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Chapter – 2

CELL - THE UNIT OF LIFE


Progress Check 1
Q1. Name the following :
(i) The kind of microscope that consists of a single biconvex lenses.
Ans. Simple Microscope

(ii) The kind of mirror used for throwing light on the object in Hooke’s
Microscope.
Ans. Concave Mirror

Q2. What is the maximum magnification that can usually be achieved by


(i) a compound microscope : 2000 times.
(ii) an electron microscope : 2,00,000 times.

Progress Check 2
Q1. Name the following :

(i) Any 2 one-celled organisms : Bacteria, Amoeba.

(ii) The longest cells in Animals : Nerve Cells.


(iii) Amoeboid cells in humans : White Blood Cells.
(iv) Outermost layer in plant cells : Cell Wall.

(v) A cell component which is visible only in cell division stages :


Chromosomes.
Q2. List 3 categories of substances which are ensured greater diffusion
due to large surface/volume ratio of the cells : Food, Water, Oxygen.

Progress Check 3
Q1. Name the parts of a cell in which

(i) many chemical reactions occur with the help of enzymes : Cytoplasm
(ii) a network of chromatin fibres occurs : Nucleus.
(iii) cellulose forms the main component : Cell Wall.

Q2. Differentiate between :


(i) an Organ and Organelle :
Ans.
An organ :
a. It is present inside a body.
b. It is composed of millions of cell.
An Organelle :
a. It is present inside a cell.
b. It is not composed of cells but composed of some nutrients.

(ii) A Plant cell and Animal cell pertaining to the presence of plastids :
Ans.
Plant cell : Plastid is present.
Animal Cell : Plastid is not present.

Q3. Name the cell organelle concerned with :


(i) Secretion of Enzymes : Golgi Complex.
(ii) Trapping of Solar energy : Plastids.
(iii) Synthesis of proteins : Ribosomes.
(iv) Intracellular digestion : Lysosome.
(v) Production of ATP : Mitochondria.

Q4. Name the cell part ehich is


(i) Composed of cellulose : Plastids.

(ii) Formed of an irregular network of tubular double membranes :


Endoplasmic Reticulum.

(iii) A clear space with water or other substance in solution :


Vacuoles.

Q5. Mention if the following statements are true or false. Correct the
wrong ones.
(i) Prokaryotic cells have larger ribosomes.
Ans. False (small)

(ii) Eukaryotic cells have mitochondria .


Ans. True

(iii) Amoeba is an example of Prokaryotic.


Ans. True

(iv) Bacteria have no nuclear membrane but possess chloroplast.


Ans. False. ( no nuclear membrane )

Progress Check 4
Q1. Match the following.
Ans. (i) Repair - c) Cell Division
(ii) Cooling of body – (d) Gland Cells give out sweat for evaporation.
(iii) Movement – (a) Contractility of Cells.
(iv) Protection from diseases – (b) Cells devour germs.

Q2. Which cell organelle is the key to the life of cell ?


Ans. Mitochondria.

Q3. How do you say that a cell also has a life span and death like an
organism ? Give one example.
Ans. Yes, Cells also have a life span and death like organisms.
Example : Our body sheds skin regularly. This shows that cells also have life
span and death like organisms.

Q4. All organisms excrete. Does an individual cell also do it ? Give one
example.
Ans. Yes all individual cells excrete. Example : The cells present under the
skins excrete in the form of sweat.

Q5. Every organisms needs food. Does a cell also need it ? Explain
briefly.
Ans. Yes, all cells need food in order to repair, grow and carry out their life
activities. Th food we eat gets digested and reaches each and every cell and
gets used by the Mitochondria which releases energy stored in the food in the
form of ATP and ADP.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
A. Multiple Choice Questions :
Q1. Which one of the following cell organelles is correctly matched with
its functions ?
Ans. (a) Ribosomes – Synthesis of proteins.

Q2. All life starts as :


Ans. (b) a single cell.

Q3. Which one of these is found both in the cells of a mango plant and a
monkey ?
Ans. (d) Cell Membrane.

Q4. A plant cell can be identified from an animal cell by the :


Ans. (a) absence of centrosomes.

Q5. Plant cell has a cell wall made of :


Ans. c) Cellulose.

Q6. The cell organelle that helps in the respiration of the cell is :
Ans. (a) Mitochondria.

