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Wave Flow Regimes of a Thin Layer of Viscous Fluid Subject to Gravity

Article  in  Fluid Dynamics · January 1967


DOI: 10.1007/BF01024797

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F L U I D DYNAMICS 29

W A V E F L O W R E G I M E S O F A THIN L A Y E R O F VISCOUS F L U I D S U B J E C T TO
GRAVITY

V. Ya. S h k a d o v

Izv. A N SSSR. M e k h a n i k a Z h i d k o s t i i G a z a , VoI. 2, No. t , pp. 4 3 - 5 1 , 1967

The studies of Kapitsa initiated the detailed experimental and theo- In t h e f o l l o w i n g w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r a l i q u i d l a y e r


retical study of the flow of a thin layer of viscous liquid (liquid film) w h i c h is n o t b o u n d e d a l o n g t h e x - a x i s w i t h a t i m e 2
over a solid surface [/-2]. Extensive experimental data on this ques- average thickness a 0 and shall seek solutions periodic
tion have now been accumulated. As a rule, the existing theories are
w i t h r e s p e c t t o x in t h e f o r m of t r a v e l i n g w a v e s .
based on linearization of the problem and diverge considerably from
S u c h s o l u t i o n s m a y be r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e f o r m o f
the experimental results. The present paper is also addressed to the
theoretical solution of this problem. The solution method used enables f u n c t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s y a n d ~ = (n/a0)(x - wt).
consideration of the wave flow of the liquid as a nonlinear problem
and on this basis permits determining all the parameters of the wave Parameters of O p t i m a l W a v e R e g i m e s
regime--amplitude, wavelength, wave propagation speed, frequency. R ~.,cm 10ao, cm p a),cm/sec n 10p2~20 10p2T21 z
9 ~A96 0.t06 0.080 9.530 0.055 --0.159 0.036 2.945
1. C o n s i d e r a t h i n l a y e r of v i s c o u s l i q u i d t h a t i5 0.980 0.124 0A74 t2.700 0.079 --0.328 0.t59 2.769
f l o w s a l o n g a v e r t i c a l s u r f a c e u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of 20 0.912 0.i34 0.24i 14.513 0.093 --0.435 0.292 2.569
the g r a v i t y f o r c e . We s h a l l a s s u m e t h a t the liquid 25 0.886 0:t43 0.294 t5.936 o.toi --0.520 0.424 2,40t
30 0.865 0A50 0.334 t7.191 0.t09 --0.56t 0.529 2.268
surface is free, i.e., the air friction force does not 35 0.859 0A57 0.365 t8.32t O.il5 --0.601 0.627 2.t61
a c t on t h e s u r f a c e . W e d i r e c t t h e x - a x i s a l o n g t h e 40 0.85t 0.i63, 0.390 t9.401 0.i20 --0,618 0.705 2.078
surface in Lhe direction of action of the gravitational 45 0.845 0,168 0.4t0 20.439 0.125 --0.626 0.773 2.010
50 0.841 0.t73 0.427 2i,442 0.t29 --0.628 0.832 1.955
force, and the y-axis toward the liquid; in this c0- 55 0.837 0.t78 0.44t 22.4i8 0.133 --0.626 0.885 1.909
ordinate system the liquid motion is described by 60 0.834 0.t82 0.452 23.370 0.137 --0.620 0.931 1.871
the following system of Navier-Stokes and continuity 65 0.830 0A87 0,462 24.3i3 0.t4i --0.611 0.972 1.839
70 0.830 0.t9i 0:47i 25.226 0.t44 --0.605 i.0t4 t.810
equations : 75 0.829 0.t95 0.478 26.t2i 0.148 --0.598 t~053 t.786
/ 02//, c32~ \ 85 0.825 0.202 0.490 27.888 0.t54 --0.575 iAt6 t.746
-z ap "- "
T h e n aon w i l l b e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i m e n s i o n a l o n g x
Ov Ov Ov =
t c~p / 02v 02v "~ a n d a 0 w i l l be t h e s a m e a l o n g y,
L e t us a s s u m e t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n n << 1 is s a t i s f i e d .
0a au
Physically this means that the wavelengths are con-
~;+~-y =o. (1.1)
siderably longer than the average layer thiclmess.
F r o m e x p e r i m e n t s [2], it f o l l o w s t h a t n in t h e c a s e of
L e t y = a(x, t) b e t h e e q u a t i o n of t h e l a y e r f r e e s u r -
p e r i o d i c w a v e m o t i o n s i s o n t h e o r d e r of 0.1; w i t h a n
f a c e . To s y s t e m (1) w e m u s t a l s o a d d t h e e q u a t i o n
a v e r a g e l a y e r t h i c k n e s s o n t h e o r d e r of 1 m m w e o b -
Q s e r v e w a v e l e n g t h s of a b o u t 1 c m . T h e c a l c u l a t e d
Oa aQ ~ ady, (1.2) v a l u e s o f n s h o w n in t h e t a b l e a r e o f t h e s a m e o r -
ot t--~z = ~ Q= der.
T h e c o n d i t i o n n << I e n a b l e s us t o e s t i m a t e t h e
e x p r e s s i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e s u r f a c e c o n s i s t s of
t e r m s in E q s . (1.1) a n d t h e b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s (1.4)
s t r e a m l i n e s . In v i e w of no l i q u i d s l i p a t t h e w a l l w e
and immediately simplify them, which facilitates the
have the two boundary conditions
s o l u t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y . If w e a s s u m e t h a t u ~ Vo, f r o m
t h e c o n t i n u i t y e q u a t i o n it f o l l o w s t h a t v ~ nVo.
u~0, v=0 for y~---0. (1.3)
A s a r e s u l t of t h i s , f r o m t h e s e c o n d e q u a t i o n of
motion we obtain
If o n l y s u r f a c e t e n s i o n a n d t h e c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e
P0 a c t on t h e l i q u i d s u r f a c e , t h e n i n t h e c a s e of p l a n e
f l o w w i t h y = a ( x , t) t h e f o l l o w i n g r e l a t i o n s w i l l b e pV02 0y = o n -{- o(n2).
s a t i s f i e d [3]:

