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ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF WIND AND SIESMIC

LOAD FOR MULTISTOREY RCC BUILDING (G+20)


A Report Submitted to
Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University
For the award of the degree

Of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
In
Civil Engineering

By

Sabdar
Roll No. - 1709000510

Under the Supervision of

………………….

FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

DR. A.P.J. ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY


LUCKNOW

APRIL 2019
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Sabdar (Enrollment No.: 131530027094) has carried out research
work presented in this dissertation entitled “BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF OVER BURN BRICK BALAST AS AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE MIX” for
the award of Master Of Technology from Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University
(Formerly Uttar Pradesh Technical University Lucknow) under my supervision. The
dissertation embodies result of original work, and studied carried out by the student
himself and the content of dissertation do not form the basis for award of any degree to
any other candidate or to anybody else from this or any other University/Institution.

Date: Signature

(Shubh Kant Yadav)

Assistant Professor

(IEC College of Engineering And Technology Greater Noida)

ABSTRACT

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This thesis is mainly concerned with the properties of the concrete using over burn brick
aggregate, because of scarcity of the natural aggregate in Northern india. Three types of
cements are used so that it is judged what kind of cement can also be used to get even
more good quality of the concrete used for building purposes. Three grades of concrete
were casted and the corresponding strength was found. Cubes and beams were cast for
this purpose. It was found that Portland slag cement gave the best result out of the all
cements used. Pozzolana cement gave second best results and ordinary cement exhibited
the least compressive and flexural strengths. Take a look at results indicated that
mistreatment crushed bricks reduces the strength of concrete. Also, the proportion of
water to cement magnitude relation will increase for constant slump once the proportion
of crushed bricks augmented. The results indicate that the crushed over burn brick are
appropriate to switch the granite mixture in concrete production. Trial mixes of crushed
over burn brick concrete were ready by substitution the Granite Aggregate with 25%,
50%, 75% and 100 percent crushed over burn bricks by volume. M20 grade of each
Granite aggregate and crushed over burn brick concretes were ready and tested to match
the compressive strength. The take a look at results showed that it's doable to provide
crushed over burn brick concrete with characteristics like those of Granite aggregate
concrete with 25% replacement.

Keywords : over burn brick, aggregate, Portland pozzolana cement, ordinary Portland
cement, compressive strength test, slump test,

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to pay my most sincere appreciation for the helpful co-operation received

by me from Mr. Shubh Kant Yadav my dissertation supervisor. I would like to thank

iii
Mr. Dhirendra kumar singh HOD Civil Engineering Department IEC COLLEGE

OF ENGINERING AND TECHNOLOGY, GREATER NOIDA for his kind support.

I would also like to pay gratitude that helped me carrying out experiments in the

workshop but not the least I gratefully acknowledge effort of colleagues who helped me

during accomplishment during my dissertation work.

GOVIND

Roll No. 1709000505

Enrollment No.131530027094

TABLE OF CONTAINT

Page No.

Certificate ii

Abstract iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of Content v-vii

iv
List of Figure viii

CHAPTER : 1 INTRODUCTION 1-12

1.1 GENERAL 1

1.2 MATERIAL USED 4

1.2.1 Ordinary Portland Cement 4

1.2.2 Ordinary Pozzolana Cement 4

1.2.3 Portland Slag Cement 4

1.2.4 Over Burn Brick 5

1.2.5 Over Burn Brick Aggregate 5

1.2.6 Admixture 6

1.2.7 Water 6

1.3 PROCEDURE 6

1.3.1 Water Absorption Test 6

1.3.2 Compressive Strength of Over Burn Brick 7

1.3.3 Specific Gravity Test 8

1.3.4 Slump Test 9

1.3.5 Mix Design 9

1.3.5.1 Mix Calculation 10

CHAPTER : 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13-20

2.1 GENERAL 13

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 13

2.3 LITERATURE GAP 18

2.4 OBJECTIVE 17

2.5 SCOPE 19

CHAPTER : 3 METHODOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL WORK 21-26

