate exceeds granted.
P300,000, or in Metro Manila, P400,000 Under the Rules, the venue of Real Actions shall be with the proper
5. Actions not falling within the exlusive jurisdiction of any other court having jurisdiction over the area where the realty is situated.
court, tribunal, body, or person exercising judicial or quasi-judicial An action for annulment of mortgage is a real action if there has
functions. already been a foreclosure sale.
Since there was already a foreclosure sale in this case, the
Q: annulment of mortgage is a real action which should have been
a) Briefly explain the procedure on “Interrogatories to Parties” filed in Makati where the real property is situated.
under Rule 25 and state the effect of failure to serve written
interrogatories. Q:
b) Briefly explain the procedure on “Admission by Adverse Party” [a] What is the "most important witness" rule pursuant to the
under Rule 26 and state the effect of failure to serve written 2004 Guidelines of Pretrial and Use of Deposition-Discovery
interrogatories. Measures? Explain. (2.5%)

A: [b] What is the "one day examination of witness" rule pursuant
a) The following is the procedure on Interrogatories to Parties to the said 2004 Guidelines? Explain. (2.5%)
under Rule 25: A:
1. A party desiring to elicit material and relevant facts from an a) The “most important witness” rule pursuant to the 2004
adverse party shall file and serve upon the latter written Guidelines of Pretrial and Use of Deposition-Discovery Measures
interrogatories to be answered by the latter provides that the judge shall, during the pretrial conference,
2. The interrogatories shall be answered fully in writing and shall be determine the most important witnesses to be heard and limit the
signed and sworn to by the person making them. The number of witnesses.
interrogatories shall be answered within 15 days form service
thereof. The answers may be used for the same purposes provided b) The “one-day examination of a witness” rule pursuant to the
for in Sec. 4 of Rule 23 on depositions. 2004 Guidelines of Pretrial and Use of Deposition-Discovery
3. Objections to any interrogatories may be made within 10 days Measures provides that a witness has to be fully examined in one
after service thereof. day only, subject to the court’s discretion to extend the direct
The effect of the failure to serve written interrogatories and/or cross-examination for justifiable reasons.
is that unless allowed by the court for good cause shown and to
prevent a failure of justice, a party not served with written Q: Pedro and Juan are residents of Barangay Ifurug, Municipality
interrogatories may not be compelled by the adverse party to give of Dupac, Mountain Province. Pedro owes Juan the amount of
testimony in open court, or to give a deposition pending appeal. P50,000.00. Due to nonpayment, Juan brought his complaint to
the Council of Elders of said barangay which implements the
b) The procedure on Admission by Adverse Party under Rule 26 is bodong justice system. Both appeared before the council where
as follows: they verbally agreed that Pedro will pay in installments on specific
1. At any time after issues have been joined, a party may file and due dates. Pedro reneged on his promise. Juan filed a complaint
serve upon any other party a written request for the admission by for sum of money before the Municipal Trial Court (MTC). Pedro
the later of the genuineness of any material and relevant document filed a Motion to Dismiss on the ground that the case did not pass
or the truth of any material and relevant matter of fact. through the barangay conciliation under R.A. No. 7160 and that
2. each of the matters of which an admission is requested shall be the RTC, not the MTC, has jurisdiction. In his opposition, Juan
deemed admitted unless, within the period designated in the argued that the intervention of the Council of Elders is substantial
request, which shall not be less than 15 days after service thereof, compliance with the requirement of R.A. No. 7160 and the claim
the party to whom the request is directed files and serves upon the of P50,000.00 is clearly within the jurisdiction of the MTC. As MTC
requesting party a sworn statement either denying specifically the judge, rule on the motion and explain.
matters of which an admission is requested or setting forth in detail A:
why he cannot truthfully either admit or deny those matter. Under the Rules of Procedure for Small claims cases, a
3. Objections to any request for admission shall be submitted to the motion to dismiss on whatever ground is a prohibited motion.
court within the period for and prior to the filing of his sworn The complaint falls under the coverage of the Rules of
statement. Procedure for Small Claims Cases since the claim for sum of money
The effect of the failure to file and serve request for
admission is that, unless allowed by the court for good cause shown
did not exceed P100,000 (now P300K). therefore, the motion to be taken? (1%)
dismiss filed by Pedro is a prohibited motion and must be denied. [b] After the period of redemption has lapsed and the title to the
lot is consolidated in the name of the auction buyer, is he entitled
to the writ of possession as a matter of right? If so, what is the
Q: Spouses Marlon and Edith have three (3) children ages 15, 12 action to be taken? (2%)
and 7, who are studying at public schools. They have a combined [c] Suppose that after the title to the lot has been consolidated in
gross monthly income of P30,000.00 and they stay in an the name of the auction buyer, said buyer sold the lot to a third
apartment in Manila with a monthly rent of P5,000.00. The party without first getting a writ of possession. Can the transferee
monthly minimum wage per employee in Metro Manila does not exercise the right of the auction buyer and claim that it is a
exceed P13,000.00. They do not own any real property. The ministerial duty of the court to issue a writ of possession in his
spouses want to collect a loan of P25,000.00 from Jojo but do not favor? Briefly explain.
have the money to pay the filing fees. A:
[a] Would the spouses qualify as indigent litigants under Section a) Yes, under Section 7 of Act No. 3135, the buyer in such auction
19, Rule 141 on Legal Fees? (2.5%)
 sale is entitled to a writ of possession even before the expiration of
the redemption period. The action to be taken is to file an ex parte
[b] If the spouses do not qualify under Rule 141, what other
petition for a writ of possession with the RTC furnishing a bond to
remedy can they avail of under the rules to exempt them from
the debtor. Upon approval of the bond, the buyer would be entitled
paying the filing fees? (2.5%)
to the issuance of a writ of possession.
Also under Section 47 of the General Banking Law, the purchaser at
(a) No, the spouses would not qualify as indigent litigants under