Ou Ov 2b (Ou Ova__ 0 Oa Here the first term denotes the viscous terms and
a-ij + ~ x + yz~-- b; \ ~ - @ ) -- ' b = Ox '
the second term the inertial.
T h e q u a n t i t y R = 3a0Vo~ -1 i s t h e R e y n o l d s n u m b e r ;
i / 8u Ov \ Ov it w i l l b e s e e n l a t e r t h a n R i s o n t h e o r d e r of 10 a n d
P A-a---A--t~b( N + - ~ x ) - - 2 l x ~ = Po,
t h e r a t i o n / R i s s m a l l e x c e p t f o r t h e c a s e of v e r y s m a l l
l Ob/Ox flow rates.
R- = (i -+- 52) ./2 ' (1.4) Thus, with an error whose order does not exceed
t h e l a r g e r of t h e n u m b e r s n 2 a n d 3 n R -1, t h e p r e s s u r e
H e r e ~ i s t h e s u r f a c e t e n s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a n d R is may be considered constant across the layer and
t h e r a d i u s of c u r v a t u r e of t h e s u r f a c e . equal to the pressure at the surface.
30 MEKHANIKA ZHIDKOSTI I GAZA

Simplifying with the s a m e a c c u r a c y the b o u n d a r y Eqs. (1.5) with r e s p e c t to y f r o m 0 to a and i n t r o -


conditions (1.4) and n e g l e c t i n g in the f i r s t equation of ducing the v a r i a b l e s
motion the d e r i v a t i v e

OZa ( O~a / 02u ~-~ )~, ao ao aoU---~' (1.6)


~ Oy21
we obtain the equations for d e t e r m i n i n g the d i m e n -
we obtain the following p r o b l e m : s i o n l e s s t h i c k n e s s h and the flow q:

Ou Ou Ott i Op 02u Oh 0
-- ~ ~ + g , o~ ] - - ~ ( q - - z h ) - ~ O
ot + u ~ + v =- ~ Ox
I Oq (z 12 l i Oq 6
OZa Ou Ov Oa . OQ
p=;o-~Tz~, ~x+~=o, -ff+~-x=o, h ~ ----5 h O~ 5 h 30~

- - G03~--~ - - H , + E q = O, (1. 7)
u----O, v=O for y - ~ O ,

Oa / Oy -~-- O for y = a(x, t) (1.5)