3.1 GENERAL 21

3.2 EXPERIMENTAL WORK 21

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3.2.1 Preparation of Sample 21

3.2.2 Water Absorption Test Over Burn Brick 22

3.2.3 Compressive Strength Test of Over Burn Brick 22

3.2.4 Fine Aggregate 23

3.2.5 Over Burn Brick Aggregate 24

3.2.6 Specific Gravity Test 24

3.2.7 Slump Test 25

3.2.8 Hardness Test of Concrete 25

3.3 Casting of beam and Cubes 25

3.4 CURING OF SPECIMEN 26

CHAPER : 4 RESULT 27

CHAPTER : 5 CONCLUSION 27

REFRENCES 28-29

LIST OF FIGURE

Fig name. page no.

1.1. COLLECTION OF SAMPLE FROM PUG MILL 3

1.2 OVER BURN BRICK AGGREGATE USED 6

3.1 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST OF OVER BURN BRICK 23

3.2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY TEST OF OVER BURN BRICK AGGREGATE 24

3.3 FLEXURAL TEST 25

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General

Concrete is made by admixture cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water to provide a
material that may be moulded into virtually any form. the most important volume of
concrete is full of coarse aggregate. Aggregate inclusion in concrete reduces its drying
shrinkage and improves several different properties. Aggregate is additionally the
smallest amount dearly-won per weight unit, however it makes the foremost quantity of
the burden. it's pricey to move therefore native sources area unit required, however
because of geographical constraint this is often not obtainable the least bit places, so it
necessitate finding different source what's more, options from local sources. In eastern
and north eastern conditions of india wherever regular shake stores are rare, squashed
over burn bricks are utilized as a substitute supply of coarse total. In these spots of india
over burn brick total are generally utilized as coarse mix. the work and execution of
cement made with broken over burn brick as coarse total zone unit very inside and out
and acceptable for typical cement. Dirt and residue in conjunction with as opposed to over
burn brick total in concrete, as there's absence of trial study or separate codal proposal
identifying with the work of over burn brick total in standard cement (M25 to M55
according to indian standard (IS:456-2000). Thusly, as of late development estimation of
the solid structure upgraded complex. In this manner, a logical examination is required
identifying with the practicableness of utilization of pulverized over burn brick as total in
light of the fact that the quality of the over burn brick possible amid this district is path
not as much as that utilized by various past scientists. High water assimilation of the over
burn brick total inside the change of twelve to twenty by dry weight of over burn brick
aggregate additionally causes a significant downside to use it within the work, although
the sooner researchers used saturated surface dry aggregate in their investigation,
however within the reality it's insufferable to create the aggregates saturated surface dry.
aside from this sand obtainable regionally is additionally very fine grained having
fineness modulus price not up to two.00. further more sturdiness is another side that is
additionally greatly emphasised within the gift code. Clay is burnt within the type of over
burn brick, and once crushed, type aggregates that are called over burn brick aggregate.

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this sort of aggregates has been extensively employed in concrete in several places of the
globe particularly within the South Asian countries, wherever supply of natural
combination is restricted. However, these aggregates are porous and lightweight weight,
and even have high water absorption capability than natural aggregates. Consistence of
the over burn brick aggregate leads towards its low compressive strength and high
abrasion price. Despite of these short comings, over burn brick aggregate has been
employed in creating concretes for several years. In 1983, a ground work allotted on the
engineering properties of over burn brick aggregate concrete, showed that by fastidiously
choosing proportion and internal control parameters, high strength are often achieved in
over burn brick aggregate concrete. in 1994, studied the properties of concrete
victimization crushed clinker over burn brick as coarse aggregate. In 1999, studies
concerning the properties of stone combination concrete with those of over burn brick
aggregate concrete by replacement equal quantity of stone with over burn brick. All the
higher than mentioned studies were for traditional strength concrete; but, makes an
attempt have conjointly been created to provide high strength concrete victimization over
burn brick chips as coarse combination. Over burn brick aggregate concrete conjointly
performs well or maybe higher than natural aggregate concrete below warmth. of these
studies even the employment of crushed over burn brick as an alternate supply of coarse
aggregate in concrete. However, there's hardly any literature on use of over burn brick
aggregate in permeable concrete. This absence of documentation along with potential of
victimization over burn brick chips as a viable different of coarse combination in
permeable concrete impelled the authors to try and do this study. This experimental
investigation allotted on concrete made from crushed over burn brick combination of
selected strength. The purpose of this paper is to research the potential use of over burn
bricks as a replacement for natural coarse mixture in concrete and make light weight of
concrete. to attain this objective the physical and mechanical properties of Over Burn
Brick mixture . the kind of waste bricks thought-about during this study is obtained
throughout the development of some buildings in larger Noida site and this sort is tested
to induce its mechanical properties before used. traditional concrete specimens
mistreatment traditional mixture are casted and tested to match their results with Over
Burn Brick mixture made of construction waste. check results obtained square measure