a judicial or extrajudicial foreclosure sale where the mortgagee is a
Section 19, Rule 141 since their combined gross monthly income of
bank shall have the right to enter and take possession of the
P30,000 exceeds P26,000, the amount double the monthly
property immediately after the date of the confirmation of the
minimum wage.
auction sale.
The other remedy the spouses can avail of under the rules to
(b) Yes, the buyer is entitled to the writ of possession as a matter
exempt them from paying the filing fees is to apply for exemption
pursuant to the “indigence test” under Section 21, Rule 3 of the of right. After consolidation of ownership, a writ of possession will
issue as a matter of course, without the filing and approval of a
Rules of Court if they can prove that they have “no money or
bond. The action to be taken is to file an ex parte petition for
property sufficient and available for food, shelter and basic
issuance of writ of possession with the RTC pursuant to Section 7
necessities for [themselves] and their family.” (Sps. Algura v. City of
of Act No. 3135. (Navarra v. CA, 204 SCRA 850).
Naga, 30 October 2006).
c) Yes. The Supreme Court has held that a transferee of the
Q: Juan sued Roberto for specific performance. Roberto knew
purchaser or winning bidder may file an ex parte motion for the
that Juan was going to file the case so he went out of town and
temporarily stayed in another city to avoid service of summons. issuance of a writ of possession. The reason is that the transferee
steps into the shoes of the purchaser and acquires whatever rights
Juan engaged the services of Sheriff Matinik to serve the
the transferor had. (Laureno v. Bormaheco, 404 Phil. 80)
summons but when the latter went to the residence of Roberto,
he was told by the caretaker thereof that his employer no longer
Q: Miguel filed a Complaint for damages against Jose, who denied
resides at the house. The caretaker is a high school graduate and
liability and filed a Motion to Dismiss on the ground of failure to
is the godson of Roberto. Believing the caretaker's story to be
state a cause of action. In an Order received by Jose on January 5,
true, Sheriff Matinik left a copy of the summons and complaint
2015, the trial court denied the Motion to Dismiss. On February 4,
with the caretaker. Was there a valid substituted service of
2015, Jose sought reconsideration of that Order through a Motion
summons? Discuss the requirements for a valid service of
for Reconsideration. Miguel opposed the Motion for
summons. (5%)
Reconsideration on the ground that it was filed out of time. Jose
countered that the 15- day rule under Section 1 of Rule 52 does
Yes, there was a valid service of summons.
not apply where the Order sought to be reconsidered is an
In a case involving similar facts, the Supreme Court held that there
interlocutory order that does not attain finality. Is Jose correct?
was a valid substituted service of summons since the defendant
Explain. (5%)
was engaged in deception to thwart the orderly administration of
A: Yes, Jose is correct.
In this case, the defendant was also engaged in deception since he
The 15-day period to file a motion for reconsideration under
temporarily stayed in another city to avoid service of summons and
Section 1 of Rule 52 refers to a motion for reconsideration of a
his caretaker falsely said he no longer resides in the house. (Sagana
judgment or final resolution or order.
v. Francisco, 2 Oct 2009).
In this case, what is involved is an order denying a motion to
The requirements for a valid substituted service of summons are:
1. The defendant, for justifiable reasons, cannot be personally dismiss, which is not a final order as it does not terminate the case.
The order is simply an interlocutory order which may be
served with summons within a reasonable time.
reconsidered by the trial court at any time during the pendency of
2. Copies of the summons shall be left at the defendant’s residence
the case. [See Rasdas v. Estenor, 13 Dec 2005]. It should also be
with some person of suitable age and discretion residing therein,
noted that Miguel did not file a motion to declare Jose in default.
or by leaving the copies at defendant’s office or regular place of
business with some competent person in charge thereof.
Q: Tailors Toto, Nelson and Yenyen filed a special civil action for
certiorari under Rule 65 from an adverse decision of the National
[a] Is the buyer in the auction sale arising from an extra-judicial Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) on the complaint for illegal
dismissal against Empire Textile Corporation. They were
foreclosure entitled to a writ of possession even before the
terminated on the ground that they failed to meet the prescribed
expiration of the redemption period? If so, what is the action to
production quota at least four (4) times. The NLRC decision was
assailed in a special civil action under Rule 65 before the Court of Royal in the amount of Pl Million, as evidenced by Promissory
Appeals (CA). In the verification and certification against forum Note No. 007 (PN) signed by Ervin. Jude signed a Surety
shopping, only Toto signed the verification and certification, Agreement binding herself as surety for the loan. Royal made a
while Atty. Arman signed for Nelson. Empire filed a motion to final demand on February 14, 2015 for Ervin and Jude
dismiss on the ground of defective verification and certification. (defendants) to pay, but the latter failed to pay. Royal prayed that
Decide with reasons. (5%) defendants Ervin and Jude be ordered to pay the amount of P1
A: Million plus interests.
The motion to dismiss on the ground of defective verification In their answer, Ervin admitted that he obtained the loan from
should be denied. The Supreme Court has held that a lawyer may Royal and signed the PN. Jude also admitted that she signed the
verify a pleading in behalf of the client. Moreover a verification is Surety Agreement. Defendants pointed out that the PN did not
merely a formal and not a jurisdictional requirement. The court provide the due date for payment, and that the loan has not yet
should not dismiss the case but merely require the party concerned matured as the maturity date was left blank to be agreed upon by
to rectify the defect. the parties at a later date. Defendants filed a Motion for a
The motion to dismiss on the ground of defective certification Judgment on the Pleadings on the ground that there is no genuine
against forum-shopping should likewise be denied. Under issue presented by the parties' submissions. Royal opposed the
reasonable or justifiable circumstances, as when all the plaintiffs or motion on the ground that the PN' s maturity is an issue that must
petitioners share a common interest and invoke a common cause be threshed out during trial.
of action or defense, the signature of only one of them in the [a] Resolve the motion with reasons. (2.5%)