G: Yn2 '
V0~pao H ~ ga----2-~~
VoZn E = Voaon .
Now we r e p l a c e the equations of s y s t e m (1.5) by
equations i n t e g r a t e d with r e s p e c t to the v a r i a b l e y. Here V 0 is the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a l u e of the velocity,
which, g e n e r a l l y speaking, m a y be s e l e c t e d a r b i t r a r -
ily. In place of V0, a 0 it is m o r e c o n v e n i e n t to use the
d i m e n s i o n l e s s p a r a m e t e r s R and R 0 = ga03v -2, with
whose aid the coefficients of Eqs. (1.7) m a y be e x p r e s -
s e d as follows:
9n~lRo '1' Ro
G---- Rz , H ~- 9 ~ n ,

l a
I.~
E = 9 R-nn' v -= _(~4g)-,i..
P
The f i r s t of t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e s the
flow r a t e , and the s e c o n d is u n i q u e l y a s s o c i a t e d with
the f i l m t h i c k n e s s . If as V 0 we s e l e c t the a v e r a g e
v e l o c i t y for l a m i n a r flow of a l a y e r of t h i c k n e s s a0,
Fig. 1
then, as follows f r o m the s e c o n d of Eqs. (1.7), R 0 =
= R in this c a s e and the a v e r a g e value q0 of the flow
This r e p l a c e m e n t m a y be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e f i r s t step
r a t e differs f r o m unity. If we take as V 0 the a v e r a g e
in s e q u e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the d i r e c t method. F o r
v e l o c i t y in that s e c t i o n w h e r e the f i l m t h i c k n e s s is a 0
this we s e l e c t a c o m p l e t e s y s t e m of functions Wi(Y)
for wave flow, then q0 = i but R 0 ~ R.
s a t i s f y i n g the b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s ; we r e p r e s e n t the
v e l o c i t y u in the f o r m

= Y, b~(x, t) w~(y),
i

and f r o m the c o n t i n u i t y equation we find


#.5
y

v -~ -- ~,Ob,/Ox I W , ( y ) d y . g
D.] 8.2
{ 0
Fig. 2
S u b s t i t u t i n g u, v into Eq. (1.5), we r e q u i r e t h a t
the r e s u l t i n g e x p r e s s i o n on the s e g m e n t (0, a) be Only four p a r a m e t e r s a p p e a r in s y s t e m (1.7): R0,
o r t h o g o n a l to the c o m p l e t e s y s t e m of functions Vi(Y), R, z, a n d n o r R, z, n, q 0 i f R0 = R ( z = w/V0). F r o m
and f r o m the o r t h o g o n a l i t y c o n d i t i o n s we o b t a i n the the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t of the c o n s i d e r e d p r o b l e m and
equations for bi(x, t). f r o m the condition of unique s o l v a b i l i t y for the
In l i m i t i n g o u r s e l v e s to the f i r s t t e r m , we avoid p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n , two of t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s m a y be
v e r i f y i n g the r a p i d i t y of the c o n v e r g e n c e of this p r o - c o n s i d e r e d known, while the other two m u s t be d e -
c e s s and we judge the a c c u r a c y thus obtained only in t e r m i n e d in the c o u r s e of the solution. F o r e x a m p l e ,
c o m p a r i s o n with the e x p e r i m e n t a l data. We s e t we m a y c o n s i d e r that R and X a r e given, i . e . , the
flow r a t e and the d i s t u r b a n c e wavelength, and d e t e r -
a ---~ 3 U ( x , ~t) [ y / a -- l/~(y/a)2] , m i n e the c o r r e s p o n d i n g a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s a n d wave
phase velocity, o r e l s e s p e c i f y R 0 and X. The q u a n -
which c o i n c i d e s with the exact s o l u t i o n for the l a m i - t i t i e s T, v c h a r a c t e r i z e the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the
n a r flow r e g i m e of the l a y e r . I n t e g r a t i n g the f i r s t of l i q u i d and a r e c o n s i d e r e d given. In the following c a l -
FLUID DYNAMICS 31

culations we take v = 0.0114 cm2/sec, g = 981 cm/sec 2, The left side of (1.9) will r e p r e s e n t the s u m of
= 2850 (water at 15 ~ C}. p o l y n o m i a l s homogeneous in s, c
In the case of the steady-state traveling wave re-
gime~ ~/az = 0; therefore, from the first of Eqs. (1.7) Qi -~ Q~osi -k Q~ts~-'c + . . . -k Qiic ~ (~ -~ O, l, 2 . . . . )
we easily find that
of z e r o , f i r s t , etc. o r d e r s . We add to this s u m the
q ~ zh -]- qo - - z. (1.8) differences