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Fig1.1. Collection of sample from pug mill

conferred and mentioned here during this paper. Lightweight concrete composite were
used with success for several years for structural members and elements in buildings and
bridges. light-weight concrete may be outlined as a kind of concrete which has an
increasing agent in this it will increase the degree of the mixture whereas giving further
qualities like nailbility associate degree lessened the dead weight. the assembly of stable
foam concrete mix depends on several factors like choice of foaming agent, methodology
of froth preparation and addition for uniform air voids distribution, materials section and
mixture style methods, production of froth concrete and performance with relation to
contemporary and hardened state square measure of larger significance. In addition to its
lighter weight, which permits saving in loading so reduces the price of each super
structure and foundations, this concrete is more proof against fireplace and provides
higher heat and sound insulation than concrete of traditional density. Concrete is second
wide used construction material within the world. It principally consists of Coarse
mixture, Fine mixture, Cement and Water. The Coarse mixture consumes 75-80% of the
quantity of the concrete, thus dictating the strength and density relationship. the demand
for the natural resources like gravel that is employed as a rough mixture and sand were
accrued from recent past. the kind of waste bricks thought-about during this study is
obtained throughout the pug mills in Greater Noida site and this sort is tested to induce
its mechanical properties before used. traditional concrete specimens mistreatment
traditional mixture are casted and tested to match their results with Over Burn Brick

3
mixture made of construction waste. check results obtained square measure conferred and
mentioned here during this paper. The first sources of coarse mixture have gotten
diminished thanks to varied reasons like excessive consumption, technological and
industrial development, erosion, excessive mining, etc.

1.2 Material used

1.2.1 Ordinary Portland cement

One of the cement used was normal Portland cement of forty three grade conformist to
IS: 8112-1989. This Cement is that the most typically used cement altogether
constructions as well as plain and strengthened cement concrete, over burn brick and
stone masonry, floors and covering. it's conjointly utilized in the finishing of all sorts of
buildings, bridges, culverts, roads, water retentive structures, etc. it surpasses BIS
Specifications (IS 8112-1989 for 43 grade OPC) on compressive strength levels. Cement
is marketed in specially designed 50 kilogram a bag. relative density of this cement was
3.15.

1.2.2 Portland pozzolana cement

It is the final name for the cluster of cement containing over 20 percent active additives.
The term “Pozzolana Cement” springs from the name of a friable igneous rock. Pozzolana
utilized in Ancient Rome as an additive to lime within the production of Portland cement.
In fashionable construction the most important variety of pozzolana cement is Portland
pozzolana cement, created by grinding along Portland cement clinker, a full of life
mineral additive (20-40 percent), and a tiny low quantity of mineral. It differs from
normal Portland cement unit’s higher resistance to corrosion (especially in soft or sulfate
waters), reduced rate of hardening, and lower frost resistance. Pozzolana cement is used
principally to provide concrete used in underwater and underground structures.