certification against forum shopping substantially complies with
[b] Distinguish "Summary Judgment" and "Judgment on the
the Rule. (Jacinto v. Gumaru, 2 June 2014).
Pleadings." (2.5%)
In this case, the petitioners have a common interest and invoke a
common cause of action, that is, their illegal dismissal by Empire
Textile Corporation for failure to meet production quotas. (a)
 The Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings should be denied.
Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, a motion for judgment on the
Q: Tristan filed a suit with the RTC of Pasay against Arthur King pleadings may be filed only by the plaintiff or the claimant.
and/or Estate of Arthur King for reconveyance of a lot declared in In this case, it was the defendants, not the Plaintiff Royal Bank,
the name of Arthur King under TCT No. 1234. The complaint which filed a motion for judgment on the pleadings. Hence, the
alleged that "on account Arthur King's residence abroad up to the motion should be denied.
present and the uncertainty of whether he is still alive or dead, he (b)
or his estate may be served with summons by publication." A summary judgment is distinguished from a judgment on the
Summons was published and nobody filed any responsive pleadings as follows:
pleading within sixty (60) days therefrom. Upon motion, 1. A summary judgment is proper even if there is a remaining issue
defendants were declared in default and judgment was rendered as to the amount of damages, while a judgment on the pleadings is
declaring Tristan as legal owner and ordering defendants to proper if it appears that there is no genuine issue between the
reconvey said lot to Tristan. parties.
Jojo, the court-designated administrator of Arthur King's estate, 2. A summary judgment is based not only on the pleadings but also
filed a petition for annulment of judgment before the CA praying upon affidavits, depositions, and admissions showing that, except
that the decision in favor of Tristan be declared null and void for as to the amount of damages, there is no genuine issue, while a
lack of jurisdiction. He claims that the action filed by Tristan is an judgment on the pleadings is based exclusively upon the pleadings
action in personam and that the court did not acquire jurisdiction without the presentation of any evidence.
over defendants Arthur King and/or his estate. On the other hand, 3.A motion for summary judgment requires 10-day notice (Section
Tristan claims that the suit is an action in rem or at least an action 3 Rule 35), while a motion for judgment on the pleadings is subject
quasi in rem. Is the RTC judge correct in ordering service of to a 3-day notice rule (Section 4, Rule 15).
summons by publication? Explain. (5%) 4. A summary judgment may be prayed for by a defending party
A: (Section 2, Rule 35), while a judgment on the pleadings may be
Yes, the RTC judge is correct in ordering service of summons by prayed for only by a plaintiff or claimant.
Under Section 15 Rule 14 of the Rules of Civil Procedure,
extraterritorial service, which includes service by publication, may
be availed of in actions the subject of which is property within the
Philippines in which the defendant has or claims a lien or interest
or in which the relief demanded consists in excluding the defendant
from any interest therein.
In this case, the action for reconveyance has for its subject a real
property in the Philippines in the defendant’s name and in which
the relief sought is to annul the defendant’s title and vest it in the
Although the action for reconveyance is in personam (Republic v.
CA, 315 SCRA 600, 606), the test of whether an action is covered by
Section 15 Rule 14 is not its technical characterization as in rem or
quasi in rem but whether it is among those mentioned in S15 R14.
(See Baltazar v. Court of Appeals, 168 SCRA 354, 363

