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THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

A BRIEF OUTLINE FILL IN NOTES

RUSSIA AT THE TIME OF THE REVOLUTION


Utilized a brutal form of , which involved landed serfdom
Years of left Russia behind the west economically
The had a reputation for brutality through the 1700s
New radical ideas of , and
were becoming popular

RUSSIA IN THE 1800’s


Autocracy:

Czar:

Dynasty:

Romanovs:

Alexander III: a brutal czar who targeted anyone who questioned his authority, the
Orthodox religion, or using the Russian language
o Used and a
o all new ideas and the media
o Shipped political prisoners to
o Encouraged attacks on Jews, called

Nicholas II: the last Czar


o Not as harsh as his father, but chose not to change the old way of things
o Did try to advance industry, and there was some growth
o completed in 1904
o Some people resented this new industrial way

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BEFORE THE REVOLUTION
Radicals United
o Educated people gathered (often in secret) in clubs called
to talk about the ideas of
o Discussed ways to bring about a revolution in Russia
o They split on ways to do this
 Bolsheviks:

 Mensheviks:

o Vladimir Lenin:

 Fled to Western Europe in early 1900s to avoid arrest


 His movement went on without him

1904-1917 – A SERIES OF CRISES


1. 1905 – : Japan won some key islands once owned
by Russia
2. January 22, 1905 - :
o Peasants approached the Czar’s winter palace in St. Petersburg (he wasn’t there)
with a petition asking for better work conditions and food
o Troops opened fire on the crowd of women and children and as many as 1000 die.
3. 1906 - : a legislative body made by the Czar in response
to national unrest
o Was dissolved weeks later
4. 1914-1917 – : A disaster for Russia
o Weak generals, poorly equipped troops (some sent with no guns!)
o Russian soldiers dead in the first year
o Drained the government’s money reserves
o Food shortages began again
5. Nicholas went to the front and his wife turned to :a
holy man/psychic for help in running the government
o Russians were furious
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THE FEBRUARY REVOLUTION, 1917

A city-wide strike and food riot erupted in


o The army turned on their commanders and joined the crowds
o “Down with autocracy” “Down with the war”
The Czar stepped down
Cities were in chaos
A provisional government was established
o Headed by
o He voted to stay in the war, something very few wanted

THE OCTOBER (BOLSHEVIK) REVOLUTION, 1917


Soviet councils around the country armed themselves
An army stormed the Winter Palace and took over the government
More city governments fell in months after
The Germans had secretly shipped back into Russia
o Ordered the redistribution of noble land to all peasants
o Bowed out of war with peace treaty with Germany (controversially gave up land)
o Factories given to workers

CIVIL WAR (1918-1920)


Lenin’s troops ( ) versus the Army (pro-
Czar)
o Russians died in fight and resulting flu epidemic
o July 1918: Lenin had royal family killed
Why the were able to win:
o Existence of in Russia – power was available for whomever
wanted it
o Lenin and Bolsheviks had superior leadership
o Bolsheviks appealed to and

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NOW WHAT?
Economy was in total shambles
Little industry
o Many skilled workers had fled fighting
Food shortages
– let some capitalism exist, but kept control of
media and banks in hands of the government
Government is totally disorganized
The huge country was divided into smaller provinces which all looked to Moscow for
direction
Put the in charge of the government
Lenin died in
o A vacuum of power and a struggle for his place ensued
o and both vied for the leadership
role
o Stalin put his supporters in key positions, by 1928, he had total control of the party
o Trotsky was forced into exile in

TOTALITARIANISM:

Absolute loyalty to one person and government


Cult of personality (provides comfort and direction to people)
Glorify the aims of the state
Demand for total devotion to leaders and government
Total control of information and media
Use of secret police and spies to ferret out opposition
Also emerged in
o China (Mao Tse Tung)
o Korea (Kim Il Sung)
o Germany (Adolf Hitler)
o Italy (Benito Mussulini)