1.2.3 Portland slag cement

Slag cement is most generally used in concrete, either as a separate building material part
or as a part of intermingled cement. It works synergistically with Portland cement to
extend strength, cut back permeableness, improve resistance to chemical attack and
inhibit rebar corrosion. scoria cement is used in just about all concrete applications i.e.

4
Concrete pavements structures and foundations, mass concrete applications, cherish dams
or retentive walls, formed and prestressed concrete, Pipe and Block and Concrete exposed
to harsh environments, cherish waste treatment and marine applications superior, high-
strength concrete, cherish high-rise structures or 100-year service life bridges scoria
cement is additionally utilized in non-concrete applications cherish soil-cement and
unsafe waste curing.

1.2.4 Over burn brick

Over burn bricks just one variety of unused clay over burn bricks of 250x120x70 metric
linear unit operating size ware utilized in the investigation done before the over burn
bricks were pulverized into a coarse aggregate their uniaxial compressive strength was
recorded for examination with the combination created by crushing them all the way
down to coarse aggregate. The compressive strength of the complete over burn brick total
strength found 14.5 Mpa.

1.2.5 Over burn brick aggregate

Full over burn bricks were crushed to twenty metric linear unit the nominal size of
aggregate according to Indian IS code 383-1970. Over burn bricks area unit crushed of
automatically with jaw device manufacture flaky and elongated aggregate. the test of
performe on the aggregate and check mechanical and physical property of the aggregate
according to Indian IS code 2386-1963, it had been found that crushing price of the
aggregate thirty second and the water absorption ten.413% , The fineness modulus of the
over burn brick aggregate find to be seven.47, and relative density of coarse aggregate
was a pair of.16. Figure showing aggregate used.

5
Fig. 1.2 Over burn brick aggregate used

1.2.6 Admixture

A super plasticizer admixture according to IS:9103-1999 was added to the mixing of the
water used in the admixture is clean and get better workability and other result in this
dissertation, of effect of admixtures on the property of fresh and hard concrete. The
specific gravity of admixture found to be 1.2.

1.2.7 Water
Water is available in the college campus (IEC College Greater Noida)

1.3 PROCEDURE

1.3.1 Water absorption test

Water absorption value of over burn bricks largely influences the bond between over burn
brick and mortar. If water absorption in over burn bricks is more and over burn bricks are
not soaked before the masonry work, the water from freshly laid mortar is likely to
be absorbed by over burn bricks. This results into poor mortar strength as the sufficient
quantity of water will not be available for hydration process. This article describes the
details procedure for water absorption test for over burn bricks as per IS 3495 – Part 2. In
this we also used sensitive weigh balance and ventilated oven. The samples is dried in a
ventilated broiler at a temperature of 1050C to 1150C; till it accomplishes fundamentally
consistent mass. The samples is cooled at the temperature of 25C and it's weight is
recorded as M1

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1. The dry test samples is submerge totally in purify water at a of 27±20C for 24 hours.

2. The samples is then evacuated and any hints of water are wiped out with a sodden
fabric and the samples is weighed. The weighing is finished 3min after the samples has
expelled from water. Record the weight as M2. Water retention, percent by mass,
following 24-hour submersion in chilly water is given by the formula of:

% of water absorption = [(M2-M1) / M1] x 100

1.3.2 Compressive Strength Of Over Burn Brick

For determination of compressive strength of over burn bricks, as per IS: 3495 – P (1)-
1992, we used the following procedure. In this we tested three numbers of over burn brick
and the average value is reported. Compression Testing Machine, Scale for measuring
dimension of over burn brick was required for this test. Before testing, CTM machine was
properly checked. After that the load is applied in the following way.

1.Unevenness decided inside the bed countenances of over burn bricks is expelled to
supply 2 smooth and parallel faces by pounding. it's drenched in water at room
temperature for twenty-four hours.

2.The example is then expelled and any surplus wet is depleted out at room temperature.
The frog and each one voids inside the bed confront is loaded with concrete mortar (1
bond: a couple of clean sand of review three millimeter and down). it's keep underneath
the sodden jute packs for twenty-four h took after by inundation in clean water for three
days.