We s e l e c t V0 so that q0 = 1, and we s e t h = 1 + go, ~ i = ~ios i -k ~i~s~-'c -k . . . -k ~ i c i.


w h e r e go r e p r e s e n t s the d i s t u r b a n c e of the s u r f a c e of
the downflowing l i q u i d c a u s e d b y the wave f o r m a t i o n . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e i d e n t i c a l l y z e r o i n view of
the r e l a t i o n s 2 + c 2 = 1. We then define the c o e f f i -
T h e n with the a i d of (1.8), we obtain the equation for
c i e n t s ~2ik in t e r m s of Qik so that the e x p r e s s i o n s
go:
Q2 - ~0( sz + c2), Qa - f~l(s2 + c2) . . . . convolute into
(t .+..q~)Z,q~,,,_~ [ A - - BT(2 +(p)](p'§
the c o r r e s p o n d i n g h a r m o n i c s Mko s i n k~ + Mk~ cos k~.

+ A,~2(3-}- ~) -4-D~-t-r--~ 0,

A __5z 2 - t 2 z q - 6 ~~.z, r - - -R o-- - R lO


457Bo'/m2 yRo'!ma '
3t7o z R - -
.... O,cm!, 's~
D ~ ~ ~ 0 I r 8.2
~Ro'/~n~
Fig. 4
R~I~ z~
A-~ yn----~, B - - 5 z ~ _ t 2 z + 6 A . (1.9) H e r e i n o r d e r to r e d u c e the s e c o n d h a r m o n i c to the
n o r m a l f o r m , we m u s t i n t r o d u c e i20, for the t h i r d
The study of the p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n s of (1.9) f o r m s h a r m o n i c we i n t r o d u c e ~2~, etc. A f t e r the left side of
the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . This equation (1.9) is t r a n s f o r m e d into a F o u r i e r s e r i e s , it r e -
was f i r s t obtained in [1] (the t e r m vOu/0y w a s not m a i n s to equate its c o e f f i c i e n t s to z e r o .
c o n s i d e r e d i n the d e r i v a t i o n ) . In the f o r m w r i t t e n The r e s u l t i n g s y s t e m of equations will be infinite
h e r e it was c o n s i d e r e d in [4], w h e r e for the p a r t i c - and m u s t be t r u n c a t e d for p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
u l a r value A = 1 the p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n was c o n s t r u c t e d If we l i m i t o u r s e l v e s to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i + 1
for s m a l l v a l u e s of the wave a m p l i t u d e by a s e r i e s h a r m o n i c and s e t all ~, b e g i n n i n g with I2i+1, equal to
expans ion. z e r o , then we obtain a c l o s e d finite s y s t e m of e q u a -
t i o n s . Its s o l u t i o n will r e p r e s e n t the s o l u t i o n of the
considered problem in the i-th approximation. In
order to write out this system, we must find concrete
z %w,%~ I ~
expressions for Qik in terms of goik by expanding Q
0~ ~ 2 / , I s e c in a series.
0.1 O.Z In the first approximation we set qk = 0 (k = 2, 3,
Fig. 3 9 ). Equating to zero the coefficients of the first
two harmonics and the free term of the expansion of
2. We s h a l l s e e k the p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n of (1.9) in the left side of (1.9), we obtain the following system
the f o r m of the F o u r i e r s e r i e s after some transformations :