Q: Royal Bank (Royal) filed a complaint for a sum of money against

Ervin and Jude before the RTC of Manila. The initiatory pleading
averred that on February 14, 2010, Ervin obtained a loan from
gave. Sheriff Pluto, in his return of the summons, stated that
"Summons for Scylla was served personally as shown by her
signature on the receiving copy of the summons. Summons on
Charybdis was served pursuant to the amendment of Rule 14 by
facsimile transmittal of the summons and complaint on
defendant's fax number as evidenced by transmission verification
2015 report automatically generated by the fax machine indicating that
Q: Lender extended to Borrower a P100,000.00 loan covered by a it was received by the fax number to which it was sent on the date
promissory note. Later, Borrower obtained another P100,000.00 and time indicated therein." Circe, sixty (60) days after her receipt
loan again covered by a promissory note. Still later, Borrower of Sheriff Pluto's return, filed a Motion to Declare Charybdis in
obtained a P300,000.00 loan secured by a real estate mortgage on default as Charybdis did not file any responsive pleading.
his land valued at P500,000.00. Borrower defaulted on his a.) Should the court declare Charybdis in default? (2%)
payments when the loans matured. Despite demand to pay the Scylla seasonably filed her answer setting forth therein as a
P500,000.00 loan, Borrower refused to pay. Lender, applying the defense that Charybdis had paid the mortgage debt.
totality rule, filed against Borrower with the Regional Trial Court b.) On the premise that Charybdis was properly declared in
(RTC) of Manila, a collection suit for P500,000.00. default, what is the effect of Scylla's answer to the complaint?
a.) Did Lender correctly apply the totality rule and the rule on (2%)
joinder of causes of action? (2%) A:
At the trial, Borrower's lawyer, while cross-examining Lender, a) No, the court should not declare Charybdis in default.
successfully elicited an admission from the latter that the two Under the Rules of Court, the amendment of Rule 14 allowing
promissory notes have been paid. Thereafter, Borrower's lawyer service of summons by facsimile transmittal refers only to service
filed a motion to dismiss the case on the ground that as proven of summons upon a foreign private juridical entity under Section 12
only P300,000.00 was the amount due to Lender and which claim of Rule 14, not to a non-resident defendant under Section 15 of
is within the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Rule 14. Service of summons by facsimile cannot be effected under
Trial Court. He further argued that lack of jurisdiction over the Section 15 unless leave of court was obtained specifically
subject matter can be raised at any stage of the proceedings. permitting service by facsimile transmittal.
b.) Should the court dismiss the case? (3% ) The defendant in this case is not a foreign private juridical entity
A: but a non-resident defendant and no leave of court was obtained
a) Yes. Lender correctly applied the totality rule and the rule on to serve summons by facsimile.
joinder of causes of action. Therefore, there was no valid service of summons, thus, the court
Under the rule on joinder of causes of action, a party may in one could not declare Charybdis in default.
pleading assert as many causes of action as he may have against an b) The effect of Scylla’s answer to the complaint is that the court
opposing party. Under the totality rule, where the claims in all the shall try the case against both Scylla and Charybdis upon the
causes of action are principally for recovery of money, the answer filed by Scylla.
aggregate amount claimed shall be the test of jurisdiction. Under Section 3(c) of Rule 9, when a pleading asserting a claim
In this case, the causes of action by Lender are all against borrower states a common cause of action against several defending parties,
and all the claims are principally for recovery of money. some of whom answer and the others fail to do so, the court shall
Hence the aggregate amount claimed, which is P500,000 shall be try the case against all upon the answers thus filed and render
the test of jurisdiction and thus it is the RTC of Manila which has judgment upon the evidence presented.
jurisdiction. In this case, there was a common cause of action against Scylla and
Although the rules on joinder of causes of action state that the Charybdis since both were co-signatories to the mortgage deed.
joinder shall not include special civil actions, the remedy resorted Therefore, the court should not render judgment by default against
to with respect to the third loan was not foreclosure but collection. Charybdis but should proceed to try the case upon the answer filed
Hence joinder of causes of action would still be proper. and the evidence presented by Scylla.
b) No, the court should not dismiss the case.
The Supreme Court has held that jurisdiction over the subject Q: Juliet invoking the provisions of the Rule on Violence Against
matter is determined by the amount of the claim alleged in the Women and their Children filed with the RTC designated as a
complaint and not the amount proved during the trial. (Dionisio v Family Court a petition for issuance of a Temporary Protection
Sioson Puerto, 31 October 1974). Order (TPO) against her husband, Romeo. The Family Court issued
In this case, the amount claimed was P500,000. Even if the claim a 30-day TPO against Romeo. A day before the expiration of the
substantiated during the trial was only P300,000 that is not TPO, Juliet filed a motion for extension. Romeo in his opposition
determinative of the court’s jurisdiction over the subject matter. raised, among others, the constitutionality of R.A. No. 9262 (The
Therefore, the argument that lack of jurisdiction can be raised at VAWC Law) arguing that the law authorizing the issuance of a TPO
any time is misplaced since the RTC has jurisdiction in the first violates the equal protection and due process clauses of the 1987
place. Constitution. The Family Court judge, in granting the motion for
extension of the TPO, declined to rule on the constitutionality of
Q: Circe filed with the RTC a complaint for the foreclosure of real R.A. No. 9262. The Family Court judge reasoned that Family
estate mortgage against siblings Scylla and Charybdis, co-owners Courts are without jurisdiction to pass upon constitutional issues,
of the property and cosignatories to the mortgage deed. The being a special court of limited jurisdiction and R.A. No. 8369, the
siblings permanently reside in Athens, Greece. Circe tipped off law creating the Family Courts, does not provide for such
Sheriff Pluto that Scylla is on a balikbayan trip and is billeted at jurisdiction. Is the Family Court judge correct when he declined to
the Century Plaza Hotel in Pasay City. Sheriff Pluto went to the resolve the constitutionality of R.A. No. 9262? (3%)
hotel and personally served Scylla the summons, but the latter A:
refused to receive summons for Charybdis as she was not No, the Family Court judge was not correct when he declined to
authorized to do so. Sheriff Pluto requested Scylla for the email resolve the constitutionality of R.A. No. 9262.
address and fax number of Charybdis which the latter readily The Supreme Court has held that despite its designation as a Family
Court, a Regional Trial Court remains possessed of authority as a the latter's promissory note. The complaint alleges, among
court of general jurisdiction to resolve the constitutionality of a others:
statute. (Garcia v. Drilon, 25 June 2013) 1) Defendant borrowed P1 million from plaintiff as evidenced by
a duly executed promissory note;
2) The promissory note reads:
"Makati, Philippines Dec. 30, 2014
Q: Strauss filed a complaint against Wagner for cancellation of For value received from plaintiff, defendant promises to pay
title. Wagner moved to dismiss the complaint because Grieg, to plaintiff P1 million, twelve (12) months from the above indicated
whom he mortgaged the property as duly annotated in the TCT, date without necessity of demand.
was not impleaded as defendant. Signed Defendant"
a.) Should the complaint be dismissed? (3%)
 A copy of the promissory note is attached as Annex "A."
Defendant, in his verified answer, alleged among others:
b.) If the case should proceed to trial without Grieg being
impleaded as a party to the case, what is his remedy to protect 1) Defendant specifically denies the allegation in paragraphs 1
and 2 of the complaint, the truth being defendant did not execute
