Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Page 16

17. Cr3+(aq) + Cl-(aq)  Cr(s) + Cl2(g)

When the equation above is balanced and all coefficients reduced to their lowest whole number
terms, the coefficient for Cl2(g) is …..

a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6

Cr3+ + 3e-  Cr x3

2 Cl-  Cl2 + 2e- x2

3Cr3+(aq) + 4Cl-(aq)  3Cr(s) +2Cl2(g)

Coefficient for Cl2(g) is 2

The answer is : A

18. CH3CH2OH + Cr2O72- + H+  CH3COOH + Cr3+ + H2O


The oxidation of ethanol in an acidic solution represented above. When the equation above is
balanced and all coefficients reduced to their lowest number terms, the coefficient for OH- is….
a.6 b.12 c.14 d.16 e.28

CH3CH2OH + H2O + 4OH- CH3COOH + 4H2O + 4e- x3


Cr2O72- + 14H2O +6e-  2Cr3+ + 7H2O + 14OH- x2
3CH3CH2OH + 2Cr2O72- + 5H2O  3CH3COOH + 4Cr3+ + 16OH-

Coefficient for OH- is 16

The answer is : D

19. MnO2 + OH- + O2  MnO42- + H2O

The reaction represented above occurs in a basic solution. When the equation above is balanced
and all coefficients reduced to their lowest whole umber terms, the coefficient for OH- is

a.0 b. 1 c.2 d. 4 e.5

Ans :MnO2 + OH- + O2  MnO42- + H2O

MnO2 + 2H2O  MnO42-+ 4H+ + 2e x2

O2 +4H++ 4e  2H2O x1

MnO2+ O2 + 2H2O + 4OH- MnO42- + 4H++ 4OH-

MnO2+ O2 + 4OH- MnO42- + 2H2O (D)

20. Cl2 (g) + 2Br-(aq)  2Cl- (aq) + Br2 (aq)


Which of the following choice best explains why the reaction represented above generates
electricity in galvanic cell ?
a.Cl2 is a stronger oxidizing agent than Br2
b.Cl2 loose electrons more easily than Br2
c. Br atoms have more electrons than Cl atoms
d.Br2 is more stable than Cl2
e.Cl- is more stable than Br-

Ans : Cl2 is a stronger oxidizing agent than Br2 (A)

Page 28

1. The E value for three half cells are given below :

X → X3+ + 3e E° = +1.66 V

Y → Y2+ + 2e E° = +2.87 V

Z → Z2+ + 2e E° = -0.85 V

Arrange the appropiate species according to their reducing strength and oxidizing
strength ?

Ans : because E°y > E°x > E° z :


According to their reducing strength in increasing order :
Z2+ < X3+ < Y2+
According to their oxidizing strength in increasing order :
Y<X<Z

2. The standard electrode potential for the equilibrium : M2+ + 2e M for four of the group 2
elements are given below :

Element Be Mg Ca Ba
E°V - 1.85 -2.38 -2.87 -2.90

Arrange the elements in increasing order reactivity in water ?

Ans : Because E°Ba < E°Ca < E° Mg< E° Be :


The elements in increasing order reactivity in water : Ba > Ca > Mg > Be

3. Predict whether the following reactions can take place under standard conditions:

a.Reduction of Sn2+ to Sn by Mg

b.Oxidation of Cl- to Cl2 by acidified Cr2072-

E0 Mg2- Mg = -2.38 V and E0 Sn2+ Sn =-0.14 V

E0 Cr2072 Cr+3 = +1.33 V and E0 Cl2 Cl- =-1.26 V


Answer :

a. E0cell=E0red-E0oxi
=-0.14-(-2.38)
=+2.2.4 ( can take place because it is Spontan)
b. E cell=E0red-E0oxi
0

=-1.26-(+1.33)
=-2.59(unable to take place because it is not Spontan)

