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INTERNSHIP REPORT

MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF COMMERCE

DEPARTMENT OF RETAIL AND LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT

WORK RELATED LEARNING FINAL REPORT

NAME: SOLOMON JOSEPH

SURNAME: SHOKO

REG: R169475H

ORGANISATION: DHL INTERNATIONAL

(GLOBALFORWARDING)

LEVEL : 3.2

MODE OF ENTERY : CONVENTIONAL


2019
PERIOD : 2 JULY 2018 – 31 JULY 2019

 This report was written in partial fulfillment of the Bachelor of Commerce Honors’
Degree in Retail and Logistics Management attachment done at DHL International

Email: Shokosolomon2@gmail.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abbreviations …………………………………………………………...……i
Terms of reference ………………………………………………………...…ii
Foreword …………………………………………………………….....……iii
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………….....…iv
Executive summary ………………………………………………….....……v
CHAPTER 1
Historical Background……………………………………………………......7
Location............................................................................................................8
Vision, Mission Statement and Core Values....................................................9
CHAPTER 2
Nature of industry............................................................................................12
Service characteristics of DHL........................................................................13
Target market....................................................................................................14
CHAPTER 3
Organisational structure....................................................................................18
CHAPTER 4
Departments were Work Related Learning is being undertaken......................27
CHAPTER 5
Special Opportunities........................................................................................31
CHAPTER 6
Swot Analysis..................................................................................................39
Success and Challenges of DHL.......................................................................42
CHAPTER 7
Audience’s Perception…………………………………………………..........46
CHAPTER 8
Difference between Theory studied and Work experienced.............................47
Conclusion and recommendations.....................................................................49
Reference List....................................................................................................53

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Abbreviations

DGF – DHL Global Forwarding

ZIMRA- Zimbabwe Revenue Authority

ASYCUDA- Automated System for Customs Data

PE – Physical Examination

TIP- Temporary Import Permit

CVG- Commercial vehicle guarantee

CONDEP- Container Depot

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FOREWORD

The industrial attachment provides an opportunity to link the theoretical skills the student
possesses and reflect on its significance in the real working environment .Therefore this
report was crafted to inform the industrial liaison officer as well as other important Faculty
stakeholders on the industrial attachment of the student. With the bit to fulfil the departmental
needs, this report was compiled in the partial fulfilment degree programme Bachelor of
Commerce in Retail and Logistics Management Honours Degree. As part of the learning
journey at Midlands State University, it is mandatory that students should go for work related
learning for the whole of third year of their four year degree programme.

Work related learning breeds the cooperation between the University and the corporate world
in developing a good human resource base which is the goal of most universities; this is so
because it gives the University (MSU) the opportunity to acquire feedback on the relevance
and feasibility of degree program through constant visitation by the supervising lecturers. For
the work related learning, the author is attached at DHL Global Forwarding under multi
clearing department.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost I would like to express my thanks to God because of His love and strength
that He has given to me to finish this logbook as my internship report. I do thank for His
blessings to my daily life, good health, healthy mind and good ideas.
This internship report is important to fulfil part of the programme criteria that is a
requirement to fulfil the Bachelor Program in Retail and Logistics Management at Midlands
State University. I know that there are still many lacks of arranging this report even when
doing my job training and I thank to those who have supported me to perform the job training
up to carrying out this report. Hereby I want to give my special thanks to;

* Special thanks to "DHL Global Forwarding" for giving me an opportunity to learn and
get a real work experience.

* BBG DGF team- special thanks to their excellence in supervision and devotion to inspire
me during my internship. Without their untiring assistance, direction, encouragement,
comments, suggestions, continuous guidance, support, ideas and constructive criticism
throughout this internship, this internship program could not be well.

* HRLM lecturers - my beloved lecturers, for their kindness, advice, knowledge, patience,
and time to teach me to be more confident person that I am going to use in work world.
* Friends and family- Special thanks to all my friends and family for sharing their
experiences, time and commitment especially during finishing this internship program. I am
grateful because I have a lot of friends who were helpful and supportive to me throughout the
course of completing the internship program.

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TERMS OF REFERENCE

This report is prepared in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Commerce


Honours Degree in Retail Logistics Management (MSU), as is required of every 3rd year
student.

The University requires that one undergo a yearlong industrial attachment in order to acquire
industrial knowledge and experience in a bid to bridge the gap between the theory learnt in
class prior to attachment and the actual corporate practice, and to prepare one for the life
ahead after school.

The objectives of the report:

 To describe the company that the student is attached to i.e. background, scope of
activities, management structure, company policy and objectives
 To describe in full detail the core activities done during attachment i.e. job position,
department based, other departments visited, duties & responsibilities and to indicate the
interrelationship among staff in various departments.
 To relate this valuable experience gained to the theory provided at the University.
 To uphold the University’s principles of knowledge, diligence and integrity.
 And finally to come up with a comprehensive attachment report.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This is the internship report based on the one year long internship program that I had
successfully completed at DHL Global Forwarding under Customs Clearing Division from
02.07.2019 to 31.07.2019 as a requirement of my BBA program on Department of Retail and
Logistics management, MSU University. As being completely new to practical, corporate
world setting, every hour spent at DHL gave me some amount of experience all the time all
of which cannot be explained in words. But nevertheless, they were all useful for my career.

This report includes how DGF works, what are the possible divisions and work distribution in
the customs department, clearing, duty calculating, how Physical examination is conducted
and Bonds management.

My personal views about the DHL, my value addition to the DGF are also included in the
report. With limited knowledge and experience I tried my best to make this report as much
understandable as possible and translated the real world experience into a document.

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CHAPTER 1

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF DHL

Just a few months after Neil Armstrong took the first step on the moon; Adrian Dalsey, Larry
Hillblom and Robert Lynn in San Francisco take a step destined to alter the global economy:
In 1969, they founded the company DHL - the three letters stand for the initials of their last
names.

Their new business idea formed the cornerstone for a globally operating enterprise. At first,
the company founders personally transported cargo documents from San Francisco to
Honolulu by plane. This made it possible to begin customs processing of a ship's cargo before
the actual arrival of the shipment, thereby significantly reducing waiting times in the harbor.

Customers saved a great deal of time as a result. The founding of DHL also represented the
creation of a new sector of industry: international air express service - rapid transport of
documents and cargo papers by plane.

DHL expanded its network at high speed. Following expansion in the Far East and in the
Pacific Rim (1971), DHL also began offering services in Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and
Australia (1972) and later in Europe (1974), Latin America (1977), the Middle East and
Africa (1978).IN1980 DHL expanded into many new territories. Service Centers were set up
in the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Chile, Curacao, Dominican Republic, Trinidad &
Tobago, Uruguay, Bangladesh, China, India, Sri Lanka, Austria, Ivory Coast and Zimbabwe.

The organization is now so large that it is re-structured into regions, linked by a


telecommunications network.

DHL International started operating in Zimbabwe in 1980 opening its two most divisions
namely DHL Express and DHL Global Forwarding.

DHL Express is a division which provides international courier, parcel, and express
mail services. This division deals with the online tracking of shipments using different
waybill numbers automatically generated using DHL Express system. It also provides door to
door deliveries to the customers.

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DHL Global Forwarding (DGF) is a division of DHL International which commenced its
operations in Zimbabwe in 1980. The company’s core business is Freight forwarding and
Customs Clearing. DGF has offices at Harare international airport, Beitbridge border post,
Chirundu border post, Forbes boder post, Nyamapanda border and at Victoria Falls.