r + 3/zA,p2 = O,
cp ~ ,p sin ~ -~- p2(q~2osin 2~ -~ ~2~cos 2~) + . . . . (2.1)
4( I -- A)p-~ A- 3 + B - : I2A~2o--4(13 + B)~2~ = O,
in which, without l o s s of g e n e r a l i t y , we can drop /t_Dp-2 -Jr-3A -- 12A~, + 4(13 -b B)~20 ~ 0,
cos ~, s i n c e ~ does not a p p e a r e x p l i c i t l y in (1.9), and 2 (4 - - A) ~2~ -k D(p~0- - '/8 (3 + 2B) ---~0,
t h e r e f o r e s o l u t i o n (2.1) is d e t e r m i n e d only with a c c u - Dep2i - - 2 (4 - - A)r - - 3/~4 = 0. (2.2)
r a c y to within an a r b i t r a r y shift along }. If we s u b s t i -
tute (2.1) into the left side of (1.9), we obtain a n o n - Here the unknowns will be p, go20, go~ and any two
l i n e a r e x p r e s s i o n c o n t a i n i n g p o w e r s of the t r i g o n o - of the four p a r a m e t e r s R0, R, z, n. We i n t r o d u c e the
m e t r i c f u n c t i o n s . The b a s i c idea of the solution q u a n t i t i e s t, s, w b y the r e l a t i o n s
method is to t r a n s f o r m this e x p r e s s i o n and r e p r e s e n t
it in the f o r m of a F o u r i e r s e r i e s as well. It is c o n - t=3--z, w- i - - - t - i ( 4 - R / N 0 ) , s~A--l, (2.3)
v e n i e n t to m a k e this t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as follows. We
w r i t e (2.1) i n the f o r m of a n e x p a n s i o n in powers of and take as the unknowns A a n d w, while we c o n s i d e r
s i n ~ and cos ~, u s i n g for this the r e l a t i o n s e x p r e s s - t and s known. F r o m the f i r s t of Eqs. (2.2) we find
ing the t r i g o n o m e t r i c functions of a m u l t i p l e angle in pZ ~ 2/3 t / w . (2.4)
terms of the function of a single angle. We substitute
the resulting series for go into (1.9) and collect terms Excluding ~20, ~21 f r o m the four remaining equa-
of like order in s, c (where s = sin ~, c = cos ~). tions, we obtain the equations for determining A and w:
32 MEKHANIKA ZHIDKOSTI I GAZA

t8(2 -- s)w 2 -- [63 -4- 6s -4-18B - - (3 -{- B ) t + a r e not u s e d for c o m p a r i s o n with the e x p e r i m e n t a l
data and t h e r e f o r e a r e not e x a m i n e d in detail.
@ l S ( 3 -- t) ( 2 - - s)] w - - t(3 -- t) (3 + B) = 0, (2.5)
E a c h p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n m a y be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by
the n u m b e r R 0 and the w a v e l e n g t h k; in Fig. 1 this is
6 1 3 - - t / w(3 -- t - - w ) ( % - - t - - w) lA 2 - the point of i n t e r s e c t i o n of l i n e s of constant v a l u e s of
R 0 and k. A l l l i n es R 0 = eonst, h = c o n s t b e g i n at t he
-- (21 + 2B) (3 @ 2B) @
point O and pass t h r o u g h the point N. Th e so l u t i ons
+ 2(3 -- s) (3 -t- B) -- t2(3 -- s)swt-' = 0, (2.6) r e p r e s e n t e d by the point O kave z e r o a m p l i t u d e . In
e s s e n c e they w e r e c o n s i d e r e d in [1], while the s o l u -
B= ( 3 - - t)~
(t + ~)._ tions c o n s t r u c t e d in [4] a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the s e g -
t5 - - 18t -~ 5t ~
m e n t of the s = 0 a x i s b e g i n n i n g at O. T h e s e s ol ut i ons
If we now s p e c i f y the v a l u e s of t and s, f r o m (2.5) a r e bounded by the v al u e R = 14.75 which is obtained
it is e a s y to find w, and then f r o m (2.6) and (2.4) we as t ~ +0. Th e p o r t i o n of the s - a x i s f r o m O to K c o r -
find A and p2. r e s p o n d s to z e r o flow r a t e .
F o r s m a l l v a l u e s of t and s ~ 0, i . e . , s m a l l f l o w -
r a t e s , it is not difficult to obtain a p p r o x i m a t e e x p r e s -
sions f o r al l the p r o b l e m p a r a m e t e r s if we l i m i t o u r -
O,lj s e l v e s to the f i r s t t e r m s of t h e e x p a n s i o n in t
30 (i + s V ( i - - % s)
02 R"/~ = + 27y i 0 i s(3 - - s) (l - - 62/303s) t,