B. Very Short Answer Type


Q1. Name the Cell organelle concerned with the following :
(a) Liberation of Energy : Mitochondria.
(b) Synthesis of Proteins : Ribosomes.

c) Transmission of hereditary characters from parents to the offsprings :


Chromosomes.
(d) Initiation of cell division : Centrosome.
(e) Hydrolytic in function : Cell Wall.
(f) Entry of only certain substances in and out of the cell : Cell Membrane.
Q2. True or False.
(a) All animal cells contain a cell wall : False.
(b) The cell wall is made of proteins : False.
c) Centrosome occurs in animal cells : True.
(d) Plant cells contain large vacuoles : True.
(e) Protoplasm is the part of cell which surrounds the nucleus : False.
(f) Genes are located in Chromosomes : True.

(g) Anthocyanins are the pigments of the flowers, which are dissolved in
cell sap : True.

Q3. How many chromosome pairs are found in human cells ?


Ans. 23 Pairs.

Q4. What is the name of the chemical substances which constitutes the
genes ?
Ans. DNA.

Q5. Match the following :


Ans.
(a) Vacuoles – (iii) Covered by Tonoplasts.
(b) Nucleolus – (v) Forms RNA.
c) Lysosomes – (i) Intracellular digestion.
(d) Anthocyanin – (iv) Dissolved in the Cytoplasm.
(e) Cristae – (ii) Respiratory Enzymes.

Q6. Fill in the blanks.


(a) Lysosome consists of membranous sacs and secretes 40 types of
digestive enzymes.

(b) Centrosome is surrounded by microtubules, located near the nucleus.

c) Very thin flexible, living membrane which is differentially permeable,


is called Cell Membrane .

(d) More than 1000 chromosomes are found in the nucleus of certain
insects .

(e) Genes are hereditary units.

(f) Leucoplasts is a plastid which stores starch.

C. Short Answer Type


Q1. It is said that the protoplasm cannot be analysed chemically. Why ?
Ans. It is impossible to make an accurate chemical analysis of protein
because it ceases to be protoplasm as soon as it is removed from the
organism.

Q2. What is the difference between an organ and an organelle ?


Ans.
An organ :
a. It is present inside a body.
b. It is composed of millions of cell.
An Organelle :
a. It is present inside a cell.
b. It is not composed of cells but composed of some nutrients.
Q3. Do you think the cells of an elephant would be larger than the cells
of a rat ? Explain briefly.
Ans. No, the cells of an elephant are not larger than the cells of a rat, the
elephants just contains more number of cells than a rat.

Q4. Differentiate between the following pairs of terms.


(a) Protoplasm and Cytoplasm
Ans.
Protoplasm :-
(i) Area of the Protoplasm is more.
(ii) Protoplasm includes Cytoplasm, Nucleus and Cell Membrane.
Cytoplasm:-
(i) Area of the Cytoplasm is less.
(ii) Cytoplasm includes the area between the nucleus and the cell membrane.

(b) Nucleolus and Nucleus.


Ans.
Nucleolus :-
(i) It is present inside the nucleus.
(ii) Cells contain more than one nucleolus.
(iii) It is surrounded by Nucleoplasm.
Nucleus :-
(i) It is present inside the cell.
(ii) Cells contain only one nucleus.
(iii) It is surrounded by Cytoplasm.
c) Centrosome and Chromosome

Ans.
Centrosome :-
(i) It is present near the nucleus in the cytoplasm.
(ii) It helps in the initiation of Cell Division.
(iii) It is made of Centrioles.
Chromosome :-
(i) It is present inside the nucleus.
(ii) It helps in the transfer of the hereditary characters from the parents to the
offsprings.
(iii) It is made of Chromatin Fibres.

(d) Cell wall and Cell Membrane


Ans.
Cell Wall :-
(i) It is non living.
(ii) It is freely permeable.
(iii) It is made of Cellulose.
Cell Membrane :-
(i) It is living.
(ii) It is selectively permeable.
(iii) It is made of Lipoproteins.
(e) Plant cell and Animal cell
Ans.
Plant Cell :-
(i) Cell wall is present .
(ii) Plastid is present .
(iii) Centrosome is absent.
Animal Cell :-
(i) Cell Wall is absent.
(ii) Plastid is absent.
(iii) Centrosome is present.

(f) Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes


Ans.
Prokaryotes :-
(i) Nucleus is not well developed and defined.
(ii) A single length of deoxyribonucleic acid is present.
(iii) Small Ribosome.
Eukaryotes :-
(i) Well developed and defined nucleus with a nuclear membrane.
(ii) Several lengths of deoxyribonucleic acid is present.
(iii) Larger Ribosomes.