LOCATION OF DHL BEITBRIDGE

COMPANY LOGO AND CORPORATE IDENTITY

The company Head Office is located at Lot 2 Arlington Estate Harare with close proximity to
the airport and bonded warehouse, the offices are strategically positioned in that they catch
the eye of potential customers who may be in route to collect their cargo from the Aviation
Ground Services, thereby making its location accessible to a larger clientele base. Its location
has afforded the company more clearing opportunities. With visibility and accessibility a part
of the indicators of good location, the company’s head office is not only easily accessible due
to well maintained roads and close proximity to the Airport road, but, is visible to those who
may be in search of it. An aerial view of the location of the head office can be found below

SATELITE LOCATION OF DHL BEITBRIDGE

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PHYSICAL ADDRESS
DHL Beitbridge
21A Hagelthorn Rd
Beitbridge CBD
Beitbridge
Tel: (028)22888/22791
Email: beitbridgedhl@yahoo.com

The company has set up its branches at Zimbabwe’s main ports of entry namely Beitbridge
Border Post, Forbes Border Post, Chirundu Border Post and Nyamapanda Border Post. This
enables the company to do customs clearance and inspections in a more effective way. In
order to cater for warehousing needs, the company has secured a warehouse in close
proximity to the Central Business District. The table below gives detail to the addresses of the
location of the above mentioned premises.

VISION, MISSION STATEMENT AND CORE VALUES

The vision
To be the logistics company for the world (Die post fur Deutschland)
The mission
Excellence .simply delivered
Core values
To deliver excellent quality
To make our customer successful
To foster openness
To act according to clear priorities
To act in an entrepreneurial way
To act with integrity internally and externally
To accept social responsibilities

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HOW THE COMPANY PLANS TO ACHIEVE THE MISSION:
 Ensuring stability and positive success of business through maintaining a profitable
network and earnings per share.
 The ability to craft a unique operating environment that rewards achievement, through
the out classing of competitors and returning clients.
 A professional organization able to maintain local initiative and local decision making
while working together within a currently managed network that enhances feedback.
 Steadily improving state of the art worldwide information network for customer
billing, tracking and management of information and communications through the
cyber space.
 Employees’ competences thus enhancing delegation of work and decentralization of
decision making. This has also been made easy by the training and development
programmes.
 Equal-distribution of resources consistent with the recognition that we are one
worldwide business, for instance distribution of stationary and packing flyers and
Jumbo Boxes.
 Customer satisfaction through the absolute dedication towards customer needs and
wants taking into account the changes in their needs .This has been witnessed through
an increase in the service offered by the organization.

OBJECTIVES OF DHL
Motivate people
DHL guiding principal includes motivating people. DHL maintains a motivating environment
for its employees through offering social activities that engage employees to be motivated for
example DHL Africa Soccer match tournament. DHL also initiates feedback where by the
employees are given the platform to say matters that affect their productivity and also welfare
.As a result DHL has managed to be an employer of choice and has managed to provide
specialized certified service.
Provide great service
With highly motivated workforce great service is provided .DHL has managed to provide
great service by continuous access to information network for customer billing, tracking and

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management of information and communications .Maintaining great service as helped DHL
to acquire a large market share in the world of Supply Chain.
Create loyal customers
Having an ability to craft a unique operating environment that rewards achievement and
offering simplified service has made DHL maintain returning clients. Customer satisfaction
through the absolute dedication towards customer needs and wants taking into account the
changes in their needs resulted in customer loyalty. DHL continuously seek ways to increase
returning customers.
Profitable network
Maintaining profitable networks is one of the objectives that DHL emphasis .This is done
through ensuring equal-distribution of resources consistent with the recognition that we are
one worldwide business, for instance distribution of stationary and packing flyers and Jumbo
Boxes among DHL stations in different regions worldwide.

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CHAPTER 2

NATURE OF INDUSTRY

DGF: The clearing and forwarding industry is run mainly by the customs clearing agents and
freight forwarders. Clearing agents help the freight forwarders at the at the Zimbabwean port
of entry by registering entries and get the duties paid prior the arrival at the Border all the
duties charged by ZIMRA are settled through the agent .Freight Forwarders contract with a
carrier to move the goods. A forwarder does not move goods but act as an expert in the
Supply chain management. A forwarder gets into deals with transporters to move cargo
ranging from raw agricultural products to manufactures goods. Freight can be booked on of
shipping providers, including ships, airplanes, trucks and railroads. It is not unusual for a
single shipment to move on multiple carrier types but not out weighing the possibility.
International freight forwarders have additional expertise in preparing and processing
customs and other documentation and performing activities pertaining to international
shipments also known as removable in transit (RIT).Information typically reviewed by a
freight forwarder includes the commercial invoice, shippers export declaration bill of lading,
export bill of entry and other documents required by the carrier or country of export, import
or transshipment. Due to improvement in technology much of this information is now
processed via the ZIMRA Asycuda world system.

Express: The courier industry unlike clearing is a specialized industry where an individual
chooses to pay a premium for sending goods via a company or individuals who then pursue
the delivery of parcels and goods to prearranged destinations ranging from domestic to
international. With the onset of globalization the courier industry is rapidly growing and
many companies are competing for a greater percentage of the market share due to the
attractiveness of the industry, its profitability at large.

Players in the courier business vary from one to another as capital recourses are the key
determinant of service quality. Depending on the amount of capital and resources a company
has, they conduct operations on different spectrums of the industry. They can either have
operations within a city, between cities, regional, national and in the extreme end of the
spectrum on a global scale. Some of the largest companies in the courier industry in
Zimbabwe are DHL, SWIFT, FedEx and ZIMPOST.

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SERVICE CHARACTERISTICS OFFERED AT DHL

DHL International offers quite a number of services in both DHL Express and DHL Global
forwarding. These include:

A) DHL Global Forwarding

i. Customs clearance - this involves preparation and submission of


documentations required to facilitate exports or imports into the country,
representing client during customs examination, assessment, payment of duty
and co taking delivery of cargo from customs after clearance along with
documents.
ii. Freight Forwarding - The Company moves all types of cargo of any volume
and magnitude by air, road, rail and sea through our global network of agents
worldwide.
iii. Airfreight – we move from small parcels to palletized and bulk cargo.
Airfreight import forwarding Airfreight export forwarding Airfreight clearing
Local deliveries
iv. Ocean Freight – 20ft , 40ft and uncontainerised cargo ,Full container loads
(20ft and 40ft containers),Less than container loads ( uncontainerised
cargo),Ocean freight clearing, Transit shipments, Local deliveries
v. Road freight – Full loads and consolidations to and from the region and
within Zimbabwe.

• Road freight import forwarding


• Road freight export forwarding
• Road freight deliveries
• Transit movements by road

• Warehousing – DHL have warehousing facilities at Harare Airport – Cargo
Village. This is one of the safest warehouses considering security of the
airport environment.

B) DHL Express

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i. Courier delivery – DHL participates in courier delivery of different shipments
to its customers. They do deliver door to door at different destinations as
assigned by the customer.
ii. International shipping – DHL is able to send shipments of different sizes and
weights across the globe. It operates in more than 220 countries so they can
deliver anywhere
iii. Domestic shipping - DHL offers express services within the country they are
operating with a variety of DHL delivery options: from emergency same day
through guaranteed time-critical next day to less urgent day certain delivery
options.. All these options attract different charges.
iv. Tracking – DHL offers online tracking services of all their customers’
shipments. Each shipment has a unique den digit waybill number that is
generated electronically. Customers can track their shipments using such
numbers and have the knowledge on what position the shipments will be.

DHL TARGET MARKET AND CHARACTERISTICS

DHL operates in the logistics industry with a variety of customers and competition from other
big logistics companies. DHL’s target market includes big companies, SME’s , banks, schools
and individuals that want to send packages, documents, cargo and all sort of shipments to both
domestic and international destinations around the world. The company operates on their vision
“Becoming the World's Largest Logistics Company”. They want to serve the whole world
and currently they are operating in more than 220 countries and employing more than 350 000
employees.

DHL Market Strategy.