4. Here are three standard reduction potentials:


Na+(aq) + e- → Na Eo= -2.71V
Cr3+(aq) + 3e- → Cr Eo= -0.74V
Hg2+ (aq) + 2e- → Hg Eo=+0.85V
Based on these potentials, which of the following is the strongest reducing agent
a. Hg2+ b. Hg c. Cr3+ d. Na+ e. Na
Answer :E(Na)
5. Consider a Galvanic cell represent by the following line notation:
Zn(s)|Zn2+(aq)||Cu2+(aq)|Cu(s)
Which statement about this cell is not true?
a. The mass of Zinc electrode will increase as the cell discharges.
b. The copper is the cathode.
c. Electron will flow the external circuit from the zinc electrode to the copper electrode.
d. The cathode half reaction is Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu
e. The concentration of Cu2+(aq) will decrease as the cell discharges.
Answer :A(The mass of Zinc electrode will increase as the cell discharges.)
6. Which of the following is a spontaneous Redox reaction?
Eo Ag2+|Ag = +0.80V ; Eo Na+|Na = -2.71V ; Eo Cl2| Cl- = +1.36V
Eo Pb2+|Pb = -0.13V ;Eo F2|F- = +2.87V ;Eo Co3+|Co2+ = +1.81V
Eo Li+|Li = -3.05V ;Eo Al3+|Al = -1.66V ;Eo H+|H2 = 0.00V

a. Ag (s) + 2H+ (aq) →H2 (g) + Ag+ (aq)


b. 2Na+ (aq) + 2Cl- (aq) →Cl2 (g) + 2Na (s)
c. 3Pb(s) + 2 Al3+(aq) → 3Pb2+(aq) + 2 Al(s)
d. F2 (g) + 2Li(s) → 2 F- (aq) + 2Li+(aq)
e. 2Co3+(aq) + 2F-(aq) → 2Co2+(aq) + F2 (g)
Answer : D

F2 (g) + 2Li(s) → 2 F- (aq) + 2Li+(aq)

F2 + 2e- → 2F- X1 Eo= +2.87V


Li →Li+ + e- X2 Eo= +3.05V
__________________________________________
F2 + 2Li →2F- + 2Li+ Eo= +5.92V (SPONTANEOUS)

7. Below is a list of standard electrode potential at 298 K for copper and iron.

Electrode system 𝐸 0/ 𝑉
Cu2+ (aq) / Cu+(aq) + 0.15
Cu2+ (aq) / Cu (s) + 0.34
Cu+ (aq) / Cu (s) + 0.52
Fe2+ (aq) / Fe (s) - 0.44
Fe3+ (aq) / Fe (s) - 0.04
Fe3+ (aq) / Fe2+(aq) + 0.77

Based on the information above, which of the following statements would be correct ?

a. Cu (s) is the strongest reducing agent


b. Fe3+ (aq) is the strongest oxidizing agent
c. Cu2+ (aq) is expected to oxidized Fe2+ (aq) to Fe3+ (aq)
d. The electromotive force of the cell Fe (s) | Fe2+ (aq) || Cu+ (aq) | Cu (s) is 0.08 V
e. The reaction of Cu2+ (aq) + Cu (s)  2Cu+ (aq) can occur

Answer : b, c, d, and e

According to the increase of reducing agent :

Fe3+ (aq) / Fe2+(aq), 𝐸 0 = + 0.77 V (strongest oxidizing agent)


Cu+ (aq) / Cu (s), 𝐸 0 = + 0.52 V
Cu2+ (aq) / Cu (s), 𝐸 0 = + 0.34 V
Cu2+ (aq) / Cu+(aq), 𝐸 0 = + 0.15 V

Fe3+ (aq) / Fe (s), 𝐸0 = - 0.04 V


Fe2+ (aq) / Fe (s), 𝐸 0 = - 0.44 V (strongest reducing agent)

Statement a : Cu (s) is the strongest reducing agent (wrong)


Statement b : Fe3+ (aq) is the strongest oxidizing agent (true)

Statement c : Cu2+ (aq) is expected to oxidized Fe2+ (aq) to Fe3+ (aq) (true)

Statement d : The electromotive force of the cell Fe (s) | Fe2+ (aq) || Cu+ (aq) | Cu (s) is 0.08 V (true)