his interest? (2%)
any promissory note in favor of plaintiff, or
2) Defendant has paid the P1 million claimed in the promissory
a) No, the complaint should not be dismissed.
note (Annex "A" of the Complaint) as evidenced by an
The non-joinder of an indispensable party is not a ground of a
"Acknowledgment Receipt" duly executed by plaintiff on January
motion to dismiss. (Vesagas v. CA, 371 SCRA 508).
30, 2015 in Manila with his spouse signing as witness.
Although Grieg, the registered mortgagee, is an indispensable party
A copy of the "Acknowledgment Receipt" is attached as Annex "1"
(Metrobank v. Alejo, 364 SCRA 813 [2001]), his non-joinder does
not warrant the dismissal of the complaint.
Plaintiff filed a motion for judgment on the pleadings on the
b) The remedy of Grieg is to file a motion for leave to intervene.
ground that defendant's answer failed to tender an issue as the
Under Rule 19 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, a person who has a
allegations therein on his defenses are sham for being
legal interest in the matter in litigation may intervene in the action
inconsistent; hence, no defense at all. Defendant filed an
at any time before rendition of judgment.
Since Grieg is a mortgagee and such fact was annotated in the title, opposition claiming his answer tendered an issue.
a.) Is judgment on the pleadings proper? (3%)
he has a legal interest in the title subject matter of the litigation.
Defendant filed a motion for summary judgment on the ground
Consequently, he may intervene in the case.
that there are no longer any triable genuine issues of facts.
b.) Should the court grant defendant's motion for summary
Q: Ernie filed a petition for guardianship over the person and
judgment? (3%)
properties of his father, Ernesto. Upon receipt of the notice of
hearing, Ernesto filed an opposition to the petition. Ernie, before
a) No, judgment on the pleadings is not proper.
the hearing of the petition, filed a motion to order Ernesto to
submit himself for mental and physical examination which the Under Section 2, Rule 8 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, a party may
set forth two or more statements of a defense alternatively or
court granted.
hypothetically. The Supreme Court has held that inconsistent
After Ernie's lawyer completed the presentation of evidence in
defenses may be pleaded alternatively or hypothetically provided
support of the petition and the court's ruling on the formal offer
that each defense is consistent with itself. (Baclayon v. Court of
of evidence, Ernesto's lawyer filed a demurrer to evidence.
Appeals, 26 February 1990).
Ernie's lawyer objected on the ground that a demurrer to
Therefore, plaintiff’s contention that defendant’s answer failed to
evidence is not proper in a special proceeding.
tender an issue since his defenses are sham for being inconsistent
a.) Was Ernie's counsel's objection proper? (2%)
 is without merit.
b.) If Ernesto defies the court's order directing him to submit to b) Yes, the court should grant Defendant’s motion for summary
physical and mental examinations, can the court order his arrest? judgment.
(2%) Under Section 2 of Rule 35, a defendant may at any time, move
A: with supporting admissions for a summary judgment in his favor.
a) No, Ernie’s counsel’s objection was not proper. In this case, the plaintiff had impliedly admitted the genuineness
Under the Rule on Special Proceedings, in the absence of special and due execution of the acknowledgment receipt, which was the
provisions, the rules provided for in ordinary actions, shall be, as basis of Defendant’s defense, by failing to specifically deny it under
far as practicable, applicable in special proceedings. oath.
In this case, there are no special provisions on demurrer to Therefore, the defendant may move for a summary judgment on
evidence in the rules on guardianship. Therefore, the provisions on the basis that Plaintiff had admitted that Defendant had already
demurrer to evidence in ordinary actions are applicable to special paid the P1 million obligation.
proceedings. Such application is practicable since it would be a
waste of time to continue hearing the case if upon the facts and the Q: VIII. Aldrin entered into a contract to sell with Neil over a parcel
law, guardianship would not be proper. of land. The contract stipulated a P500,000.00 down payment
b) No, the court cannot order Ernesto’s arrest. upon signing and the balance payable in twelve (12) monthly
Under Section 3(d) of Rule 29, Rules of Civil Procedure, a court installments of P100,000.00. Aldrin paid the down payment and
cannot direct the arrest of a party for disobeying an order to submit had paid three (3) monthly installments when he found out that
to a physical or mental examination. However, the court may Neil had sold the same property to Yuri for P1.5 million paid in
impose other penalties such as rendering judgment by default or cash. Aldrin sued Neil for specific performance with damages with
issuing an order that the physical or mental condition of the the RTC. Yuri, with leave of court, filed an answer-in-intervention
disobedient party shall be taken as established in accordance with as he had already obtained a TCT in his name. After trial, the court
the claim of the party obtaining the order. rendered judgment ordering Aldrin to pay all the installments
due, the cancellation of Yuri's title, and Neil to execute a deed of
Q: Plaintiff sued defendant for collection of P1 million based on sale in favor of Aldrin. When the judgment became final and
executory, Aldrin paid Neil all the installments but the latter
refused to execute the deed of sale in favor of the former. Aldrin
filed a "Petition for the Issuance of a Writ of Execution" with
proper notice of hearing. The petition alleged, among others, that
the decision had become final and executory and he is entitled to
the issuance of the writ of execution as a matter of right.
Neil filed a motion to dismiss the petition on the ground that it
lacked the required certification against forum shopping.
a.) Should the court grant Neil's Motion to Dismiss? (3%) 2014
Despite the issuance of the writ of execution directing Neil to Q: An order of the court requiring a retroactive re-dating of an
execute the deed of sale in favor of Aldrin, the former obstinately order, judgment or document filing be entered or recorded in a
refused to execute the deed.
 b.) What is Aldrin's remedy? (2%) judgment is: (1%)
A: (A) pro hac vice
a) No, the court should not grant Neil’s Motion to Dismiss. (B) non pro tunc
Under Section 5 of Rule 7 of the Rules of Civil Procedure, a (C) confession relicta verificatione
certification against forum shopping is required only for initiatory (D) nolle prosequi
pleadings or petitions.
The “Petition for the Issuance of a Writ of Execution,” although A: (B) (Note: Should be “nunc pro tunc.”).
erroneously denominated as a petition is actually a motion for
issuance of a writ of execution under Rule 39 of the Rules of Civil Q: Landlord, a resident of Quezon City, entered into a lease
Procedure. contract with Tenant, a resident of Marikina City, over a
Therefore, the motion to dismiss on the ground of lack of a residential house in Las Piñas City. The lease contract provided,
certification against forum shopping should be denied. among others, for a monthly rental of P25,000.00, plus ten
b) Aldrin’s remedy is to file a motion for judgment for specific act percent (10%) interest rate in case of non-payment on its due
under Section 10(a) of Rule 39 of the Rules of Court. date. Subsequently, Landlord migrated to the United States of
Under Section 10(a) of Rule 39, if a judgment directs a party to America (USA) but granted in favor of his sister Maria, a special
execute a conveyance of land and the party fails to comply, the power of attorney to manage the property and file and defend
court may direct the act to be done at the disobedient party’s cost suits over the property rented out to Tenant. Tenant failed to pay
by some other person appointed by the court or the court may by the rentals due for five (5) months. Maria asks your legal advice
an order divest the title of the party and vest it in the movant or on how she can expeditiously collect from Tenant the unpaid
other person. rentals plus interests due. (6%)
(A) What judicial remedy would you recommend to Maria?
Where is the proper venue of the judicial remedy which you
 (C) If Maria insists on filing an ejectment suit
against Tenant, when do you reckon the one (1)-year period
within which to file the action?