3.The example is set with level faces even, and mortar filled face confronting upwards
between 2 three employ plyboard sheets everything about millimeter thickness and
meticulously focused between plates of testing machine.

4.Load is connected pivotally at a homogenous rate of ten N/mm2 every moment until
the point that disappointment happens. the most load at disappointment is noted down.
The heap at disappointment is viewed as the most extreme load at that the example

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neglects to create any more drawn out increment inside the pointer perusing on the testing
machine.

1.3.3 Specific gravity test

The Pycnometer strategy can be utilized for assurance of the particular gravity of strong
particles of both fine grained and coarse grained soils. The particular gravity of solids is
resolved utilizing the accompanying strides to discover same.

1. Perfect and dry the Pycnometer. Firmly screw its top. Take its mass (M1) to the closest
of 0.1g.

2. Check the top and Pycnometer with a vertical line parallel to the hub of the Pycnometer
to guarantee that the top is screwed to a similar stamp each time.

3. Unscrew the top and place around 200g of broiler dried soil in the Pycnometer. Screw
the top. Decide the mass (M2).

4. Unscrew the top and include adequate measure of de-broadcast water to the
Pycnometer in order to cover the dirt. Screw on the top.

5. Shake well the substance. Interface the Pycnometer to a vacuum pump to expel the
entangled air, for around 20 minutes for fine-grained soils and around 10 minutes for
coarse-grained soils.

6. Bind the vacuum pump Fill the by the water with Pycnometer , three-fourth full.
Reapply the vacuum for around 5min till air rises quit showing up on the surface of the
water.

7. Fill the Pycnometer with water absolutely up to the stamp. Dry it from outside to take
its mass (M3).

8. write the temperature of substance.

9. Release the Pycnometer Clean and wipe to dry it .

10. Fill the Pycnometer with water figuratively speaking. Mess up on the best to the
check. Wipe it dry. Take its mass (M4).

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Where M1=mass of empty Pycnometer,

M2= mass of the Pycnometer with dry soil

M3= mass of the Pycnometer and soil and water,

M4 = mass of Pycnometer filled with water only.

G= Specific gravity of solids.

M2−M1
G = (M2−M1)−(M3−M4)

1.3.4 Slump test

Slump is an estimation of solid's functionality, or smoothness. It's a roundabout


estimation of solid consistency or solidness. A droop test is a technique used to decide
the consistency of cement. The consistency, or solidness, shows how much water has
been utilized as a part of the blend. The solidness of the solid blend ought to be
coordinated to the necessities for the completed item quality.

1.3.5 Mix design

The essential rule for blend plan of concrete according to the Indian code Seems to be:
10262-2009 was taken after. As per the codal rule soaked and surface dry totals are
utilized and if there should be an occurrence of total either soggy or dried modification is
done as needs be. The vast majority of the past scientists who took the necessary steps on
finished consume block total utilized immersed surface dry total, yet in genuine
undertaking work it will be alongside difficult to get ready SSD total. In the event that
the change is improved the situation extremely dry total including additional water for
retention at that case add up to amount of water in the blend will be higher than the
computed sum in light of the fact that amid the way toward setting just 75 to 85% water
will be consumed by the total and remaining water in the blend will come about increment
of w/c proportion on the grounds that in this way a large portion of the pores will be fixed
by the lattice and the water will stay inside the concrete grains. In outcome of this there
will be loss of quality. Then again if the water is blended for assimilation just for the
setting time frame it will deliver a solid of wanted functionality in the new state and now
and again abatement of w/c proportion prompting expanded quality. Coarse total and fine

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total utilized as a part of the blend was halfway dried and along these lines in the
estimation of blend plan essential modification was made for fine total. We used the
following procedure from the Indian code IS: 10262-2009 to find the proportion of the
ingredients used in the concrete. We used the following way to design the beams and
cubes. We design this concrete for the M35 by using OPC 43 Grade of the cement and
the maximum size of the over burn brick coarse aggregate is 20mm, initially we took 0.4
water cement ratio, through this we got the workability 90mm for this concrete. Because
of designing this for very severe exposure condition, we handle this by hands. Unit weight
of this concrete was about to 2186kg/m3, even the minimum cement content was
340kg/m3 for this condition By using Water cement ratio as 0.4, we got Cement content,
441.7kg/m3.but for this we found some ratios as follow.

Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20mm size aggregate & fine aggregate
(zone IV) & water cement ratio is found, 0.66

Volume of coarse aggregate for water cement ratio of 0.4=0.66+0.22=0.68

Volume of fine aggregate=1-0.68=0.32

1.3.5.1 Mix calculations

The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows:

(a) Volume of concrete = 1m3

mass of cement 1
(b) Volume of cement = × 1000
specific gravity of cement

441.75 1
= × 1000
3.15

=0.140m3

Mass of water 1
(c) Volume of water = × 1000
specific gravity of water

10
176.7 1
= × 1000
1

=0.1767m3

Mass of admixture 1
(d) Volume of chemical admixture= × 1000
specific gravity of admixture

(super plasticizer) (@ 1.0 percent

by mass of cementitious material)

441.75 1
= × 1000
1.2

=0.00368m3

(e) Volume of all in aggregate=[a-(b+c+d)]

=1-(0.140+0.1767+0.00368)

=0.67962m3

(f) Mass of coarse aggregate= e x Volume of coarse aggregate x Specific gravity of coarse
aggregate x 1 000

=0.67962×0.68×2.16×1000

=998.226kg

(g) Mass of fine aggregate= e x volume of fine aggregate x Specific gravity of fine
aggregate x 1000

= 0.67962×0.32×2.67×1000

=580.67kg

We found the mix design constituents quantity for the unit metre cube

Cement=441.75kg.

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Water=176.7kg.

Coarse aggregate=998.226kg.

Fine aggregate=580.67kg.

Super plasticizer=4.418kg.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 GENERAL

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Bazaz, (2006), Essential test outcomes show that the nature of such finished burn brick
is low in correlation with normal rocks. This is because of generation procedure of such
finished burn brick in Iran, which is mostly not the same as European nations. The
compressive quality of cement made with smashed over burn brick is moderately low in
correlation with common cement. Be that as it may, concrete over burn brick delivered
with pulverized over burn brick appreciate a level of quality higher than conventional
over burn brick; they could be utilized as finished burn brick in new structures.

Mohammed (2004), The stay away from early weakening of solid structures, the
sturdiness plan of the structures must be considered. More research on the strength of
solid structures in Greater Noida should be completed to comprehend decay forms in our
hot and sticky nation. The nature of bond brands must be controlled for the supportable
improvement of solid innovation. When they have comparative scraped area esteems,
over consume block total solid gives higher qualities when contrasted with stone total
cement. Reusing of wrecked cement is feasible for concrete in the quality range 20–
28Mpa. More courses are to be consolidated in the undergrad program on solid
innovation.

Rasel (2006), the use of fresh over burn brick and waste over burn brick as a coarse
aggregate in bituminous mixes is a feasible option. Fresh over burn brick and waste over
burn brick are reasonable for the bituminous blends as coarse total from the thought of
total properties. Bituminous blends with new finished consume block totals and waste
over consume block totals both fulfill all the necessity of a bituminous folio course for
690 kPa tyre pressure having higher optimum bitumen content (13% and 12%
respectively). The use of fresh and waste over burn brick in the bituminous mixes required
higher amount of bitumen binder compared to the conventional mix because of the high
porosity and roughness of over burn brick aggregates. Analysis and optimization of the

13
heat-insulating light concrete hollow over burn brick walls design by the finite element
method.

