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1.

Define Psychology, give its importance and what is the relationship of psychology to
education?

Ans:

Psychology is a broad discipline that covers matters of the mind and human behavior.
The study of psychology teaches how humans think and the way in which humans arrive
at decisions or behaviors. When people understand what is normal in terms of mental
development, they are better able to recognize when someone is struggling. This
promotes better mental health treatment and encourages early intervention in children
struggling with developmental issues

IMPORTANCE OF PSYCHOLOGY

The difficulties of the present-day life has its share in inspiring man to look more and
more to the science of psychology. In order to balance and counteract the evil effects of
the present-day inventions, it has become necessary to look into the mind of man and to
discover the laws of its working as far as possible. This would enable him to guide his
behaviour in such a way as not to make the discoveries and inventions of science a curse
but to turn them into real blessings. Man does not know much of his own psychology in
spite of scientific advances in psychology. His interest to know himself seems to be on
the increase and he is more prone to study the subject of psychology.

The world needs psychology because it allows people to better understand how the
mind works. Having this understanding allows mental illnesses to be better diagnosed
and managed, helps people manage their relationships with those around them,
encourages those with depression or anxiety to take steps to improve their conditions,
and promotes an overall healthier mental state.

Psychology can help you better understand people around you

Of course a psychology degree won’t give you an absolute understanding of every


interaction you have with people. We are quite a complex species after all. However, the
insights you gain about peoples’ motivations, perceptions and behaviour will perhaps
give you a different perspective on why people react in the ways they do and help you to
understand people a little better.

Psychology can help you better understand yourself

The insights you gain into motivations, thought processes, the influences of groups you
interact with and many other aspects of human behaviour will all help you gain a better
understanding of yourself. Many students find that as they study language, emotion and
other topics that they become better communicators as a result of studying psychology.

Relationship between Education and Psychology

Psychology is closely related to education. Education is the modification of behaviour


in a desirable direction or in a controlled environment and psychology is the study of
behaviour or science of behaviour. To modify the behaviour or to bring about some
changes in the behaviour it is necessary to study the science of behaviour. Thus,
education and psychology are logically related.

The developmental stages of children and characteristics are very essential factors
which the teacher must know in order to be a successful teacher. The traditional
education was subject centered and teacher dominated. But the modern concept of
education has been changed into learning centered to learner centered.

Today’s education has become child centered:


It is the child who is to learn according to his needs, interests and capacities. Hence,
there is no doubt that a knowledge of psychology is quite essential for planning and
organizing any educative effort. For this purpose all the great educators emphasize that
education must have a psychological base.

2. What are the types of leadership and how are they being used to enhance performance?

Ans:

Leadership Styles: Leadership is a social influence process in which the leader seeks
the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organization goals. A
leader can be defined as a person who delegates or influencing others to act so as to
carry out specified objectives. Today’s organizations need effective leaders who
understand the complexities of the rapidly changing global environment. If the task is
highly structured and the leader has good relationship with the employees, effectiveness
will be high on the part of the employees.

Autocratic Leadership

This aggressive leadership style is based on control. The autocrat is rarely well-liked,
and an autocratic leader uses a militant-like style. The autocrat gives orders and expects
prompt execution, with little-to-no feedback or input from the worker. This leadership style
can work in a production-type environment that demands maximal output in simple,
repetitive job roles. It rarely allows for an environment in which creativity will flourish. The
autocrat pushes employees hard; often, he does not get loyalty and long-term
commitments in return. High turnover and low satisfaction is expected, in response to
this leadership style. There are times when autocratic leadership is effective, however.
The military is a prime example. Each individual is encouraged to perform under a strict,
autocratic leader, because their job roles have life or death consequences. Performing
well in the military under this leadership style also warrants promotions to higher ranking
positions.

Laissez-Faire Leadership
The complete opposite of autocratic leadership is Laissez-Faire, which is understood
to mean and for do as you will or choose in French. What it means in economic terms is
that it is "a doctrine opposing governmental interference in economic affairs beyond the
minimum necessary for the maintenance of peace and property rights," according to
Merriam Webster. The style has some major benefits in creative environments, but it also
lacks discipline and structure that is often required in a business environment. Another
downside of the Laissez-Faire style is the unstructured approach to learning. It relies
heavily on talent, existing experience and creativity to drive results. If hard deadlines,
production and bottom-line profits are not necessarily a major factor, Laissez-Faire is a
laid back, easy approach to running a shop. It also can work when the employee already
has a motive to put in the effort. For example, a commission-based sales role is
structured to reward performance. Using a Laissez-Faire leadership style, makes it
possible for the employee to find creative means of accomplishing a higher sales rate. A
more controlling leadership style that uses proven processes is typical in a sale role, but
increasing the freedom to explore creative strategies drives innovation and may yield
major results.
Transformative Leadership

When comparing types of leadership that do really well in the business world,
Transformative Leadership really shines, as an all-around effective approach. It
encourages employees to think critically and the leaders is often inspiring. These leaders
have a big vision, and they are charismatic and motivating. The big picture approach,
however, does not cover the day-to-day details. A Transformative leader will require
dedicated managers that have a more detailed approach, to ensure that administrative
tasks and daily processes are in place. The Transformative leader is common in big
business, where the CEO is a visionary with a large audience that's receptive to
innovative thinking. The technology industry is attractive for these personalities, but they
exist across the business spectrum.
Hands-On, Participant Leadership Style

