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MATLAB Function jakes ralfunc(fm , fc , M, N0 , index)

Rayleigh Fading Process With Desired Doppler Spectrum

A widely used technique of simulating a fading radio channel is to construct a fading


signal from in-phase and quadrature-phase Gaussian noise sources. Since the envelope
of a complex Gaussian noise process has a Rayleigh probability density function (PDF),
the output of such a simulator will accurately model a Rayleigh fading process. In this
technique, the required Doppler spectrum (determined by the Doppler frequency of the
channel) should be provided by applying appropriate low-pass filtering to the Gaussian
noise sources. An alternative to modelling with filtered complex Gaussian noise is to
approximate the Rayleigh fading process by a sum of a set of complex sinusoids. A tech-
nique of this kind was proposed by William Jakes of Bell laboratories for the simulation
of fading mobile radio channels. This is known as the Jakes Model.

The MatLab function jakes ralfunc(fm , fc , M, N0 , index) provides a good approxima-


tion of a Doppler frequency limited Rayleigh fading process based on Jakes Model as a
tool for fading channel simulation.

where,

fm is the maximum Doppler frequency of the channel

fs is the sampling rate of the fading process

M is the number of samples of the fading process

N0 is the number of complex-sinusoids in the Jakes Model (N0 = 8 is good enough)

index is a value between 1 and N0 , giving N0 independent Rayleigh fading functions

The maximum Doppler frequency fm is related to the maximum vehicle speed vm by


fm = vm fc /c, where, fc is the RF carrier frequency and c is the speed of light.

Example Simulations:

Figure 1: vm is 80 km/hr and fc = 2 GHz

Figure 2: vm is 40 km/hr and fc = 2 GHz

Figure 3: vm is 10 km/hr and fc = 2 GHz

Simulation results obtained with jakes ralfunc(fm , fc , M, index) for the above cases are
given in the next page.

Chandra Athaudage, CUBIN (22/08/2002)

1
10

−10

fading (dB)
−20

−30

−40

−50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
time (ms)

Figure 1: vm is 80 km/hr and fc = 2 GHz

10

−10
fading (dB)

−20

−30

−40

−50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
time (ms)

Figure 2: vm is 40 km/hr and fc = 2 GHz

10

−10
fading (dB)

−20

−30

−40

−50
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
time (ms)

Figure 3: vm is 10 km/hr and fc = 2 GHz