}
𝐸 0cell = 𝐸 0 red - 𝐸 0 oxd
𝐸 0 Fe (s) | Fe2+ (aq) = + 0.44 V
𝐸 0cell = 0.52 - 0.44
𝐸0 Cu+ (aq) | Cu (s) = + 0.52 V
𝐸 0cell = 0.08 V
Statement e : The reaction of Cu2+ (aq) + Cu (s)  2Cu+ (aq) can occur (true)

Cu (s)  Cu+ (aq) + e x2 𝐸 0 = - 0.52 V

Cu2+ (aq) + 2e  Cu (s) x1 𝐸 0 = + 0.34 V


Cu2+ (aq) + Cu (s)  2 Cu+ (aq) 𝐸 0 = + 0.34 V – (- 0.52 V)
𝐸 0 = + 0.86 V (reaction occur)

8. The salt bridge is filled with a saturated solution of KNO3 . Processes that occur at the salt bridge include which of the
following ?

I. K+ moves into the anode half-cell


II. K+ moves into the cathode half-cell
III. NO3- moves into the anode half-cell
IV. NO3- moves into the cathode half-cell
a. I only b. III only c. I and IV only
d. II and III only e. I, II, III, and IV

Answer : II and III only

V
A = anode

C = cathode

V = voltmeter NO3- SB K+

SB = salt bridge

A C

Anode ionize and produce elelctrons that flow to cathode. This cause the electrolyte solution in anode container becomes more

positive. Electrons that goes to the cathode, makes cathode container becomes more negative. As a result, K+ ions move to the

cathode container and NO3- ions move to the anode container to neutralize the solution.
9. The cell shown below is set up under standard conditions.

Cr (s) | Cr3+ (aq) || Fe2+ (aq) | Fe (s)


𝑬0 Cr3+ | Cr = - 0.74 V and 𝑬0 Fe2+ | Fe = - 0.44 V

Which statements is true for this cell ?

1. The e.m.f of the cell is 0.30 V

2. If the electrodes are connected by a piece of wire, iron will be deposited

3. If the electrodes are connected by a piece of wire, electrons will flow through the wire from chromium to iron

a. 1 only b. 1 and 2 c. 1 and 3 d. 1, 2, and 3 e. 2 only

Answer : 1, 2, and 3

𝑬0 Cr3+ | Cr < 𝑬0 Fe2+ | Fe


Oxidized (anode) Reducted (cathode)
Electrons move from anode to catode
V

Cr Fe

Cr (s) | Cr3+ (aq) || Fe2+ (aq) | Fe (s)

Statement 1 : The e.m.f of the cell is 0.30 V (true)


𝐸 0cell = 𝐸 0 red - 𝐸 0 oxd
𝐸 0cell = -0.44 - (-0.74)
𝐸 0cell = 0.30 V
Statement 2 : If the electrodes are connected by a piece of wire, iron will be deposited (true)

Statement 3 : If the electrodes are connected by a piece of wire, electrons will flow through the wire from chromium to iron (true)
Chromium = anode
Iron = cathode
} Electrons flow from anode (Cr) to cathode (Fe)

10. Which pair of metals X and Y will produce the highest voltage when used as electrode in a simple cell
?
Metal X Metal Y
Metal X in a
A Copper Silver solution of Metal Y in a
B magnesium Silver a salt of X sikution of a salt
C magnesium Zinc of Y
D zinc Copper
E iron copper ---------------------------------
---------------------------------
Porouc wall
---------------------------------
Answer: B(Metal X :Magnesium , Metal Y : Silver) ---------------------------------
---------------------------------
11. Which statement(s) is / are true about the standard hydrogen--electrode ?
I .The electrode potential is assigned a value of 0.00 volts
II.The hydrogen ion concentration is 0.100 mol dm-3
III.The temperature is 273 K
a. I,II and II B.I and II only

c I only d. II and III only e.none of these above

Answer:C (I only)

