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ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

Unit 2: Working With Your Sources

Disclaimer: Keep in mind that your research and interview report was ​preliminary​. Your sources may (and should) change based on
the interviewees’ responses and your preliminary analysis of the sources you located.

1. First Things First

Do we trust this journal: ​https://www.asrn.org/journal-nursing.html?issue=current​?

- No. Even though this source looks like it comes from a credible organization (the american society of registered nurses), the
group does not seem to go through the process of peer review for their publications and their articles appear very subjective.

2. Understanding Sources in Depth

a) Pre-reading:
● Skimming
● Scanning
● Annotation (highlights, underlining)
● Questions
● Predictions
● First impression

b) Close reading
● Section summaries
● Observations-inferences chart
● Questions in the margins (wh-questions)
● Annotation (highlights, underlining)
● Coding, e.g., ? = want to follow up, ! = interesting

c) Directed reading
● Review the information from a) and b) to describe the content, purpose, argument, approach/method, and usefulness
of the source in more depth (when completing #3 below, put this in a comment box at the end of the PDF).
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

3. Analyzing and Systematizing Your Findings

a) Save all sources as PDF.

b) For all sources, apply the reading framework above. Submit your annotated PDFs with this worksheet to D2L.
c) You should already have determined the source’s reliability and usefulness in the initial research report. Now analyze the
sources’ usefulness in more depth by listing them in the appropriate rows in two tables below. Be sure to analyze each source
in more depth (in addition to what you’ve already found out through the reading framework) by adding the respective
information to the two columns on the right-hand side.

As you complete #3: Keep in mind that each chapter should have a concise introduction of the topic and target audience:

● Explain who you’re addressing, what their situation and possible struggles are, and why they will likely benefit from the
resources you’ve compiled
● Provide an overview of the topic, why it is worth addressing, and how it intersects (negatively) with students’ academic work
and careers. You may want to define terms or delineate the topic’s scope, provide a historical overview, address recent
developments and trends, or expected changes.

a) Scholarly sources ​that provide a broad ​overview​ of the topic and audience: ​Tommy

Type of source Cite your source Scope, purpose, and Your evaluation:
method/approach (common ● Does the source
Duplicate rows below as instruments: experiments, establish a sound
necessary surveys/ questionnaires background of the
observations, interviews) research or argument (lit
● If it is a research article,
is the method sound and
● Are the findings/
argument presented
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

● Will you be able to report

on the study/article in
clear and understandable
● Rhetorical appeals (see
Quantitative research with a Dusselier, L., Dunn, B., The researcher set out to The paper establishes a
sufficiently large sample size Wang, Y., Shelley iI, M. C., & analyze factors of stress in clear understanding and
Whalen, D. F. (2005). students living in residence explanation of stress.
Personal, health, academic, halls using a 76 item The method is sound and
and environmental predictors qualitative survey which he clear. It explains it as a 76
of stress for residence hall then developed into question qualitative survey.
students. ​Journal of quantitative data set. This They then assign binary 1’s
American college health​, resulted in a major set of risk and 0’s to create a scale for
54(​ 1), 15-24. factors for students as a quantitative testing.
whole and at-risk groups for The findings are presented in
stress. a table with clearly labeled
values and headers.
Qualitative research in one
or similar contexts
Review articles (of published
research or literature)

b) Scholarly or popular sources ​that can support your argument by highlighting ​specific cases​:

Type of source Cite your source Scope, purpose, and Your evaluation:
method/approach (common ● Does the source
Duplicate rows below as instruments: observations, establish a sound
necessary interviews) background of the
research or argument (lit
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

● If it is a research article,
is the method sound and
● Are the findings/
argument presented
● Will you be able to report
on the study/article in
clear and understandable
● Rhetorical appeals (see
below, esp. for non-peer
reviewed inquiries)

Qualitative case study

● Popular source ● Counseling ● This is a wikipedia ● This source provides

Psychology. (2019, article, the author’s a background on
February 19) purpose is to give a counseling
Retrieved from general information psychology. The
https://en.wikipedia.or about counseling method is sound and
g/wiki/Counseling_ps psychology, the clear and is divided
ycholog​y article focuses on into sections based
almost everything on the topic. The
regarding the topic findings are
from its history to presented clearly with
counseling general information
relationship and and not in deep. The
research methods. article is very useful
and will help us
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