(A) The judicial remedy that I would recommend to Maria is to file
a collection suit for the P125,000 rentals in arrears and the P12,500
interest due. The remedy would be expeditious since it would be
governed by the Rules on Summary Procedure as the amount of the
demand, excluding interest, does not exceed P200,000.

(B) The proper venue of the collection suit would be in Marikina

City, where Tenant resides.
Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, venue in personal actions is with
the residence of either the plaintiff or the defendant, at the
plaintiff’s election.
Since the Plaintiff does not reside in the Philippines, venue may be
laid only in Marikina City where the defendant Tenant resides.

(C) If Maria insists on filing an ejectment suit against Tenant, the

one- year period within which to file the action shall be reckoned
from the expiration of 5-days from notice of the last demand to pay
and vacate. (Cruz v. Atencio, 28 February 1959; Sy Oh v. Garcia, 30
June 1969).

Q: As a rule, courts may not grant an application for provisional

remedy without complying with the requirements of notice and
hearing. These requirements, however, may be dispensed with in
an application for: (1%)
(A) writ of preliminary injunction

(B) writ for preliminary attachment

(C) an order granting support pendente lite (A) No, Agente is not correct.
(D) a writ of replevin Under the Rules of Civil Procedure, a writ of attachment may issue
even before service of summons upon the defendant. (S2 R57).
(B) No, the writ of preliminary attachment not properly executed.
Q: Co Batong, a Taipan, filed a civil action for damages with the Under S5 R57, no levy on preliminary attachment shall be enforced
Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Parañaque City against Jose Penduko, unless there is prior or simultaneous service of the summons and
a news reporter of the Philippine Times, a newspaper of general the accompanying papers. (S5 R The Supreme Court has held that
circulation printed and published in Parañaque City. The subsequent service of summons will not cure the irregularity that
complaint alleged, among others, that Jose Penduko wrote attended the enforcement of the writ (Onate v. Abrogar, 23
malicious and defamatory imputations against Co Batong; that Co February 1995).
Batong’s business address is in Makati City; and that the libelous In this case, the sheriff levied upon the house and lot prior to the
article was first printed and published in Parañaque City. The service of the summons and the complaint upon Agente. Hence the
complaint prayed that Jose Penduko be held liable to pay writ of preliminary attachment was not properly executed. The
P200,000.00, as moral damages; P150,000.00, as exemplary subsequent service of summons and the complaint did not cure the
damages; and P50,000.00, as attorney’s fees. irregularity in the enforcement of the writ.
Jose Penduko filed a Motion to Dismiss on the following grounds:
1. The RTC is without jurisdiction because under the Totality Rule, Q: Prince Chong entered into a lease contract with King Kong over
the claim for damages in the amount of P350,000.00 fall within a commercial building where the former conducted his hardware
the exclusive original jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Trial Court business. The lease contract stipulated, among others, a monthly
(MeTC) of Parañaque City. rental of P50,000.00 for a four (4)-year period commencing on
2. The venue is improperly laid because what the complaint January 1, 2010. On January 1, 2013, Prince Chong died. Kin Il
alleged is Co Batong’s business address and not his residence Chong was appointed administrator of the estate of Prince Chong,
address. but the former failed to pay the rentals for the months of January
Are the grounds invoked in the Motion to Dismiss proper? to June 2013 despite King Kong’s written demands.
A: Thus, on July 1, 2013, King Kong filed with the Regional Trial Court
No, the grounds invoked in the motion to dismiss improper. (RTC) an action for rescission of contract with damages and
1. The invocation of the Totality Rule is misplaced. Under Art. 360 payment of accrued rentals as of June 30, 2013. (4%)
of the Revised Penal Code, jurisdiction over a civil action for (A) Can Kin Il Chong move to dismiss the complaint on the ground
damages in case of libel is with the Court of First Instance, now the that the RTC is without jurisdiction since the amount claimed is
Regional Trial Court. (Nocum v. Tan, 23 September 2005). The said only P300,000.00?
provision does not mention any jurisdictional amount over such (B) If the rentals accrued during the lifetime of Prince Chong, and
action; hence the Totality Rule is inapplicable. King Kong also filed the complaint for sum of money during that
2. The ground that the complaint mentioned the complainant’s time, will the action be dismissible upon Prince Chong’s death
office address rather than his residence is of no moment since the during the pendency of the case?
complaint also stated that the libelous article was printed and first A:
published in Paranaque City. Under Article 360 of the Revised Penal (A) No, Kin II Chong cannot move to dismiss the complaint on the
Code, venue in a civil action for libel also lies in the place where the ground that the RTC is without jurisdiction since the amount
libelous article was printed and first published. claimed is only P300,000.
Under B.P. Blg. 129, the RTC has original and exclusive jurisdiction
Q: Bayani, an overseas worker based in Dubai, issued in favor of over actions incapable of pecuniary estimation.
Agente, a special power of attorney to sell his house and lot. In this case, the action is for rescission which is incapable of
Agente was able to sell the property but failed to remit the pecuniary estimation. The P300,000 accrued rentals is only
proceeds to Bayani, as agreed upon. On his return to the incidental to the main purpose of the action which is to rescind the
Philippines, Bayani, by way of a demand letter duly received by lease contract.
Agente, sought to recover the amount due him. Agente failed to
return the amount as he had used it for the construction of his (B) No, the action will not be dismissible upon Prince Chong’s death
own house. during the pendency of the case.
Thus, Bayani filed an action against Agente for sum of money with Under Section 20, Rule 3,of the Rules of Civil Procedure, when the
damages. Bayani subsequently filed an ex-parte motion for the action is on a contractual money claim and the defendant dies
issuance of a writ of preliminary attachment duly supported by an before entry of final judgment, the action shall not be dismissed
affidavit. The court granted the ex-parte motion and issued a writ but shall instead be allowed to continue until entry of final
of preliminary attachment upon Bayani’s posting of the required judgment.
bond. Bayani prayed that the court’s sheriff be deputized to serve In this case, the action is on a contractual money claim, that is, a
and implement the writ of attachment. On November 19, 2013, claim for rentals based on a lease contract. Hence it shall be
the Sheriff served upon Agente the writ of attachment and levied allowed to continue until final judgment. (Section 20 Rule 3, Section
on the latter’s house and lot. On November 20, 2013, the Sheriff 5 Rule 86).
served on Agente summons and a copy of the complaint. On
November 22, 2013, Agente filed an Answer with Motion to
Discharge the Writ of Attachment alleging that at the time the Q: When a Municipal Trial Court (MTC), pursuant to its delegated
writ of preliminary attachment was issued, he has not been jurisdiction, renders an adverse judgment in an application for
served with summons and, therefore, it was improperly issued. land registration, the aggrieved party’s remedy is: (1%)