("2/'/8 2 B-',=,
sec a0=(~f3R '/~, L = 2 ~ \ g /
o o.1 0.2
Fig. 5
O) ~-- ~, ) R%
U s i n g (1.9), (2.3) it is e a s y to find the e x p r e s s i o n s
n = dR v6, d = [3y(i ~- S)]-v=. (2.9)
f o r al l the p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s i n t e r m s of t, s, A, w:
All the p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n s f o r g i v e n R 0 a r e r e p r e -
45ayRo-''/~ ~-~ (,t -~ s)-a(~l @ t/w)6A2(5t a - t8t --}-,15) 3, s e n t e d in Fig. 1 by the l i n es R 0 = const. With i n -
n3=Ro~/~/yA, R-~-Ro(i--t/w), ao3=Ro~2/g, c r e a s e of the d i s t a n c e 1 f r o m the point O along e a c h
of t h e s e l i n e s the a m p l i t u d e p i n c r e a s e s m o n o t o n i c -
r ~--- (3 - - t ) R v / 3a0, ~ ---=-2nao / n. (2.7)
ally, w h i l e the n u m b e r R f i r s t i n c r e a s e s and then d e -
We s e e f r o m (2.4) that r e a l s o lu ti o n s of the c o n , c r e a s e s . At the point w h e r e R r e a c h e s a m a x i m u m ,
s i d e r e d p r o b l e m e x i s t f o r t/w > o. F r o m (2.5) follows the d e r i v a t i v e DR/OI v a n i s h e s . Since R 0 and R a r e
that if t, s a r e not too l a r g e , then w w i l l be p o s i t i v e functions of t and s, this c o n d i t i o n m a y be w r i t t e n
and t h e r e f o r e we m u s t have t > 0. R e c a l l i n g the d e f i -
OR ORo OR ORo
nition of t, we find that the r a t i o z of the w a v e p r o p a - = 0. (2.10)
Ot Os Os Ot
g a t i o n v e l o c i t y to the a v e r a g e l i q u i d v e l o c i t y is always
l e s s than 3. We d e t e r m i n e c o m p l e t e l y the r e g i o n of
We i n t r o d u c e w and A in p l a c e of R and R0; then
e x i s t e n c e of the wave r e g i m e s in the t, s plane if we
the condition (2.1) m a y be w r i t t e n a s
a s s u m e that the i n e q u a l i t i e s oo > A 2 > 0 m u s t a l w a y s
be s a t i s f i e d . F OAz t / OA20w
In a c c o r d a n c e with (2.6), the l i m i t i n g v a l u e s of A z Ot Os /A +
a r e r e a c h e d on l i n e s whose e q u a t io n s a r e
t Ow t 9 - - 5t 0w
3--t/w(3--t--w)(%--t--w) =0, + 3V o 7 - 3-6~, 5t2-18t+ ~(t + r = 0. (2.11)

(2t -~- 2B) (3 + 2B) -- 2(3 - - s)•


H e r e the d e r i v a t i v e s a r e found with (2.5) and (2.6).
x(3 + B) - - 1,2(3 - - s ) s w / t = 0. (2.8)
The set of al l such points c o n s t i t u t e s the line MN in
T h e s e l i n es a r e shown in Fig. 1. The v a l u e s of Fig. 1. In v i e w of the s y m m e t r y of Eq. (2.10), a
t, s i n c l u d e d b e t w e e n t h e s e l i n e s and the t = 0 axis m I n i m u m v a l u e of R0 f o r a g i v e n R is a l s o r e a c h e d on
a r e a d m i s s i b l e , i . e . , f o r any of t h e s e v a l u e s the t h i s l i n e. Th u s, MN is the line of o p t i m u m p e r i o d i c
p e r i o d i c s o l u t i o n of (1.9) in the f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n s o l u t i o n s . Along t h i s line the v al u e of R i n c r e a s e s
e x i s t s and m a y be c a l c u l a t e d with the a id of ( 2 . 4 ) - m o n o t o n i c a l l y : R = 0 f o r t = 0, and R = 95 f o r t =
(2.7). The e n t i r e e x i s t e n c e r e g i o n c o n s i s t s of two = 1.282. The c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e s e so l u t i o n s m a y be
p a r t s having a c o m m o n point with the c o o r d i n a t e s c a r r i e d out by joint solution of E q s . (2.5), (2.6), (2.11);
t = 1.3101, s = - 1 at which the b o u n d a r y c u r v e s i n t e r - the r e s u l t s of t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d in the
s e c t . The p o r t i o n of the r e g i o n to the r i g h t of this table.
point r e p r e s e n t s a v e r y n a r r o w lune w h o s e v e r t e x has In o r d e r to e v a l u a t e the a c c u r a c y of the solution
the c o o r d i n a t e s t = 1.4908, s = - ~ . The v a l u e s of t, c o n s t r u c t e d , l e t us c o n s i d e r the s e c o n d a p p r o x i m a -
s lying t h e r e i n c o r r e s p o n d to l a r g e flow r a t e s ; they tion. We set ~2i = 0 (i = 3, 4, . . . ) and e q u a t e to z e r o
FLUID DYNAMICS 33