Segmentation strategies are more critical to DHL Company. They rely on demographic and
geographic segmentation since they deal with varied types of customers’ profiles around the
globe. Demographic segmentation is- geographic segmentation is

Through using market segmentation DHL enjoys the following benefits:

i. Focus of the company - Segmentation is an effective method to increase the focus of


a firm on market segments. DHL believes that If you have better focus, obviously you
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will have better business. Numerous companies have started focusing on small
segments. This is nothing else but a company changing its focus for better returns.
Thus companies base their strategy completely on a new segment which increases its
focus and profitability.
ii. Increase in competitiveness - Naturally, once your focus increases,
your competitiveness in that market segment will increase. For example If you are
focusing on youngsters, your brand recall and equity with youngsters will be very
high. Thus DHL market share might increase and the chances of a new competitors
entering might be low. The brand loyalty will definitely increase. Thus market
segmentation also increases competitiveness of a firm from a holistic view.
iii. Market expansion – DHL uses Geographic segmentation which is one type of
segmentation where expansion is immediately possible. If you have your market
strategy on the basis of geography, then once you are catering to a particular territory,
you can immediately expand to a nearby territory. Segmentation plays a crucial role
in expansion. You cannot expand in a territory when you have no idea of which
segment of customers you will be meeting. DHL knows a lot of characteristics of its
targeted segments.
iv. Customer retention - By using segmentation, Customer retention can be encouraged
through the life cycle of a customer.
v. Has better communication - Thus if you need a target market, you need
segmentation. Communication cannot be possible without knowing your target
market. DHL can easily communicate with its customers.
vi. Increase profitability - Segmentation increases competitiveness, brand recall, brand
equity, customer retention and communications. Thus if it is affecting so many factors
of their business, then definitely it affects the profitability of the firm. They are in fact
targeting segments which have no need of bargaining or negotiation Thus their
profitability is high.

In summary – The major advantages of segmentation lie in the fact that by targeting the right
segment, is that the company experienchigher profitability.

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Clients of DHL

DHL is currently servicing a list of big clients both local and international including Total,
First Pack, Sabot, Masiya Business Solutions (MBS), Sediba clearing, RDM clearing and
logistics, China United, Billtrans, CBZ, FBC, ZIMRA, First Capital Bank etc and all other
individuals and small companies. The following illustration shows the extensive range of the
agency’s clients:

DHL Global Forwarding major clients

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DHL Express major clients

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CHAPTER 3

DHL has different departments for maintaining its operations. The complete organization
hierarchy is illustrated below.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE FOR DHL

The job at a glance


The job that the student was offered at DHL International was the position of Intern under
DGF department. DGF is a department of DHL which facilitates the clients offering customs
clearing and forwarding. It was a 12 month long internship program. At DGF Digital
department, all the team members had to work the whole week divided among two shifts.
Like other team members, he also had to work double shifts depending on special
arrangements at work. Off-days were a week long. On-the-job training was provided and
sometimes and he was privileged to attend some of the special workshops. The author had
another intern co-worker with him. The remuneration was according to the organization’s

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policy, some other facilities included transportation allowances and groceries allowances
were also provided.

Responsibilities and Description of the job

This part includes all the responsibilities and detailed description of duties the author had to
do during internship period.

Client-servicing: This task was compulsory to any employee in the organisation. The
customer is always at the heart of DHL. I was able to answer and assist to the clients
enquiries both on the phone calls and when they are at our offices with reliable information.
Some days l would be assigned to work at the reception.

Team Work: At DHL, employees are one team. So team-work is really very significant
which needs good working relationship. Intra-relationship as well as Inter-relationship is
really important in an organization which I understood nicely working here at DGF. While
making good relationship with other teams, it was not a challenge for me. We used to have a
Performance dialog board where all of our daily targets were set and productivity measured.
All was to be archived through working with others and completing ones assigned tasks
accordingly as others.

Departments in which Work Related Learning is being undertaken

The induction of the student started on the 5TH of July on commencing the industrial
attachment. The induction process lasted for a week and the student was already performing
various tasks assigned to him. The student participated in the following departments at DGF:

Customs Department

This department operates under DGF department (customs procedures department). This
department provides customs clearance procedures of shipments between DHL and ZIMRA.
They clear Transit shipments (RIT) and Consumption shipments. Customs department duties
include Bill of entry framing, Customs physical examination (PE), Form 45, CVG writing
and Entry turning around. The Customs department makes sure that all the goods are declared
in their correct amounts and tariff to ZIMRA to avoid penalties and fines. This department
uses the ZIMRA ASYCUDA WORLD system to register entries by filling the Form 21(Bill
of entry) in the boxes provided. After the registration the docs are assessed, the bill of entry

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printed and submitted for release orders to ZIMRA. In this department this is where most of
the clearing process is being done.

Bonds Department

Duties of the Bonds department comprise of Exit reports, Departure validations,


Cancellations and Acquittals. This department is concerned with export entries from
Zimbabwe that are exiting Zimbabwe and going to countries for example South Africa, DRC,
Zambia and Mozambique. Bonds department ensures goods in transit (RITs) are to have
reached the port of exit within three days given by ZIMRA officers when the load departs
from the port of entry. If breakdowns and delays in notifications for the trucks occur during
transit, the bonds department should report to ZIMRA to avoid paying late fines. They also
make sure that the RITs have acquitted in the system whenever the shipment passes through
the port of exit for example Chirundu border post if the shipment is going to DRC. Bonds
department also carries out Cancellations. Entries are cancelled on conditions that the
shipment could not come through because of different reasons, also there is duplication of the
same shipment by one agent and also by two different agents clearing one shipment.

Administration Department
Administration department is concerned with effective coordination of skills, document
handling and communication within DHL and with its external stakeholders. Administration
is responsible with providing internal and external communication. Administration
department handles the filing of paper work, invoicing, purchase requisitions, receiving
entries from clients, referencing new entries, posting updates and answering all queries from
customers. This department deals with the DHL Express, processing and tracking of
consignments both domestic and international while using the online platform.
Administration also does application of permits for both local and transit cargo.

FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS


SALES AND MARKETING DEPAERMENT

Business success is highly dependent on the abilities and efforts put by the foundation of
every business is on its ability to bring together a pool of potential buyers sufficient enough
to enhance profitability, therefore this department ensures that the company is well equipped

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with clients that help meet up the objective of creating profitable networks, and they also
ensure that all the requirements of the clients are well met at all times. It also maintains the
quality of a product and service and makes sure that there is hybrid and aesthetic orientation
to all self service technologies:

 Conduct market on all the services that clients require from the company thus
helping serve clients comprehensively at a profit
 Collect feedback from clients on all service delivery
 Lucrative product promotions that are meant to lure more customers and in this case
the department provides discounted export rates on all exports and imports.
 Make arrangement of pick-ups of all local and international shipments on behalf of
the clients
 Launching of new products in the market
 Building, managing and creating a strong company brand name by providing clients
with well detailed information
 Explores target markets which are viable enough to enhance a profitable network.
 Maintaining long term relationship with clients through the use of electronic
customer relationship management and credit sale facility

CUSTOMER SERVICE DEPARTMENT

The customer is the king and customer needs must be taken with priority. At DHL this
department is closely linked to the sales and marketing team therefore these two departments
is responsible for updates and fulfilment of customer requirements with the aim to enhance
retention and client satisfaction in a well and efficient manner, Areas covered include:

 Provides customized service call centre which provides updates on shipment status
and pick up on delivery
 Tracking and tracing of consignments to view the origin, current status of cargo and
expected time of arrival at the prescribed destination.
 Keep track of all client payments so that they can facilitate clearance after
verification with finance departments
 Provide customers with some supply chain solutions like the cheapest routes and
suppliers thus mainly to new clients

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 Provide clients with real time updates on all customs clearance proceeding so that the
client is always updated
 Shipment collection and release – the department is responsible for collection of
shipment from the warehouse pending their collection by consignee or delivery