(4%) (A) ordinary appeal to the Regional Trial Court
(A) Is Agente correct?
 (B) Was the writ of preliminary (B) petition for review on certiorari to the Supreme
attachment properly executed? Court
A: (C) ordinary appeal to the Court of Appeals

(D) petition for review to the Court of Appeals resolution from the Board of Directors of Goodfeather
Corporation to show the authority of Al Pakino to represent the
SUGGESTED ANSWER: (C) (Sec. 34, B.P. Blg. 129) corporation and file the complaint in its behalf. The RTC granted
the motion to dismiss and, accordingly, it ordered the dismissal of
Q: Plaintiff filed a complaint denominated as accion publiciana, the complaint. Al Pakino filed a motion for reconsideration which
against defendant. In his answer, defendant alleged that he had the RTC denied. As nothing more could be done by Al Pakino
no interest over the land in question, except as lessee of Z. before the RTC, he filed an appeal before the Court of Appeals
Plaintiff subsequently filed an affidavit of Z, the lessor of (CA). Robert White moved for dismissal of the appeal on the
defendant, stating that Z had sold to plaintiff all his rights and ground that the same involved purely a question of law and
interests in the property as shown by a deed of transfer attached should have been filed with the Supreme Court (SC). However, Al
to the affidavit. Thus, plaintiff may ask the court to render: (1%) Pakino claimed that the appeal involved mixed questions of fact
(A) summary judgment
 and law because there must be a factual determination if, indeed,
Al Pakino was duly authorized by Goodfeather Corporation to file
(B) judgment on the pleadings
 the complaint. Whose position is correct? Explain. (4%)
(C) partial judgment

(D) judgment by default A: Robert White’s position is correct. In a similar case, the Supreme
Court held that the issue of whether or not the trial court erred in
ANSWER: (A) (Sections 1 & 3, Rule 35) dismissing the complaint on the ground that the person who filed
the complaint in behalf of the plaintiff corporation was not
authorized to do so is a legal issue, reviewable only by the Supreme
Q: Tom Wallis filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a Petition Court in a petition for review on certiorari under Rule 45.
for Declaration of Nullity of his marriage with Debi Wallis on the (Tamondong v. Court of Appeals, 26 November 2004).
ground of psychological incapacity of the latter. Before filing the ALTERNATIVE ANSWER:
petition, Tom Wallis had told Debi Wallis that he wanted the The appeal raises a factual question of whether or not Al Pakino
annulment of their marriage because he was already fed up with was indeed authorized to file the complaint in behalf of
her irrational and eccentric behaviour. However, in the petition Goodfeather Corporation. A reading of Tamondong would show
for declaration of nullity of marriage, the correct residential that the appellant only raised a legal question of whether it was
address of Debi Wallis was deliberately not alleged and instead, proper to dismiss the complaint for failure to state a cause of action
the residential address of their married son was stated. Summons but did not raise a factual issue as to whether the filer was in fact
was served by substituted service at the address stated in the authorized by the corporation.
petition. For failure to file an answer, Debi Wallis was declared in
default and Tom Wallis presented evidence ex-parte. The RTC
rendered judgment declaring the marriage null and void on the Q: Which of the following decisions may be appealed directly to
ground of psychological incapacity of Debi Wallis. Three (3) years the Supreme Court (SC)? (Assume that the issues to be raised on
after the RTC judgment was rendered, Debi Wallis got hold of a appeal involve purely questions of law) (1%)
copy thereof and wanted to have the RTC judgment reversed and (A) Decision of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) rendered in the
set aside.
 If you are the lawyer of Debi Wallis, what judicial exercise of its appellate jurisdiction.

remedy or remedies (B) Decision of the RTC rendered in the exercise of its original
will you take? Discuss and specify the ground or grounds for said jurisdiction.
remedy or remedies. (5%) (C) Decision of the Civil Service Commission.
A: (D) Decision of the Office of the President.
I would file with the Court of Appeals an action for annulment of
the RTC judgment under Rule 47. An action for annulment of ANSWER: (B) Note: In an appeal from RTC judgment in the exercise
judgment may be resorted to since the remedies of appeal and of its appellate jurisdiction, the appeal should be to the CA even if
petition for relief are no longer available through no fault of Debi the questions are only legal. Hence A should be excluded. (Section
Wallis. (Section 1, Rule 47). 2[c] Rule 42).
The ground for annulment of judgment would be lack of
jurisdiction. Lack of jurisdiction also covers lack of jurisdiction over Q: Mr. Humpty filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a
the person of the defendant since the judgment would be void. complaint against Ms. Dumpty for damages. The RTC, after due
In this case, the court did not acquire jurisdiction over the person proceedings, rendered a decision granting the complaint and
of Debi since there was no valid substituted service of summons. ordering Ms. Dumpty to pay damages to Mr. Humpty. Ms. Dumpty
Substituted service of summons should have been made at Debi’s timely filed an appeal before the Court of Appeals (CA),
residence. (Section 7, Rule 14). Hence the judgment of the RTC was questioning the RTC decision. Meanwhile, the RTC granted Mr.
void. Since the judgment is void, the petition for annulment thereof Humpty’s motion for execution pending appeal. Upon receipt of
is imprescriptible. (S3 R47). the RTC’s order granting execution pending appeal, Ms. Dumpty
Moreover, default judgments are not allowed in declaration of filed with the CA another case, this time a special civil action for
nullity of marriage. (Section 3[e], Rule 9). Therefore, the trial certiorari assailing said RTC order. Is there a violation of the rule
court’s judgment of default was made with grave abuse of against forum shopping considering that two (2) actions
discretion amounting to lack of jurisdiction. emanating from the same case with the RTC were filed by Ms.
Dumpty with the CA? Explain. (4%)
Q: Goodfeather Corporation, through its President, Al Pakino, A:
filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a complaint for specific No, there is no violation of the rule against forum shopping.
performance against Robert White. Instead of filing an answer to Forum shopping applies where two or more initiatory pleadings
the complaint, Robert White filed a motion to dismiss the were filed by the same party. This is discernible from the use of the
complaint on the ground of lack of the appropriate board phrase “commenced any action or filed any claim” in S5 R7.
In this case, the first case involves the filing by Ms. Dumpty of a 37.
 (b) File an appeal to the Court of Appeals under Rule 41.
notice of appeal which is not an initiatory pleading. Hence there is
File an appeal to the Supreme Court under Rule 45 if the appeal will
no forum shopping.
raise only questions of law.
 (d) File a petition for relief from
Q: Mr. Boaz filed an action for ejectment against Mr. Jachin before judgment under Rule 38.
 (e) File an action for annulment of
the Metropolitan Trial Court (MeTC). Mr. Jachin actively judgment under Rule 47 on the ground of extrinsic fraud or lack of
participated in every stage of the proceedings knowing fully well jurisdiction.
that the MeTC had no jurisdiction over the action. In his mind, Mr.
Jachin was thinking that if the MeTC rendered judgment against Q: Estrella was the registered owner of a huge parcel of land
him, he could always raise the issue on the jurisdiction of the located in a remote part of their barrio in Benguet. However,
MeTC. After trial, the MeTC rendered judgment against Mr. when she visited the property after she took a long vacation
Jachin. What is the remedy of Mr. Jachin? (1%) abroad, she was surprised to see that her childhood friend, John,
had established a vacation house on her property.
(A) File an appeal
 Both Estrella and John were residents of the same barangay. To
(B) File an action for nullification of judgment recover possession, Estrella filed a complaint for ejectment with
the Municipal Trial Court (MTC), alleging that she is the true
(C) File a motion for reconsideration