t h e f i r s t s e v e n c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e F o u r i e r s e r i e s f o r c u r v e s w h i c h p r a c t i c a l l y c o i n c i d e . The d i f f e r e n c e is
t h e l e f t s i d e of E q . (1.9). If w e i n t r o d u c e t h e v a r i - in t h e w a v e s h a p e a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , i n t h e v a l u e s
a b l e s t , s , w , A 2, a s w a s d o n e in t h e f i r s t a p p r o x i - of the s m a l l e s t and l a r g e s t o s c i l l a t i o n a m p l i t u d e s is
mation, after lengthy calculations we obtain the equa- m o r e m a r k e d . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e m a y b e s e e n in F i g . 5,
lions for A 2 and w w h e r e t h e s o l i d l i n e s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e f i r s t a p p r o x i -
m a t i o n a n d t h e d a s h e d l i n e s to t h e s e c o n d (1 is t h e
6 (3 47 50) (2 - - s) w' - - [63 47 t8B 47 6s - - (3 47 B ) t 47
wave trough, 2 the crest).
3. Let us apply the conStructed solution to the explanation of the
- b 6(3 - - t) (3 47 50)i(2 - - s) - - 66~ -
experimental data, considering primarily the results of [2]. First of
(2i 47 2B)52] w - - t(3 - - t) (3 47 B) ~---0 , all we note that Eq. (1.9), whose periodic solution was studied, was
obtained from the governing system of equations using certain simpli-
(2t + 2B) (3 47 2 B - - 6~) - - 2 ( 3 - - s) x fications; therefore, it describes the wave motion of a viscous liquid in
a thin layer approximately. We can judge the accuracy by comparison
x ( 3 + B) + 4(3 - - s) (3 + 6 o ) s w t - i - - with experimental data; however, some preliminary statements may be
made. The accuracy will be poorer for small X, comparable with the
--,6{3 - - 52 - - t w - i ( 3 - - t - - w ) x
layer thickness e~, since in this case the boundary layer approximation
used becomes incorrect. For very large k the wave profile has a complex
• [ ( 1 + '186o) ( 3 - t - w) - ~121}A2 = O,
form, as calculationS show, and i~s representation by two or even three
5o = 2,02 [4 -~A-* (t8 47 B) q~20- - harmonies of the Fourier series is not exact; in this case the solution
method used is not sufficiently accurate. Therefore the cases of long
--314(P21 47 ~12(pzo2 - - 6A-iq~2oq)2i + 3 h ~ , e ] , and short wavelengths mast be excluded from consideration. We see
in Fig. 1 that the lines of constant values of k cluster together near the
51 ~ I/2p2[--t 47 6Acp2047 4(12 47 B)(p2t 47 boundaries of the existence region, near which their density increases
sharply. The major portion of this region is included between the lines
47 4(39 47 2B) (p3o- - t2Acps~], k= 0.7 cm and k= 1.4 era; the simplifications made are best justified
for the wave regimes corresponding to this portion of the region.
52 ---- p 2 [ - - 2 A - ' (t2 47 B)(p2o 47 3(p2~+ Theoretically, for a given flow rate there exists an infinite number
of wave regions which differ in wavelength, and there is no a priori
+ 6(p~o 47 2A -~ (39 47 2B) cp~], (2.1 2)
indication of which will be observed experimentally. In reality it is
found that ff special measures are not taken the wave flow of the liquid
a n d t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e e x p a n s i o n (1.9) a r e e x p r e s -
layer will be unsteady and waves of different length are observed si-
sed as
multaneously. Clear-cut periodic motion is realized only in the case
A-'e~2o = ' / 2 ] ( 3 47 2B - - 5 0 -- (3 - - s) (3 - - 5z), in which periodic disturbances of a frequency which is unique for the
given flow rate are imposed on the flow. In this case a wavelength may
s~2~ = (3 - - s) (3 47 2B - - 6~) 47 V2(3 - - 5a)/A ~, be associated with each flow rate. Experiment does not indicate in
etq)3o = Lt]A 2 - - 3(8 - - s)L2, what way this wavelength differs from the others and why this specific
wavelength is realized from among the infinite set of possible regimes.
A - ~ e ~ l = 3(8 - - s)L~ 47 fL2, However the theoretical examination leads to the conclusion that
