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Chapter 14

The Propaganda Movement and the


Katipunan
How did it start?
• 19th century
– Filipinos campaigned for reforms in the colony led by Filipino
thinkers and writers like Dr. Jose Rizal.
– The propaganda movement in Spain and Philippines failed.
Katipunan was started by Bonifacio and other patriots to make
the Philippines free through a revolution.
CAUSES OF
NATIONALISM
Nationalism
• devotion to one’s country, or fighting for its
independence.
CAUSES
1. New ideas from abroad about the freedom and the
rights of men.
2. Opening of the Suez Canal
3. Race prejudice against Filipino priests.
4. The Spanish Revolution of 1868
5. Martyrdom of Gom – Bur – Za
THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT

(1872 – 1892)
• This crusade for reforms was done by means of pen and
tongue to pressure the Spanish Government.
• The propagandists from the best, brightest, and richest
families in the Philippines published articles for their
crusade for reforms in La Solidaridad.
La Solidaridad
• was founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena, its first
editor.
• first issue appeared in Barcelona, Spain (February
15, 1889). Moved to Madrid in November, 1889.
The next editor became Marcelo H. del Pilar. It
ended for lack of funds on November 15, 1895.
RIZAL AND THE LA LIGA FILIPINA
La Liga Filipina (Philippine League)
• a political association of patriotic Filipinos founded by
Rizal to crusade for reforms.
• Dr. Rizal wrote two novels, Noli Me Tangere and El
Filibusterismo.
BONIFACIO AND THE KATIPUNAN
• After Rizal’s death, Andres Bonifacio founded a secret
revolutionary society (KKK) on July 7, 1892 for Filipinos
to fight for freedom.
Kataas – taasan Kagalang – galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan
(Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People)

AIMS:
1. To unite the Filipinos into one solid nation
2. To fight for Philippine independence from Spain.
KATIPUNAN GOVERNMENT

• Bonifacio and others wanted the Katipunan to replace


the Spanish Government in the Philippines.
• Two constitutions: 1892 and 1894.
• Supreme Council ( Kataastaasang Sanggunian) was the
the central government, with a president, a fiscal, a
secretary, a treasurer, and a comptroller.
• Deodato Arellano was the first president of the
Katipunan.
• Andres Bonifacio replaced him in 1895 which changed
the title president changed to Supremo.
MEMBERS OF THE KATIPUNAN
• 1896 - 20, 000 members.
• Famous Katipuneros include Bonifacio, Arellano, Emilio
Jacinto (Brains of the Katipunan), Dr.Pio
Valenzuela, Valentin Diaz,etc.
• Women joined the Katipunan and served as guards of the
documents of the society.
SECRET INITIATION OF THE
KATIPUNAN
• Candidate for membership was first blindfolded and
entered a secret room. He had to pass tests and a blood
compact will be done afterwards.
KATIPUNAN LITERATURE

• Three writers of the Katipunan were:


1. Andres Bonifacio – wrote Decalogue of the Katipunan (a
collection of wise sayings for Katipuneros and Pag – ibig sa
Tinubuang Lupa ( Love for Country).
2. Emilio Jacinto – wrote the Kartilla (collection of teachings of
Katipunan) and A La Patria.
3. Dr. Pio Valenzuela – helped Bonifacio and jacinto to edit the
Katipunan newspaper (Kalayaan) and wrote an essay Catwiran (Is
it Fair?)
DISCOVERY OF THE KATIPUNAN
• Teodoro Patino, one of the Katipuneros, revealed the
secrets of the Katipunan to Father Gil which led to its
discovery because of his fear.
• Many Filipinos were arrested but many Katipuneros also
escaped including Bonifacio.
HISTORICAL VALUES
• The Filipinos can only solve their problems if they are
united.
• The Filipinos love freedom and hate tyranny.
• Filipinos spoke out against the cruel treatment of our
people.
• We must remember and honor these heroes and heroines
who fought for our rights during the Spanish era.
• A violent revolution does not end a nation’s problem as
foreseen by Dr. Jose Rizal.