owner of the land as evidenced by her certificate of title and tax
(D) File a petition for certiorari under Rule 65
declaration which showed the assessed value of the property as
P21,000.00. On the other hand, John refuted Estrella’s claim of
Answer: (A) Rule 47 is not available since appeal is still available.
ownership and submitted in evidence a Deed of Absolute Sale
Not C since a prohibited pleading.
between him and Estrella. After the filing of John’s answer, the
MTC observed that the real issue was one of ownership and not
Q: Mr. Avenger filed with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) a of possession. Hence, the MTC dismissed the complaint for lack of
complaint against Ms. Bright for annulment of deed of sale and jurisdiction.
other documents. Ms. Bright filed a motion to dismiss the On appeal by Estrella to the Regional Trial Court (RTC), a full-
complaint on the ground of lack of cause of action. Mr. Avenger blown trial was conducted as if the case was originally filed with
filed an opposition to the motion to dismiss. State and discuss the it. The RTC reasoned that based on the assessed value of the
appropriate remedy/remedies under each of the following property, it was the court of proper jurisdiction. Eventually, the
situations: (6%) RTC rendered a judgment declaring John as the owner of the land
(A) If the RTC grants Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss and dismisses and, hence, entitled to the possession thereof. (4%)
the complaint on the ground of lack of cause of action, what will (A) Was the MTC correct in dismissing the complaint for lack of
be the remedy/remedies of Mr. Avenger?
 jurisdiction? Why or why not?

(B) If the RTC denies Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss, what will be (B) Was the RTC correct in ruling that based on the assessed value
her remedy/remedies? of the property, the case was within its original jurisdiction and,
(C) If the RTC denies Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss and, further hence, it may conduct a full-blown trial of the appealed case as if
proceedings, including trial on the merits, are conducted until the it was originally filed with it? Why or why not?
RTC renders a decision in favor of Mr. Avenger, what will be the A:
remedy/remedies of Ms. Bright? (A) No, the MTC was not correct in dismissing the case for lack of
jurisdiction. The Supreme Court has held that an allegation of
A: ownership as a defense in the answer will not oust the MTC of
(A) If the RTC grants Ms. Brights’s motion to dismiss, the remedies jurisdiction in an ejectment case. What determines jurisdiction
of Mr. Avenger are: over the subject matter is the allegations in the complaint and not
(a) File a motion for reconsideration under Rule 37.
 (b) Re-file the those in the answer. Furthermore, under Section16, Rule 70, the
MTC may resolve the issue of ownership for the purpose only of
complaint. The dismissal does not bar the re-filing of the case
resolving the issue of possession.
(Section 5 Rule 16).
 (c) Appeal from the order of dismissal. The
dismissal order is a final order as it completely disposes of the case; (B) No the RTC was not correct in ruling that the case was within
hence it is appealable.
 (d) File an amended complaint as a matter its original jurisdiction and that hence it may conduct a full-blown
of right curing the defect of lack of cause of action before the trial of the appealed case as if it were originally filed with it.
dismissal order becomes final. This is because a motion to dismiss Under Section 8, Rule 40, if an appeal is taken from an MTC order
is not a responsive pleading; hence Mr. Avenger can amend the dismissing a case for lack of jurisdiction without a trial on the
complaint as a matter of right. (Section 2 Rule 10). merits, the RTC on appeal may affirm the dismissal order and if it
has jurisdiction, try the case on the merits as if the case was
(B) If the RTC denies Ms. Bright’s motion to dismiss, her remedies originally filed with it.
are: In this case, the RTC did not have jurisdiction over the case since it
is an ejectment suit cognizable exclusively by the MTC. The
(a) File a motion for reconsideration.
 (b) Proceed to trial and if assessed value of the land is irrelevant for the purpose of
she loses, appeal and assign the failure to dismiss as a reversible determining jurisdiction in ejectment suits and would not oust the
 (c) File a special civil action for certiorari and/or mandamus MTC of jurisdiction in the same manner as allegations of ownership
if the denial of the order to dismiss is made with grave abuse of would not oust the MTC of jurisdiction.
discretion amounting to lack of or excess of jurisdiction. The RTC should have reversed the dismissal order and remanded
the case to the MTC for further proceedings.
(C) If the RTC renders a decision in favor of Mr. Avenger, Ms.
Bright’s remedies are:
(a) File a motion for reconsideration or new trial under Rule