among all possible regimes there actually exist those which are in a
f = -tu,-~ (3 - t - w),
definite sense exceptional regimes--these are the optimum regimes.
e~--- (IA)2 47 4(3 - - s) 2, e~=9(8--s)2q - (fA) 2, It is natural to suggest that it is precisely these regimes which are ex-
perimentally observed. In Fig. 2 (and in the remaining figures) the
L~ --= ~/~[t 47 6(9 47 2B)A-~q%0 - - 12q~z~], solid curve shows the theoretical variation of wavelength with flow
rate, and the dashed curves show the experimental resuks [2]. The
L~. -= ' h [ - - (3 47 B) 47 12A(p20 47 6(9 47 2B)q~z,].
close correspondence of the theoretical and experimental data indicate
If w e s e t 5 0= 0, 5~ = 0, 5 2= 0 h e r e , t h e n w e o b - that the assumption concerning the optimum regimes will be correct or
very close thereto.
tain the e q u a t i o n s of the f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n c o n s i d -
in Fig. 1 the optimum regimes are represented by the points of the
ered above. line MN. They exist in a large range of flows from R= 0 to R ~ 100.
The r e I a t i o n s d e r i v e d a r e c o n v e n i e n t to use for The experimentally observed regimes [2] occupy only the portion of
c a l c u l a t i o n s b y i t e r a t i o n s . In t h e s e c o n d a p p r o x i m a - this range from about R= 20 to R= 60, ioe., the region of medium
t i o n t h e s e t o f a d m i s s i b l e v a l u e s of t , s c h a n g e s , a n d flow rates. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental data is
s o l u t i o n of (2.12) w i l l n o t e x i s t in s o m e p o r t i o n o f t h e shown in Figs. 3-5. Good agreement is obtained with respect co the
r e g i o n s h o w n in F i g . 1, a n d i n t h e c a s e in w h i c h s o l u - values of the average thickness (in Fig. 3 the curve is for 1.07a 0' since
t i o n s e x i s t i n b o t h a p p r o x i m a t i o n s t h e d e g r e e of d i f - the experimental points represent the quantity 1.07 9 (area x + amin)/2)
and the wave propagation velocity and somewhat poorer agreement
f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m will not be the s a m e in v a r i o u s
with respect to the amplitude values, although nearly all the experi-
p a r t s of t h i s r e g i o n . mental pohats fall in the band between the maximum and mini-
C a l c u I a t i o n s s h o w t h a t f o r v M u e s of R of t h e o r d e r mum amplitudes or very close thereto. On the whole, this com-
of 30 t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d a p - parison confirms the rather good accuracy of the constructed
p r o x i m a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to all the p a r a m e t e r s is solution.
completely negligible for the optimal regimes. This
d i f f e r e n c e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of s m a l l f l o w -
r a t e s a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y in t h e d i r e c t i o n o f l a r g e r a t e s . REFERENCES
F o r v a l u e s o f R of o r d e r 50 t h i s d i f f e r e n c e a m o u n t s
t o a b o u t 10%. If w e c o n s t r u c t g r a p h s of t h e v a r i a t i o n 1. P . L. K a p i t s a , " W a v e f l o w of t h i n l a y e r s o f a
of ao, X, c~ w i t h f l o w r a t e f o r v a I u e s of s, t I y i n g o n v i s c o u s l i q u i d , " Zh. e k s p e r i m , i t e o r . f i z . , v o l . 18,
t h e l i n e MN, a s i s d o n e in F i g s . 2 - 4 , t h e n w e o b t a i n 1948.
34 MEKHANIKA ZHIDKOSTI I GAZA

2. P. L. K a p i t s a and S. P. Kapitsa, "Wave flow 4. L. N. M a u r i n and V. S. Sorokin, "On the wave


of thin l a y e r s of a v i s c o u s liquid," Zh. e k s p e r i m , i flow of thin l a y e r s of a v i s c o u s l i q u i d , " P M T F , 4,
teor. f i z . , vol. 19, 1949. 1962.
3. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshits, The M e c h a n -
ics of Continuous Media [in R u s s i a n ] , Gostekhizdat,
1954. 14 October 1966 Moscow

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