HUMAN RESOURCES DEPARTMENT

This department specializes with the human capital well being in the organization to enhance
goal attainment. The Human resources preach mostly the word of motivation where they
ensure all the workers are highly motivated be it financial and non financial motivation.
Annually the department conducts performance appraisal where they evaluate with
authentication on the contribution of human capital in relation to set goals .It is also the duty
of the HR to make sure that all the company departments are fully provided with resources
required in the day to day running of the business Some of the duties of the HR are as
follows:

 Recruitment and selection


 Compensation and benefits
 Induction of employees
 Running of payroll wages
 Provision of e-learning programs
 Training and re-training programs
 Performance appraisals
 Safety and wellness of employees
 Employee resourcing
 Record of all overtimes

CLEARING DEPARTMENT

This is the back bone of all departments as it is the capital generating department that
provides the organization with amicable annual revenues department works with the
Zimbabwe Revenue Authority to facilitate the customs clearance of shipments before they
can be released to the clients. Through the use of the Asycuda the departments provide clients
with the following:

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 Negotiate with the queries department on fines considering the prejudice the error on
declaration had.
 Keep track of all assessment details after registrations so that they can facilitate for
the release of shipments from the warehouse
 Issue commercial vehicle guarantees to transporters which is valid for use to all ports
of exit
 Entry registrations by ensuring all declarations are lodged with the ZIMRA system so
that they can be assessed and authenticated for release.
 Physical examinations (PE) they cross check every consignment when requested to
do so by ZIMRA to assess if they is a mismatch between the cargo and those on the
packing list and the declared goods.
 Duty calculations – they make use of the Customs and Excise Act tariff handbook to
classify all the items on the invoice apportioning the respective duty and V.A.T rates
for every consignment

FINANCE DEPARTMENT

This department is a responsible for all company cash flows., The DHL finance department is
centrally located in Harare headed by a team of very skilled personnel who are governed by a
common goals of cost reduction but with a high revenue generation. Some of the daily
activities of the department include the following.

 Providing management information(transparency) through the publishing of financial


reports monthly to the internal workers and annually other stake holders in enhances
the setting of personal, departmental, branch and country targets
 Management of expenses incurred by the company stations both the courier and
clearing expenses, these expenses range from telephone bills, lighting, water, rentals,
grocery fuels only to mention a few, Department heads will forward the list of
expenses monthly to the head office.
 Managing client accounts through opening , maintaining and tracking of payments on
all such accounts that clients have opened with DHL for their shipments, Example of
companies that are DHL account holders include CBZ,FBC,BARCLAYS,ZIMRA
,FBC only to mention a few.

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 Record keeping of all of revenue transactions that are made between company
branches and clients be it clearing or courier transfer action .Transaction either done
manually or electronically should without failure be accounted for by the finance
department.
 Facilitate the banking of all the money that would have been received as cash on a
daily basis and book keeping of daily deposit slips sent by every DHL branch
monthly.
 Managing the petty cash- disbursement and re-imbursement of money, they maintain
all receipts of transaction for reconciliations of the petty cash
 Making sure that all duties received from clients are pursued into the Zimra account
this done by generating Zimra Y numbers which are then paid against. The payment
can be direct or through the Zimra CBZ account.
 The department is also responsible for the internal presentation of company cash
inflows and out flows to measure progress. This is done quarterly and annually.

The purchasing department has is off spring that if run under the same mandate with
that of the Finance department at this is known as the Procurement department.

PROCUREMENT DEPARTMENT
 Purchasing of Company resources
 Evaluation of purchase orders according to the requirements provided by different
organizational departments
 Sourcing suppliers through electronic mail
 Analyzing costs as per quotations provided or faxed by different suppliers
 Making follow ups on payments from clients.
 Filing of requisitions used in preparing purchasing orders

OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT

This department like the clearing department forms the back bone of DHL as they are the two
capital generation wings that must be without failure kept running on daily basis,In this case
the operations department is a specialist in the courier service operations and they are divided

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into two main categories namely the Inbound shipment and Outbound shipment, Below are
the activities done in each of the categories:

Inbound Shipments:

 Recovery of inbound material and scanning detail into the global network for real
time updating pending clearance
 Delivery of shipments to clients’ door step only those with physical address of
recipients
 Acquitting of delivery details into the system for closing of all files to enhance
tracking.
 Keeping record of damaged shipments, short landed shipments, keeping track of
failed delivery and un reachable clients.

Outbound Shipments:

 Picking up of all shipments from clients’ doorstep to the DHL warehouse pending
clearance and dispatch of shipments
 Reweighing of shipment so that correct information is used when processing export
documentation to avoid mistakes.
 Labelling of shipments of all the handling details that will guard on the handling of
the parcel to avoid damages for example stickers of extremely fragile goods.
 Inspection of all shipments ensuring that it has been addressed to the right person and
right destination to avoid re route and inconveniencies

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT

This is the smallest but the fast growing department at DHL as the constant improvements in
technology has called for companies to invest much into the department for speedy service
delivery and good customer service that will enhance retention. DHL is one of the logistics
companies with the highest investments in the IT department as most of its services are
internet and system related for example the DHL connect used for shipments and the ZIMRA
asycuda system used in the clearing department. Some of the activities done by the
department include:

 Training employees on usage and maintenance of computer software and hardware

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 Managing network connections and processing data flow
 Software programming and development ,this department ensures that the software
used by the company are up to date and efficient enough so they research and devise
new software that are to be used for example the DHL entry report used for the
automatic recording of trucks cleared a day and possible profits
 Installation and repairs of all computer software and hardware

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CHAPTER FOUR

Work roles, tasks and responsibilities of the work experience.

CUSTOMS DEPARTMENT

In this department the writer participated in a several work tasks which included:

i. Document checking - this is regarded as the first stage of the clearing process. The
writer could first check and analyse documents upon receiving them from the clients.
Documents are checked to see if they contain all the information required during the
registration process on the ASYCUDA ZIMRA system. The whole set of documents
should contain manifest, invoice, bill of entry(export documents) and other supporting
documents like the SADC and Packing list. The information on these set of
documents should tally in terms of the Vehicle registration numbers, invoice numbers,
total weight and goods description.
ii. Manifest reporting – after documenting checking the writer would print five copies
of the manifest to be taken to ZIMRA offices to obtain the road report numbers. Road
report number is required upon the registration of all entries on the ASYCUDA. The
writer would submit the manifest to ZIMRA and come back to collect after they have
the road report number.
iii. Document scanning – Documents were to be scanned before they are attached on the
ZIMRA system for registering entries. Notifications for docs out are also scanned and
sent to the client so that trucks will be able to cross to Zimbabwe.
iv. Registration of bill of entries on ASYCUDA – The bill of entry is called the Form
21. It contains the boxes to be filled when doing the registration process on
ASYCUDA. The writer would fill in all the required information on the boxes
provided. Mostly the writer would register RIT entries not Consumption entries.
v. Attaching registered documents – Once registered on the ASYCUDA system the
new entries are to be attached in a way that there should be a client’s copy and that for
ZIMRA. The writer would attach the entries after they are registered.

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vi. Printing assessed bill of entries and submitting ZIMRA – Registered bill of entries
are to be assessed by ZIMRA officers on the ASYCUDA system. The writer would
print, sign and submit the assessed bill of entries. The bill of entries will be submitted
for release orders and stamping by ZIMRA officers at the border.
vii. CVG writing – Commercial Vehicle Guarantee (CVG) are issued to all foreign trucks
that enter into Zimbabwe borders. Horse and trailers should each have CVG to be
used when processing Temporary Import Permits. The writer would be assigned to
write CVG,s upon receiving the order from the clients.
viii. Duty calculations – All goods destined in Zimbabwe need to be paid duty to ZIMRA.
Duty varies on all commodities, so l would calculate it using different tariff codes
and specifying which currency to be paid.
ix. Submitting entries for release orders - Assessed bill of entries are to be submitted
for release orders at ZIMRA. The writer would be assigned to submit the entries to
ZIMRA on several occasions and to go and collect after the entries have been stamped
for Docs out.
BONDS DEPARTMENT
In this department the writer participated in a number of tasks and duties which included
i. AQUITAL VALIDATIONS - Removal of goods in transit need to be acquitted in the
system when they reach the port of exit. That’s when they are closed down in the
ZIMRA system and proof that the goods have exited Zimbabwe and not that they have
been consumed in the country. The writer would be tasked to make sure that the trucks
have acquitted and closed in the system to avoid out standings. Mostly he was assigned
to acquit SABOT trucks. The writer would also receive acquittals from other clients
and check in the system if they have closed down. If there are any out standings he
would approach the ZIMRA Bonds department and make sure that the entries have
been validated and closed down.
ii. DEPARTURE VALIDATION - Whenever a truck load leaves the port of entry it has
to register the departure in the as system that it has left. Chances are there that the
system can fail to register that the truck has departed the port of entry. When the load
reaches the port of exit, the departure would not have validated in the system. The
writer would approach the ZIMRA Bonds department to validate the departure so that
the load would be able to acquit.