Page 30 number 12
When a half cell of Fe2+(aq)/Fe3+(aq) is connected by a salt bridge to a half-cell of Sn2+(aq)/Sn4+(aq)
under standard conditions and current allowed to flow in a external circuit then total e.m.f of the
spontaneous reaction will be ...
Sn2+(aq) + 2e Sn(s) E° = -0.14 V
Sn4+(aq) + 2e Sn2+(aq) E° = +0.15 V
Fe2+(aq) + 2e Fe(s) E° = -0.44 V
Fe3+(aq) + e Fe2+(aq) E° = +0.77 V
a. +0.92 V b. -0.92 V c. +0.62 V d. -0.62 V

Answer: D
Fe2+(aq)/Fe3+(aq) oxidized
Sn2+(aq)/Sn4+(aq) reduced

Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + e x2 E° = -0.77 V


Sn4+(aq) + 2e Sn2+(aq) x1 E° = +0.15 V +

2 Fe2+(aq) + Sn4+(aq) 2 Fe3+(aq) + Sn2+(aq) E° = -0.62 V

Page 32 number 1
Calculate the potential corresponding to the following cell:
Pt l Fe2+ (10-3 M), Fe3+ (10-4 M) ll MnO4- (0,01 M), Mn2+ (10-4 M), H+ (pH = 4) l Pt
If E° MnO4-/Mn2+ = 1,51 V and E° Fe3+/Fe2+ = 0,77
a. 0,92 V b. 0,86 V c. 0,62 V d. 0,56 V e. 0,74 V

Answer:
Pt l Fe2+ (10-3 M), Fe3+ (10-4 M) ll MnO4- (0,01 M), Mn2+ (10-4 M), H+ (pH = 4) l Pt
E° MnO4-/Mn2+ = 1,51 V reduced
3+ 2+
E° Fe /Fe = 0,77 oxidized

E°sel = E°red - E°ox


= 1,51 – 0,77
= 0,74 V

[H+] = 10-pH
= 10-4 M

Fe2+(aq) Fe3+(aq) + e x5
MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) x1 +
5 Fe2+(aq) + MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) 5 Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)

0,0592
E sel = E°sel - log 𝑄
𝑛
0,0592 [𝐹𝑒 3+ ]5 [𝑀𝑛2+ ]
= 0,74 - log [𝐹𝑒 2+]5 [𝑀𝑛𝑂−][𝐻 +]8
5 4
0,0592 [10−4 ]5 [10−4 ]
= 0,74 - log
5 [10−3 ]5 [10−2 ][10−4 ]8

10−24
= 0,74 - 0,01184 log 10−49

= 0,74 - 0,01184 log 1025


= 0,74 - 0,296
= 0,444 V

3.Determine the equilibrium constant for each of the following reactions at 298 K :

a) The single displacement of copper (II) by zinc metal


Cu2++ 2e  Cu E 0=0.34 V
Zn  Zn2+ + 2e E0= 1.963 V
Cu2++ Zn Cu + Zn2+ E0cell= 1.103 V
Nerst Equation:

0
0.0592
𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 = 𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 − log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2
When the system is in equilibrium ECELL=0

0
0.0592
𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2
0.0592
1.103 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2

37.26 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞

𝐾𝑒𝑞 = 1037.26 = 1.01 ∙ 1037


b) The single displacement of H+ by iron forming Fe2+
H++ e H E0=0V
FeFe2+ + 2e E0= 0.44 V
2H++ Fe2H +Fe2+ E0cell= 0.44 V

0
0.0592
𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2
0.0592
0.44 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2

14.86 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞

𝐾𝑒𝑞 = 1014.86 = 7.2 ∙ 1014


c) The reduction of tin (IV) to tin (II) by oxidation of Fe(II) being oxidized to Fe(III)
Sn4++ 2e Sn E 0=0.154 V
Fe2+Fe3+ + e E0= -0.771 V
Sn4++ 2Fe2+Sn2+ +2Fe3+ E0cell= -0.617 V

0
0.0592
𝐸𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑙 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2
0.0592
−0.617 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞
2

−20.84 = log 𝐾𝑒𝑞


𝐾𝑒𝑞 = 10−20.84 = 1.44 ∙ 10−21