Q5. Mention three features found only in plant cells and one found only
in animal cells.
Ans.
Plant Cell :-
(i) Cell wall.
(ii) Plastid.
(iii) Vacuole.
Animal Cell :-

(i) Centrosome.
Q6. Why are the cells generally of small size ?
Ans. Cells generally remain small in size because of these two reasons :-
(i) All the regions of a cell can communicate with each other more rapidly
and efficiently so that the cell can work more effectively.
(ii) The presence of smaller cells in large number ensures more surface area
for the absorption of important nutrients and water.

D. Long Answer Type


Q1. What is the Cell Theory ? Who propounded it and when ?
Ans. The Cell Theory is a summary about cells that contains three points
which are true for all existing cells . The 3 points are :-
(i) The cell is the smallest unit of structure of all living organisms.
(ii) The cell is the basic unit of structural and functional unit of all living
organisms.
(iii) All cells arise from the pre-existing cells.
The parts of Cell theory was propounded by Matthias Schleiden in 1838,
Theoder Schwann in 1839 and Rudolf Virchow in 1858.
Q2. Mention any 3 differences between a living cell and a brick in a wall.
Ans.
Living Cell :-
(i) It is living.
(ii) It can work on its own.
(iii) A combination of many cells gives rise to organisms.
Brick :-
(i) It is non living.
(ii) It cannot work on its own as it is non living.
(iii) A combination of these can be used for building a wall and other non
living structures.

Q3. Name the plastids and the pigments that are likely to be found in :
(a) Petals of Sunflower
Ans. Chromoplast ; Xantophyll Pigment.

(b) Ripe Tomato


Ans. Chromoplast ; Carotene.

c) Skin of green mango.


Ans. Chloroplast ; Chlorophyll.

(d) Cells of Potato


Ans. Leucoplast ; No pigments are present.

Q4. State the major functions of the following :


(a) Plasma Membrane.
Ans. It is a protective membrane in the cells. It allows only useful substance
to enter and only waste substances to exit the cell.

(b) Ribosome.
Ans. They are small rounded bodies that are present on the surface of the
Endoplasmic Rericulum. They help in the synthesis of proteins.

c) Lysosome.
Ans. They are the suicide bags of the cell. They help in intracellular digestion
and the elimination of the foreign substances. Aftr the death of the cell, the
lysosome digests the cell.

(d) Mitochondria.
Ans. They are the Powerhouse of the cells. They help in the oxidation of the
food particles and the release of energy in the form of ATP.

(e) Golgi Apparatus.


Ans. They help in the synthesis and the secretion of enzymes, harmones etc.
They also help in the formation of acrosome of sperms.

(f) Cytoplasm.
Ans. It is the area between the nucleus and the cell membrane, it contains all
the cell organelles. All the cell activities take place inside it.

(g) Asters of centrosome.


Ans. These asters help in the formation of spindle fibres inside the
centrosome.

(h) Chromosomes.
Ans. They contain highly condensed chromatin fibres which helps in the
transfer of hereditary character in the form of DNA from the parents to the
offsprings.
(i) Glycogen Granule.
Ans. The glycogen granules are present in the cytoplasm and they store food
in the form of glycogen.

(j) Vacuoles.
Ans. They are the empty spaces present only in the plant cells. They store
water and some other substances. They also provide turgidity to the cell.

Q5. List any 6 feature found both in plant cells and animal cells.
Ans. (i) Nucleus
(ii) Cytoplasm
(iii) Cell or Plasma Membrane
(iv) Mitochondria
(v) Endoplasmic Reticulum
(vi) Ribosomes .

E. Structured/ Application/ Skill Type.


Q1. Given below are the sketches of two types of cells A and B.
(a) Which one of these is a plant cell ? Give reason in support of your
answer.
Ans. The cell B is a plant cell. The presence of Cell Walls and Vacuoles
prove it.

(b) List the cell structures which are common to both the cell types.
Ans.
(i) Nucleus
(ii) Cytoplasm
(iii) Cell Membrane
(iv) Mitochondria
(v) Ribosome
(vi) Endoplasmic Reticulum
(vii) Lysosome
(viii) Golgi Apparatus.

c) List the structures found only in the plant cells and those found only in
the animal cells.
Ans. Plant Cell :
(i) Cell Wall
(ii) Plastids
(iii) Vacuoles
Animal Cell :
(i) Centrosome.