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iii. BREAKDOWN AND NOTIFICATION NOT YET OUT REPORTING - Loads
can be affected by truck breakdown before it reaches the port of exit when it is an RIT.
Each truck is given a maximum of three days in transit to reach the port of exit. When a
truck breakdown occurs, the writer would take the documents and report the breakdown
to ZIMRA that the load can be given an extension in the system and not regarded as
late. A delay in the processing of a notification to the next country can also affect the
load to be acquitted in the system. The writer would also report the notification not yet
out to the bonds department for extension. Reporting is done to prevent penalties of late
acquittal.
iv. CANCELLATIONS - The Bonds department also deals with cancellation of entries.
Cancellation of entries can be of different reasons. These can include: a) The load could
not come through from the transporter b) Duplication by the same clearing agent
c) The entry was cleared by another agent as well. The writer would be assigned to do
the cancellation of other entries that would meet the above mentioned reasons.
v. VOUCHER OF CORRECTION (VOC) - This department also handles VOC’s on
certain entries that will need amendments. The amendment can be on the trailers on the
manifest. To amend the trailers there need to be two letters from the Agent and
Transporter. The student was tasked to do voucher of correction on several occasions
during the internship period.
vi. Filling acquittals - After acquitting papers with ZIMRA Bonds office the acquittals
should be filled in ascending order back at the office. The intern would do that each two
to three times a week after checking if there are any outstanding acquittals in the
system. Acquittals are filled according to different port of entry and for each month.

ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMET

i. INVOICING - This involved raising, amending and sending invoices to clients.


These would mainly be raised from the quotes sent by operators to clients. Tax
invoices would be raised when the ZIMRA stamped set of documents are received.
This is allows the company to comply with ZIMRA tax regulations. By so doing
every transaction is put in the system which enables the company to retrieve
information at any given time.
ii. RECEPTION DUTY - Answering phone calls, attending to clients and taking
messages for operators when they are on other lines or out of the office; were the

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duties I was assigned. This improved my interpersonal skills as I would interact with
customers on the phones as well as in person.
iii. MATCHING DOCUMENTS - Once clearance at Zimbabwe’s ports of entry is
done, ZIMRA cleared and released documents are sent to Harare office for final
invoicing. These are matched to existing files using invoice numbers and client’s
name. Thereafter, a tax invoice, with correct duties and casual labour charges is
raised.
iv. DHL EXPRESS – The administration department is the one in which express
shipping is exercised. The writer would be receive parcels and process them for
shipment from customers. Shipment was done using an online DHL Express system
which would generate waybill numbers for shipments according to their destination
domestically and worldwide. Shipments would be packed in flyers and labels for each
shipment placed properly on each parcel containing the contact details of the customer
sending the parcel and the place of destination.

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CHAPTER FIVE

Special opportunities and the means adopted for exploiting and overcoming duties
assigned

There were five objectives for the student that was attained while working at DHL. These
objectives made the internship position a valuable work experience and also increased my
knowledge in the customs clearance process of supply chain. The five objectives are:

Objective 1: Understand critical customs clearance documentation requirements and their


impact on freight shipments. I understood that even to move something small like a nut or
screw from South Africa to Malawi, there need to be proper documentation of what is being
shipped. The three main documentations required for checking if the items in a shipment are
going to the right place with the right item are Commercial Invoice, Packing List, Manifest
and Bill of entry. Also l had to understand the Inco terms used in clearance. The impact these
documents have on the supply chain process is that they are needed by ZIMRA whenever
there is declaration of goods in customs using Asycuda system

Objective 2: Learn basic operations of DGF. This objective made me to understand what
exactly the operations of the company were and the position and duties l would hold as an
intern. The company participates in customs clearance, warehousing, permit application, duty
calculations and courier services. I would mostly export trucks going to RSA cleared with the
company from different ports across ZIM borders and sometimes participate in
administration duties, contacting clients and updating them on their shipments.

Objective 3: Understand the basic principles and concepts of international road freight
transportation including the flow and stages of road freight shipment. My understanding of
the flow and stages can be illustrated by a flow chart.

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• Inland transportation In Transit • Reaches port of exit -
• Port of entry authorities and unloading and customs and
customs and loaded to • Flow of information - brokeage
carrier. documentation from origin to • Inland transportation to
destination(manifest, wharehouse and then to final
invoice,bill of entry and customer.
packing list)
• Flow of product - the actual
commodity
Exporter Importer

I impact this flow for the shipment of all road freight of shipments from the country of origin
to the final destination. Exporter is the Consignor and the importer is the consignee. The
details are contained on the manifest.

Objective 4: Gain a basic understanding of operation costs. As I learned in my accounting


classes there are two types of operating cost – fixed and variable costs. Investopdia.com
defines operation cost as, “Expenses associated with administering a business on a day to day
basis. Operating costs include both fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs, such as
overhead, remain the same regardless of the number of products produced; variable costs,
such as materials, can vary according to how much product is produced.”1 This objective
shows even if I am a logistician, accounting is very important to keep us on track. The
overhead cost of the office in DGF is going to paying the electricity bill or paying vehicle
petrol.

Objective 5: Understand the INCOTERMS 2010 and how they are used in the passing risks
and costs. An International Commerce Term or commonly known as INCOTERMS, specifies
the responsibilities of the exporter and the importer in an international transaction. The first
set of terms was created in 1936 by the international Chamber of Commerce and through the
years INCOTERMS have modified and the recent trade terms are INCOTERM 2010. There
are eleven INCOTERMS that can be used depending upon what means of transportation can
be used and how much control an importer or exporter wants. The INCOTERM that I mainly
see from our station is CIP INCOTERM. Investopedia states that Carriage and Insurance Paid

1
: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/operating-cost

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To (CIP) is when a seller pays freight and insurance to deliver goods to a seller-appointed
party at an agreed-upon location. The risk of damage or loss to the goods being
transported transfers from the seller to the buyer as soon as the goods have been delivered to
the carrier or appointed person. Other terms include FCA - Free Carrier, FOB - Free On
Board, CFR - Cost and Freight CIF - Cost, Insurance, Freight and DDP - Delivered Duty Paid
just to mention a few. All these are relevant when doing customs clearance and declaration on
transit goods using the ZIMRA system.

SKILLS utilized

One English proverb states that “experience is the best teacher”. It is not all theoretical
knowledge that the writer used to complete the assigned tasks. The writer had to use the
below mentioned skills to accomplish his duties. These include:

(i)Communication skills: The writer had the ability to communicate effectively, translate
ideas and convey information especially to the clients of the company. Most communications
skills were conveyed when working at the administration desk. Also had to respond to emails
and send updates to clients on emails in a way that would be easily understandable.

(ii)Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively is often related to one’s


ability to relate well to others, or “people skills.”The writer was able to deal and understand
the needs of different types of customers. Could also relate well with other workmates in the
workplace and be part of the team.