Dıaza et at (2007), Department of Public Works, owners and building proprietors are
demanding high-capacity heat-insulating exterior masonry components specifically for
further energy savings. For housing and industrial structures there is also a great interest
in light building materials with good physical material behavior, as for a vitality cognizant
and biological outline, which satisfies all quality and workableness necessities. The real
factors impacting the warm conductivity of workmanship materials are shown in this
work by taking squares produced using no-fine lightweight concrete and diverse mortar
properties. The limited component technique (FEM) is utilized for finding precise
arrangements of the warmth exchange condition for five diverse light solid empty over
burn brick walls. Mathematically, the non-linearity is because of the radiation limit
condition inside the inward openings of the over burn bricks. The conduction and
convection wonders are considering in this investigation for three distinct estimations of
the mortar conductivity and three unique qualities for the over burn bricks. Streamlining
of the dividers is completed from the limited component investigation of five empty over
burn brick geometries by methods for the mass general warm effectiveness and the
identical warm conductivity.

Ismail, and Yaacob, (2010), the over burn blocks created with reused fine total
demonstrate a uniform size and surface territory like over burn brick with regular total.
The supplanting with higher reused fine total can diminish the thickness of bond and sand
over burn brick. The test outcomes demonstrate that the substitution of common sand by
reused fine totals at the levels of half and 75% effectsly affects the compressive quality
of the over burn brick. Notwithstanding, having a 100% reused fine total substance
lessens the compressive quality contrasted and that of the control test. The transverse
quality of the examples increments as the rate level of the substitution increments to half.
Be that as it may, the transverse quality declines when the level of the substitution is over
half. The shrinkage and water ingestion exhibitions of the over burn brick are palatable.
By and large, reused fine totals created from annihilation waste can be used in finished
consume block blends as a decent substitute for normal sand.

14
Hossain, et al, (2011), From tests the creators found that quality of over consume block
total pervious cement is not as much as that of stone total cement for same total size. Be
that as it may, porousness of over consume block total pervious cement is higher than
stone total pervious cement. The reason for pervious cement is to deplete off precipitation
spillover rapidly; in this way, penetrability is one of the essential trademark. Over
consume block total performs better in such manner. In this manner over consume block
total can be utilized as a part of pervious cement in places where stack is relatively less
and greater porousness is required. Mixture of different size of over burn brick aggregate
may produce higher strength concrete therefore; will increase its suitability and scope of
applications. Again where availability of natural aggregate is limited over burn brick
aggregate, which can be obtain easily by crushing over burn bricks made from landfills,
can safely, be used as a viable alternative in making pervious concrete.

Rashid, (2012), over burn brick aggregate concrete weighs about 14.5% less than that of
natural aggregate concrete. The rate of abatement in unit weight of blended total solid
declines with the expansion in Vba/Vca proportion up to half past which the rate of
lessening increments. A 33% diminishment in compressive quality of cement is found
because of the utilization of over burn brick total rather than stone total for the quality
scope of cement considered. The diminishment in rigidity of blended total cement is
observed to be less critical up to half substitution of stone total by finished consume block
total. Around 28% lessening in flexible modulus of cement is found because of the
utilization of over burn brick total rather than stone total.

Kumar. S, (2012), the compressive quality of rice husk fiery remains concrete was
observed to be in the scope of 70-80% of regular cement for a substitution of bond up to
20%. The examination demonstrates that the early nature of rice husk red hot debris
concrete was observed to be less and the quality expanded with age. The rice husk fiery
debris concrete possesses more volume than bond for a similar weight. So the aggregate
volume of the rice husk cinder solid increments for a specific weight when contrasted
with traditional solid which brings about economy. Because of the lower thickness of
RHA concrete the self weight of structure gets decreased which brings about general
funds. From the cost investigation it was discovered that the cost of RHA concrete was
less contrasted with ordinary cement. Reused total gangs moderately bring down mass

15
thickness, pulverizing and affect esteems and higher water ingestion when contrasted with
common total. The compressive quality of over burn brick bat concrete was observed to
be almost 35 % of regular cement. The compressive quality of saw clean cement was
observed to be almost 10 to 15% of regular cement. So the solid made with interchange
development materials like over burn brick bats and saw clean can be utilized for segment
and filling purposes and nailing purposes where the quality isn't the criteria. Wherever
compressive quality isn't a criteria, the solid made with exchange development materials
can simply be favored.