● Popular source ● Sessums, C.D. ● The author of this ● This source provides
(2018, June 11). How article main idea is to general information
to Retain give people a general about Non-traditional
Non-Traditional idea of what and who students that gives a
First-Generation the non-traditional very good
College Students. first-generation background about the
Retrieved from students are. It topic. This source is a
https://www.d2l.com/ focuses on why this one page short
blog/student-success topic matters. source but provides
-supporting-non-tradit the argument clearly
ional-first-generation- and will help us
college-students/ understand and
report the case
clearly. Visual
illustration is provided
to make sense of the
topic and help us get
a clear and simple
image of the topic.
● Scholarly source Hunt, J., M.D.,M.S., & Discusses the state The source provides general
Eisenberg, D., Ph.D. (2010, of mental health for information about mental
January). Mental Health college students. The health problems that college
Problems and Help-Seeking depression rate for students are having. The
Behavior Among College college students has information presented is
Students. Retrieved March increased due to clear and makes sense to
12, 2019, from stress or work what our topic is about. I
overload. This shows would say it would apply to
us what college ethos and pathos because
students are going the work has credibility and
/fulltext through everyday. provide clarity to the
● Scholarly source Tello, A. M., & Lonn, M. R. Describes the role of The source provides general
(2017, October 1). The Role counsellors and information about
of High School and College helping first counsellors and one of their
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

Counselors in Supporting the generation students. roles is to help first

Psychosocial and Emotional Students that are not generation students get use
Needs of Latinx use to college should to the college life and how it
First-Generation College reach out to any of all works. Even though it
Students. Retrieved March the colleges may be broad, it was difficult
12, 2019, from resources to get help. to find scholarly articles or
http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.ez journals that relate to the
topic without paying for a
subscription. I would
consider it ethos and pathos
=19&sid=20e723e8-0901-4a just like the last source
25-91 because it highlights some of
the information we need but
not all of it.
Non-peer reviewed inquiries
(editor-reviewed, blogs, etc)

Refer to CH6 in TC for acceptable research procedures

Keep in mind that the sources should be rhetorically sound:
o Ethos: Does the source establish credibility (credentials, expertise, objectivity, examples/details, clarity,
o Pathos: Does the source appeal successfully to the audience’s emotions (relatability, compassion)?
o Logos: Does the source appeal to logic (structure, presentation, clarity, sound argument and approach, convincing,

stance, positionality
4. Citing Your Sources (summary, quotation, paraphrase)​ ​Chris

a) The way you present sources says something about how you align yourself with the original source/author(s). What are the
differences between these types of citations:
● I agree with Miller (2000) regarding…
i. Phrasing the citation this way displays your opinion of someone else’s work. This separates the author from
yourself and is a good way of appearing objective about the source.
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

● Miller (2000) argues…

i. This is used in many news articles. The reason is because it presents the citation as if telling a story. This
makes it seem like the citation is simply being presented, without the expectation that an opinion will be
● Miller (2000) writes…
i. Similar to the previous phrasing, but this version focuses more on what was written rather than the specific
● Only a few teachers use a genre-based approach in their writing classes because “[g]enre is not widely understood by
instructors” (Miller, 2000, p. 5).
i. This is the method used in essays because it fits the citation into the writing in a seamless way that is used to
support the writer’s argument.

b) What reporting verbs or phrases do you use when you…

simply report facts or what someone else has said Miller (2000) says, Miller (2000) reports

carefully weigh different arguments Miller (2000) argues, Miller (2000) suggests

make claims based on experience or data Miller (2000) shows, Miller (2000) proves

make claims that you believe are true but cannot fully Miller (2000) thinks, Miller (2000) supports the idea that,
support Miller (2000) claims

question another author or source Miller (2000) questions, Miller (2000) proposes

disagree with another author or source Miller (2000) rejects, Miller (2000) challenges the idea that

agree with another author or source Miller (2000) agrees that, Miller (2000) supports the idea that

c) Revisit Pullan, 2009 and Dusselier, 2005. What is the authors’ stance, respectively?

- Pullan (2009) believes that technology has increased the capacity to teach students, but support is still needed. Additionally,
they note the vast difference between modern college students versus college students from past generations. These include:
ENGL 308-1-3 SP19 Vogel

doing instead of knowing, multitasking and staying connected. Finally, they suggest institutional change to meet the needs of
the learners and further research is needed to identify these needs.
- summary, page 248
- Dusselier (2005) thinks that women and US citizens experienced greater stress than men and international students. Other
noted predictors of stress were conflicts with roommates or faculty members. Finally, alcohol use was a positive predictor of
stress, while drug use was a negative predictor.
- abstract, first page, comments, limitations

d) What stance will you project when synthesizing the sources in the beginning of the chapter?

- When synthesizing sources in the beginning of the chapter, we plan on being as neutral as possible. We will present
information as objective opinions and avoid appearing subjective. We will use reporting verbs that weigh different arguments
and make claims that we believe are true but cannot prove.

e) Given the task you have to complete for the guide chapters (introduce topic and audience, then present resources), what
form(s) of source integration will you likely use for the different components and why?
● Introduction of audience and topic: for the introduction, we want to give an overview of the topic and present sources
in a way that gives an argument. The reason is because we will not provide our reasons for why the sources are
important, so we will use reporting verbs that present information without seeming to take a stance.
● Presentation of resources: When we get into the presentation of the sources, we will have more space to present our
reasons for using the sources and we can use reporting verbs that are less neutral to emphasize our points.