(iii)Flexibility: Customs clearance industry requires individuals that are flexible when it
comes to adapting and adjusting to different forms of pressure in the workplace. Sometimes
the writer would work double shift and cover up for other workers when they were not
available. I was so eager to learn new things and also teach other what l knew, mostly l would
help when doing duty calculations by searching the item codes on the internet to quickly
identify the descriptions on receipts.

(iv)Problem Solving Skills: This internship introduced me to real-life work problems and
hence developed my problem-solving skills through critical thinking on certain situations.
This l would execute mostly when giving explanations to ZIMRA officers questioning me on
different occasions. I would find my way out to avoid paying unnecessary fines and penalties.
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(v)Responsibility: Whatsoever the company possessed belonged to me as well. Sometimes
the writer would be alone at the office and be on top of everything. I was accountable and
presented the company on all the issues that arise when conducting my duties in the border. I
would ask for acquittals from transporters mostly those that were outstanding. When my
supervisor was off duty l was responsible for the storeroom keys and banking the cash l
received from customers.

(vi)Time management: Time always remains the most valuable item on all business
operations. The writer always made sure that he comes to work on time and met all deadlines
on presentations. All tasks needed to be completed in time, so l tried my best to also cop with
pressure and meet deadlines. Drivers would complain much if l delayed getting in the boarder
so it did come to my priority that l try to be fast enough compared to other agents.

(vii)Computer skills: Most companies nowadays have implemented the use of computers in
their workplaces. From my HCS module at back at school we learnt how to use computers
and software. DGF uses computer system such as DHL express shipment and Asycuda world.
I was taught to use these systems during my first weeks and became good at it. The would
also use computers to scan documents, send emails, typing and printing documents.p

PERSONAL DEVELOPMENTS

 Positive attitude – this was one of my best personal developments. I had to be positive
upon executing my duties at work. Due to having a positive attitude l was able to
develop confidence on my tasks and was so optimistic of my future at DGF. I

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executed most confidence at the administration desk and on my interactions with
ZIMRA officers.
 Stop procrastination – Wikipedia defines Procrastination as the avoidance of doing a
task that needs to be accomplished by a certain deadline. The author had to deal with
this evil on several occasions. There are a lot of duties to be completed in the customs
clearance industry and there was no need to post pond duties because work load
would always keep on mounting up. I always made sure that l finish my tasks each
time l was assigned and this was a step ahead on managing work pressure.
 Get along with others – A workplace comprises of individuals with different attitudes
and behaviours. I was able to get along with everyone at work and to interact with
them. We would help each other on different issues. The writer had a good sense of
humour and was sociable with others. Also l was eager to learn from my seniors and
to ask from them.
 Adaptability - Adaptability is the personality trait that helps determine how you
respond to change. High adaptability equalled to more success on my duties. There
needed to be adaptable since there were continuous changes of arrangements on my
duties. I would sometimes conduct administration duties and the other days in
customs and bonds duties. There was need to do everything in the department not
looking at specialisation of tasks. I was flexible enough to meet any changes.
 Reliability – The writer was a reliable intern in his workplace. This was revealed
when he could attend to other duties of prior importance when there was short staffed
at the office. The writer would also present the company at ZIMRA bonds department
and answer to the pertaining queries affecting the company. At sometimes he would
manage to work double shifts covering for co-workers off duty.
 Ethical - Lindsay Kramer 2018 “In the workplace, ethics are the moral
guidelines that an organization as a whole, and the individuals who comprise it,
follow to comply with state and federal laws. Ethics also are the basis of a cohesive,
supportive company culture and an important way for a company to build a strong
relationship with its customers.” The author would follow all the work rules at work
and perform tasks in acceptable behaviour. Working with government agencies like
ZIMRA requires one to meet all the customs laws and regulations especially when
importing and declaring goods in transit. Some products need certain permits and

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licences. Failure to provide such will result in huge penalties and fines charged to the
company. Document handling needed me to asses goods cleared needed permits or
licences before registering entries on the Asycuda.

Personal Strengths and weakness

Strengths

 Honesty – this is the ability lm able t deliver both at workplace and private life. At
DGF the writer would sometimes receive cash from Express shipments and surrender
it all to the treasurer. Sometimes was given cash to purchase permits and gate passes
and there was never a day shortage was reported.
 Respectfulness – the writer would show respect to the other co-workers at work.
Respect allowed him to be able to ask questions and be taught things in a good
manner. It was also easy to follow protocol and obtain orders from those above me
and do my duties diligently. I would also respect different characters of customers and
not to answer back from their criticisms. It was always at my heart that the Customer
always remained the King and most valuable asset at DHL.
 Hardworking – The author was a hardworking personality. Some days there was too
much pressure on certain duties and needed someone who would excel to the
extremes and l would manage. On our busy days we received quite a number of new
entries and needed to be referenced and put on the update of customers, at the same

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time there were DHL Express shipments to be processed. Also l would work double
shifts when the office was short staffed.
 Problem solving – l believe that my greatest strength is the ability to solve problems
quickly and efficiently. I could see any given situation from multiple perspectives,
which made me uniquely qualified to complete my work even under challenging
conditions. That problem solving allowed me to be a better communicator. I was just
as comfortable speaking to senior executives as I am junior team members. I think my
ability to see all sides of an issue made me a great asset to the team.
 Continuous learning – Customs clearing requires someone who is eager to learn new
things all the times. This was the attitude l used to be able to quickly adopt and get
familiar with the operations of the industry. Clearing procedures and ZIMRA
requirements change from time. For example some products that previously needed
permits no longer do like cement and fertilizer.
 Self control – it is needed whenever you interact with people of different characters
and options. Some clients are harsh and not patient so they are to be treated in
favourable ways since each customer is a King. The writer could control himself also
to follow the rules and regulations at work. Self control helped me not to talk back
and be harsh to ZIMRA officers whenever we had a misunderstanding on several
occasions.

Weaknesses

 Self criticism - I tend to be overly critical of myself. Whenever I completed a project,


I can’t help but feel that I could have done more even if my work received a positive
response. This often leads me to overwork myself and leaves me feeling burned out.
Over the past year at DGF, I’ve tried to take time to look at my achievements
objectively and celebrate those wins. This has not only improved my work and my
confidence, but it has helped me to appreciate my team and other support systems that
are always behind me in everything I do.
 Try to avoid confrontation - I always try to avoid confrontation, in both my personal
and professional life. This caused me to compromise sometimes on the quality of my
work or what I needed to complete a project just to keep the peace.

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 Attempting to please everyone – l tend to think more of the people around me and
how they will rate me upon my individual achievements. This led me to overdo my
tasks without finding time to rest. However, l ended up trying by all means to be
pleased with my efforts and the results l got.

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CHAPTER SIX

SWOT ANALYSIS OF DHL

Describe and analyse the operations of the company/organisation, examining its successes
and challenges (measure this against the company/organisation’s mission statement and
declared objectives)

SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

Situation analysis is defined as an analysis of the internal and external factors of a business. It
clearly identifies a business's capabilities, customers, potential customers and business
environment, and their impact on the company. SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool
that can be used by DHL managers to do a situational analysis of the company . It is a useful
technique to understand the present Strengths (S), Weakness (W), Opportunities (O) and
Threats (T) DHL is facing in its current business environment.

DHL is one of the leading companies in the logistics industry. DHL maintains its prominent
position in market by carefully analyzing and reviewing the SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis
a highly interactive process and requires effective coordination among various departments
within the firm such as marketing, finance, operations, management, information systems and
strategic planning.