The participant leadership style is collaborative, and takes employee opinion and
input into account during the decision-making process. This brings all of the best ideas
to the table and puts the leader in a co-worker type of role that's often respected by the
employees. While the participant style is a very effective leadership approach, it does
not happen quickly. Sometimes, a nimble, decision-making process is required to move
forward. The participant process gets bogged down, while everyone delivers input, and
the process of compromise and deliberation takes place. Ultimately, the decision is likely
thorough and well-considered, but not necessarily timely. If split-second decisions are
not critical, this leadership style works well in the business world. It may not work for a
stockbroker buying and selling on the stock exchange floor, but it serves many business
models well.

Transactional Leadership

This is a straightforward leadership style with a focus on work, reward and processes
that drive consistent results. While Transactional leaders tends to lack the hype and
charisma found in Transformative leadership, they are very much results-oriented, which
is great for business. The style is not harsh, as an autocratic leadership type is, but it
does punish poor performance. On the flip side, a transactional leader provides incentive
for positive performance. In many cases, better performance means more money
through bonus and commission structures. Financial incentive is enough to motivate
many employees into productive work habits. In addition to utilizing a rewards system,
the Transactional leader is focused on proven processes that produce consistent results.

3. How can a teacher use these theories in attempting to motivate the students?

3.1 Behaviorism and Functionalism

Behaviorism in the Classroom

It's easy to see how operant conditioning can be used for classroom management.
There are many behaviors that need to be shaped (an operant term!) in order to have an
orderly classroom.

In order to encourage the use of good study strategies, students need to see the
direct consequence of using them. One way to do this is to give them practice using their
own strategies and then require them to study some small bit of material using the new
strategy you are teaching. The immediate and direct feedback that shows a higher grade
is a positive reinforcement. Teachers can provide positive reinforcement in class. He/She
can use praise or extra credit for students who demonstrate that they are using the new
strategies to try and shape their behavior. One key is that the consequence should come
fairly quickly after the behavior, which is what makes this such a challenge. Students
who use spacing, for example, do a lot of work for a long time before receiving a
reinforcement. Students who cram the night before and manage to pass the exam
receive a more immediate positive reinforcement, making them more likely to engage in
that behavior again.

Functionalism

Functionalists view education as one of the more important social institutions in a


society. They contend that education contributes two kinds of functions: manifest (or
primary) functions, which are the intended and visible functions of education; and latent
(or secondary) functions, which are the hidden and unintended functions.

Functional theory stresses the functions that education serves in fulfilling a society’s
various needs. Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If
children are to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then
education is a primary vehicle for such learning. Schools teach the three Rs (reading,
’riting, ’rithmetic), as we all know, but they also teach many of the society’s norms and
values. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority,
patriotism (remember the Pledge of Allegiance?), punctuality, and competition (for
grades and sports victories).

A second function of education is social integration. For a society to work,


functionalists say, people must subscribe to a common set of beliefs and values. As we
saw, the development of such common views was a goal of the system of free,
compulsory education that developed in the nineteenth century. Thousands of immigrant
children in the United States today are learning English, US history, and other subjects
that help prepare them for the workforce and integrate them into American life.

A third function of education is social placement. Beginning in grade school, students


are identified by teachers and other school officials either as bright and motivated or as
less bright and even educationally challenged. Depending on how they are identified,
children are taught at the level that is thought to suit them best. In this way, they are
presumably prepared for their later station in life.

Social and cultural innovation is a fourth function of education. Our scientists cannot
make important scientific discoveries and our artists and thinkers cannot come up with
great works of art, poetry, and prose unless they have first been educated in the many
subjects they need to know for their chosen path.

Education also involves several latent functions, functions that are by-products of
going to school and receiving an education rather than a direct effect of the education
itself. One of these is child care: Once a child starts kindergarten and then first grade, for
several hours a day the child is taken care of for free. The establishment of peer
relationships is another latent function of schooling. Most of us met many of our friends
while we were in school at whatever grade level, and some of those friendships endure
the rest of our lives. A final latent function of education is that it keeps millions of high
school students out of the full-time labor force. This fact keeps the unemployment rate
lower than it would be if they were in the labor force.

Because education serves so many manifest and latent functions for society,
problems in schooling ultimately harm society. For education to serve its many functions,
various kinds of reforms are needed to make our schools and the process of education
as effective as possible.

3.2 Human minds and computers

Explore the creativity and imagination in students mind:-

To explore creativity in students it’s important that you use them as an example. But
before motivating students you should have to be motivated enough to teach the subject
and topic of the class for students. You should do know about the pros/cons of the
subject, you should know about the uses of subject etc. When you know the uses of any
subject or topic it’s very easy for you to motivate students. You’re teaching in school,
institute or in the college or in the home, it’s important that you’re motivated from inside
and know the importance of the subject. In this way, you will become confident to teach,
write, speak and able to educate others. But first, you need to educate yourself on the
topic. And the best way is to start from the output.

3.3 Drive reduction theory

3.4 Drive induction theory