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Strengths of DHL – Internal Strategic Factors
As one of the leading firms in its industry, DHL has numerous strengths that enable it to
thrive in the market place. These strengths not only help it to protect the market share in
existing markets but also help in penetrating new markets.
 High level of customer satisfaction – the company with its dedicated customer relationship
management department has able to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction among
present customers and good brand equity among the potential customers. They believe that
the customer is always the King.
 Automation of activities brought consistency of quality to DHL products and has enabled
the company to scale up and scale down based on the demand conditions in the market.
 Highly skilled workforce through successful training and learning programs. DHL is
investing huge resources in training and development of its employees resulting in a
workforce that is not only highly skilled but also motivated to achieve more.
 Strong Brand Portfolio – Over the years DHL has invested in building a strong brand
portfolio. The SWOT analysis of DHL just underlines this fact. This brand portfolio can be
extremely useful if the organization wants to expand into new product categories.
 Network in more than 220 countries and territories
 Large Network: DHL has a network of over 220 countries and about 275,000 employees
worldwide, making it the largest global freight career. This gives DHL an advantage over the
other global players. Effective communication and excellent in-house consultancy have
helped DHL expand its reach.

Weakness of DHL – Internal Strategic Factors

Weaknesses are the areas where DHL can improve using SWOT analysis and build on its
competitive advantage and strategic positioning.

 Limited market share growth: Being a very competitive market, market share growth
becomes difficult especially considering numerous small and large local competitors.

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 Requires heavy investment: It is an investment driven industry and thus to set up and
expand, heavy investment is required and return on investment is not immediate
 Dependence on external agencies: Due to such a wide network, DHL is depended on over
various other local private agencies with which it collaborates. This has a direct impact on the
efficiency of DHL and thus coordination becomes very important.
 Dependence on regulatory bodies: DHL has to work according to the regulatory norms and
the local authority. Regulations in the source and the destination places can be different and
thus following different laws can be difficult.
 Poor Marketing: When compared to Fedex, DHL does not have similar marketing
expenditure and does not invest much in advertising and branding activities. This affects the
brands popularity and acceptance

Opportunities for DHL – External Strategic Factors


 The new technology provides an opportunity to DHL to practices differentiated pricing
strategy in the new market. It will enable the firm to maintain its loyal customers with great
service and lure new customers through other value oriented propositions.
 Stable free cash flow provides opportunities to invest in adjacent product segments. With
more cash in bank the company can invest in new technologies as well as in new products
segments. This should open a window of opportunity for DHL in other product categories.
 Decreasing cost of transportation because of lower shipping prices can also bring down the
cost of DHL’s products thus providing an opportunity to the company - either to boost its
profitability or pass on the benefits to the customers to gain market share.
 The market development will lead to dilution of competitor’s advantage and enable DHL to
increase its competitiveness compare to the other competitors.
 Economic uptick and increase in customer spending, after years of recession and slow growth
rate in the industry, is an opportunity for DHL to capture new customers and increase its
market share.
 Government green drive also opens an opportunity for procurement of DHL products by the
state as well as federal government contractors.
 Organization’s core competencies can be a success in similar other products field. A
comparative example could be - GE health care research helped it in developing better Oil
drilling machines.

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 New trends in the consumer behavior can open up new market for the DHL . It provides a
great opportunity for the organization to build new revenue streams and diversify into new
product categories too.
Threats DHL Facing - External Strategic Factors

 No regular supply of innovative products – Over the years the company has developed
numerous products but those are often response to the development by other players.
Secondly the supply of new products is not regular thus leading to high and low swings in the
sales number over period of time.
 Rising pay level especially movements such as $15 an hour and increasing prices in the
China can lead to serious pressure on profitability of DHL
 Liability laws in different countries are different and DHL may be exposed to various liability
claims given change in policies in those markets.
 Changing consumer buying behaviour from online channel could be a threat to the existing
physical infrastructure driven supply chain model.
 The demand of the highly profitable products is seasonal in nature and any unlikely event
during the peak season may impact the profitability of the company in short to medium term.
 As the company is operating in numerous countries it is exposed to currency fluctuations
especially given the volatile political climate in number of markets across the world.
 Increasing trend toward isolationism in the American economy can lead to similar reaction
from other government thus negatively impacting the international sales.
 Intense competition – Stable profitability has increased the number of players in the industry
over last two years which has put downward pressure on not only profitability but also on
overall sales.

SUCCESS AND CHALLENGES OF DHL

As all other existing businesses in the Logistics service sector, DHL has got its own success
and challenges it faces.

World’s most international company - DHL has managed to be the world’s most international
company through managing to open operational branches in over 220 countries worldwide.
Through doing this they have managed to realise their set vision.

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Acting in an entrepreneur way - Entrepreneurs are risk takers, DHL have been successful
acting in entrepreneur way through taking risks to penetrate in new markets and start
operating fighting competition and meeting all the legal requirements of each different
country.

Social responsibility - DHL has managed to partake in social responsibility programs through
cleaning up campaigns, growing trees and launching the DHL Go green that aims to reduce
the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. Recently the company took part to participate in
carrying donations aid to Cyclone Idai victims in Chimanimani at the company’s costs.

Low employee turnover- The rate at which employees moves in and out of work is at its
minimum at DHL. They are good at retaining existing employees and pay day is a week
before the month ends.

DHL Global Forwarding has is considered as the first choice for RIT clearances by other big
transporters such as RDM and SEDIBA. Here the company managed to outweigh other
competitors such as Bollore, Mitchelle Cotts and Speedlink among many.

In express shipping logistics (Courier services) the company has a favourable and strong
brand image against competitors like Fedex and Zimpost.

Technology advancement: The company managed to acquire technological advancement


through coming up with DHL Express tracking system where each parcel can be tracked its
position from anywhere in the world. The shipments are tracked using a waybill number that
is a unique code for each shipment. DHL employees and customers can track any shipment
position from anywhere using this system. Chances that the shipments can be lost and not
recovered are at minimum when using DHL. The company managed to acquire LIQUID
telecommunications network that is fast and reliable and cannot be affected with bad weather
conditions unlike Telone and other networks

They believe that the customer is always the KING. Customers are at the heart of DHL and
are valued at all time. The company has a good functional customer service department that
deals and answers all the enquiries from customers. DHL has managed to acquire new and
retain a lot of existing customers through this department and simply delivering excellence.

DGF department has managed to acquire the 2019 ZIMRA bond in time. This has been the
greatest achievement at the beginning of the New Year. No clearing company operates

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without the bond licence with ZIMRA. The DGF department managed to clear out
cancellations and all outstanding entries in the system in time to meet the requirements of the
new licence. Through this the company managed to attract new clients and to start operating
at an earlier stage than its competitors. The January sales have boosted which means more
revenue for the business.

No business can operate without facing challenges in its industry. The situation is the same
with DHL.

Competition: The Company is always fighting competition from other logistics firms in the
industry. The express division faces competition from other operators such as FEDEX,
SWIFT and ZIMPOST both on the domestic and international market.

Inflation: The loss in value of the Zimbabwe Bond currency had a big impact on the
operations of the company. The bond lost its value and the services offered by DHL could not
be hiked in price. Shipment prices remained unchanged in the same currency despite the
changes in rates affecting the country. This caused the company to reduce days on which it
would ship and collect shipments across the country. Currently they only ship on selected
days that are Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. So much business and potential revenue
has been lost and total average sales had reduced respectively.

Suggested Resolution

Below l have listed my resolutions to DGF department:

Employ more workforce: l have noticed that DHL employees less personnel compared to
other Clearing agents in the industry. Workload does not tally with the available staff
and this has resulted in too much pressure on employees.

Decentralise its operations: All decisions are centred to the Harare office on all operations of
DHL. This leads to delays in the decision making processes of the company. Branches
always confirm with the head office whenever they want to implement a strategy.
DGF should give room for sub stations to carry out some of their operations without
consulting the head office.

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Division of Labour: At DGF all duties appear like too compulsory among the workers which
is not a problem as all workers should familiarise themselves with the operations of the
business. The issue is there are no clear duties assigned to employees. l suggest there should
be personnel for duty calculations, clearance officers, physical examiners, queries, bonds and
boarder runners for both imports and exports.

Brand awareness campaigns: Though DHL brand name is internationally recognised, there
is need for DHL to engage into brand awareness campaigns and advertise on all media
platforms domestically in Zimbabwe. They should attend and exhibit at business conferences
such as ZITF, road shows etc. This all can benefit the company on fighting competition from
other Clearing agents and Courier companies like Bollore and FEDEX. They should use
media platforms to inform clients on price changes and other promotions.

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CHAPTER SEVEN

The Audience Perception of DHL

(i) First choice for logistics and courier services

DHL Is regarded the first choice of logistics mostly on small consignments both domestically
and at international level. Whenever those abroad want to send parcels and packages in small
quantities and sizes they think of DHL Express. Customers consider time taken to the final
destination at most door step deliveries. DHL is at heart of many of its loyal customers and
could give a good reference to other potential customers.

(ii) Most international company

DHL is seen as the most international company. It can be found in many countries and
locations so that customers cannot think twice whenever they want to ship anything across
the world.DHL is found in most cities and towns across the continent.

(iii) Richest company

DHL is counted as one of the largest and richest companies. It is perceived to own quite a
number of properties and delivery vehicles in different places around the world. People
believe that DHL has a strong capital base and investments around the world and can not be
broke to the extent of shutting down its operations.

(iv) Foreign currency earner

Since DHL is an international company the audience perceive DHL to be paying its
employees in foreign currency always. DHL workforce is seen to be treated better than other
employees of other companies.

(v) Competitive

DGF is regarded as the most competitive among clearing companies around Zimbabwe
borders. They community perceives that DHL offers the most quality services and is
expensive at the same time. This brand is highly respected and obtains so much loyalty from
its customers.

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CHAPTER EIGHT

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE THEORY STUDIED AND THE WORK


EXPERIENCE

“In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice. But, in practice, there is.” –
Manfred Eigen

We all know that practical experience is the best, and internships give students that hands-on
experience they need. I feel that quality internships are essential to develop key skills that
you can't get in a classroom. Skills such as multitasking, communicating, learning to deal
with diversity, and dealing with deadlines are different when you are working for someone
else, not yourself like in college. Internships are also a great way to network with people in
the industry. My boss and co-workers were great about giving me contacts and referring me
to open positions in the industry.

Customer service

"I learned that customer service is not so simple as the theory suggests. You cannot please
everyone. There are people in this world that are simply difficult. I have learned that stressing
over little things will not get me anywhere. I have learned to work well as a team and that
without my counterparts the working environment would have been like a hell to me.

Financial Accounting

The formats for accounting that are described in the accounting modules that were part of the
program are slightly complicated to that which is used in reality. In the business set up the
company uses systems like Pastel Partner to record its transactions. This system
automatically completes the double entry when an invoice is raised and payment remark for
the same invoice number is captured in the system.

Introduction to retail and logistics

In this module they do not include customs clearance and clearing agents as intermediaries in
the supply chain. The module mostly emphasise about the Retailing not the logistics part.

HCS

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Students are not introduced to some systems used in different organisations, at school they
rely most on learning Microsoft excel and word. The module should introduce students to
some programmed systems used in different organisations. For example at DGF we rely on
using ZIMRA Asycuda system and DHL Express for processing shipments and tracking.

However, much theory leaned back at school is relevant in the working environment.
Modules like communication skills have helped the writer to a greater extent during the
internship period. "Open communication was one of the strongest and most apparent skills
that I learned during my internship. When I first started interning, I was intimidated and
nervous to ask too many questions because I didn’t want to admit that I didn’t understand or
that I needed extra help with something. Luckily I got over that fear quickly because asking
questions is the only way to learn what you are really supposed to be doing. I found that my
boss and fellow staff members appreciated it more if I asked too many questions to make sure
I really understood what it was doing and that I did it correctly. If I had not worked with such
cooperative and helpful people, I probably would have been too intimidated to ask questions
in my next job. Now that I know it is not bad to ask questions, I won’t have to struggle with it
in my future job. Without open communication between everyone in an office, I don’t see
how any work can be done."

Organisations in recent days require that interns should be computer literate as they now
acquire latest automotive technologies on their operations. This helped the writer to operate
computers and quickly familiarise himself with systems used at DGF. The writer would also
teach and help other workmates how to use some applications and soft ware’s on computers.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS

CONCLUSION
In conclusion the author benefited a lot in the field attachment at DGF in a way that the
student managed to apply the theoretical knowledge from the university into practice through
the many activities, tasks and assignments the intern was instructed to do.
The intern improved the skills like interpersonal, listening, presentation skills, acting freely
around people, typing skills, accounting, recording, presentation, typing, conflict resolution,
organizational skills to mention but a few. The author learnt many lessons which included,
Customs clearing and experiencing how the working environment operates etc. The student
got different ideas from the different people (employees) at the Organization and also through
interacting with other interns from MSU University and this contributed a lot on the
knowledge and experience.
Finally, internship was fun and therefore the student would encourage the DHL to continue
giving students this opportunity to do their academic requirement of internship from their
organization.

RECOMMENDATIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS TO DHL

 Facilitation: The management of DHL should buy more facilities such as computers,
vehicles so as to enable smooth running of the company’s activities and respond to the
dynamic competition environment.
 Decentralisation- the organisation needs to empower its staff to make some decisions
on their own to ensure a smooth flow of operations and quick decision making as
well.
 More opportunities to students to do intern in their organization; The intern would
also recommend the Organization to continue giving internship placements to as
many students as they can because some miss this experience which is also important
requirement of the University due to the fact that they failed to get placements.

 Serious supervision to the workers and students, the organization should increase and
ensure more supervision over the employees in order to work effectively and also

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eliminate workers who relax, work lazily and perform actively after seeing their
supervisors.

RECOMMENDATIONS TO MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY


 Constant supervision of students, The intern recommends the university to carry out
constant supervision and monitoring of students during the internship training so as
to encourage them to perform the duties fully and also accurately. This will also put a
close link between the academic supervisors and the field supervisors so as to foster
appropriate assessment of what the interns are doing in the field.

 Secure Internship placements for students. The University should help students to
secure internship positions according to their respective programs undertaken at the
University through giving students recommendations in order to ease their training
periods and also avoid the ache gotten by students in search of internship placements

 The HRLM department should schedule seminars and workshops with ZIMRA and
allow students to understand customs clearance and the roles it plays in the supply
chain.
 The HRLM department should introduce a module named Customs Clearance.
 MSU department of retail and logistics management must arrange modules in a way
that will share knowledge of both retail and logistics than a single unit.

 Should continue with internship program, this is because it helps to prepare the
students for their careers in future and also enable the students to practice the
theoretical knowledge obtained during class be exercised practically. It also helps to
develop students understanding of work ethics, employment demands,
responsibilities and opportunities

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Reference list

By: Lindsay Kramer


https://bizfluent.com/about-6677585-definition-workplace-ethics.html

By Hitesh Bhasin Tagged With: Marketing management articles

https://www.marketing91.com/profitability-analysis/

International Journal of Business, 12(1), (2007),”Competitor-oriented Objectives: The Myth


of Market Share” The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2012,

“Characteristics of the apparel retail sector, available on www.journalijar.com, accessed on


23-04-17.

Peter, P.J( 2008) Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Strategy.Singapore: McGraw Hill

www.dand.com,accessed on 24.10.18

www.zimra.co.zw, Licensing of Clearing Agents, accessed on 24.10.18

Stephen, P., Robbins/Mary Coulter (2005) Management (International Edition) 8th edition,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Deal T. E. and Kennedy, A. A. (1982, 2000)Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of
Corporate Life,Harmondsworth, Penguin Books, 1982; reissue Perseus Books, 2000

www.dhl.co.zw

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Supervisor’s Comment

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We the undersigned, confirm that the information contained here is true and conforms to
DHL International.

Author’s Signature……………………………… Date…../…../2019

SOLOMON JOSEPH SHOKO

(Student Attaché)

Supervisor’s Signature…………………………. Date…../…../2019

BRIAN TADYANEMHANDU

(Operations Manager)

Official Stamp

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