Kader, et al, (2012), from tests the creators found that quality of over consume block
total pervious cement is not as much as that of stone total cement for same total size. In
any case, porousness of over consume block total pervious cement is higher than stone
total pervious cement. The reason for pervious cement is to deplete off precipitation
spillover rapidly; along these lines, porousness is of critical qualities. Over consume block
total performs better in such manner. In this way finished consume block total can be
utilized as a part of pervious cement in places where stack is similarly less and greater
penetrability is required. Mixture of different size of over burn brick aggregate may
produce higher strength concrete therefore; will increase its suitability and scope of
applications. Again where availability of natural aggregate is limited over burn brick
aggregate, which can be obtain easily by crushing over burn bricks made from landfills,
can safely, be used as a viable alternative in making pervious concrete. In this study single
size of aggregate was used in making pervious concrete to eliminate aggregate size as a
variable; however, in actual practice use of single size aggregate is limited. Therefore use
of aggregate gradation is recommended for future study.

Ling, Teo, (2012), all over burn brick specimens conformed to MS 76:1972 [12] as class
1 load bearing over burn brick. The sorptivity values for lightweight concrete over burn
bricks under full water and air-dry curing at 28 days were in the range of 0.075-0.145
mm/min0.5 and 0.113-0.186 mm/min0.5 respectively. The water absorption for
lightweight concrete over burn bricks under full water and air dry curing at 28 days were
in the range of 10- 14.5% and 13-19.5% respectively. The increase in the RHA content
produced lower thermal conductivity values as compared to the control mix, sample A.
The thermal conductivity decreases as the density of the samples reduced. The thermal

16
conductivity values for lightweight concrete over burn bricks under full water and air-dry
curing at 28 days were in the range of 0.254-0.682 W/mK and 0.21-0.59 W/mK
respectively.

Dey and Pal, (2013), crushed over burn brick can be utilized acceptably to create M25
and M30 solid keeping water concrete proportion in the scope of 0.35 to 0.40. Adequate
functionality upto the level of pumpable cement can likewise be accomplished by
reasonably utilizing the super plasticizer inside a scope of 0.8% to 1% by weight of
concrete. Flexural quality additionally can be acquired according to the codal prerequisite
and considerably more. For blend outline it isn't required to make the total SSD either by
presoaking or giving extra water to add up to water ingestion, rather water assimilation
for 3 minutes might be alluded as the retention for dry total. In high temperature the
execution up to 6000 degree Celsius is far and away superior to encompassing
temperature for an introduction time of 2 hours. Fine total having low fineness modulus
is additionally fit for creating standard cement. Toughness part of cement made of over
consume block total may additionally be considered for penetrability and stop and defrost
impact. Additionally examine is required for over consume block total produced using
guardian over consume block of various quality.

Banda, et al, (2013), small cylinder strength behaves almost similarly with standard
cylinder strength. Quality pick up at 3 days is 60% of 28-days quality 7 days is 78% of
28-days quality. Disappointment method of both chamber and 3D shape was non-
hazardous and consolidated. The test information demonstrated that there was no
unequivocal connection between the quality of the two states of the proportion of
barrel/3D shape quality. It depended essentially on the level of quality of cement and was
higher when the quality of cement was higher. Concrete is a tremendous field of research
including various unsolved inquiry and issue of capability properties. Be that as it may,
from the down to earth perspective, the quality of cement is the essential enthusiasm to
the specialists. In connection to solid quality just, additionally studies can be made and a
few proposals, particularly appropriate for Greater Noida, are displayed here. More detail
and broad examination can be made to create factual examples of quality variety amongst
chamber and block quality. Aftereffects of past examinations will help an awesome
arrangement in such manner. Factual investigation of the pick up of quality following 28

17
days might be of commonsense worth now and again. Henceforth, again past examination
will end up being important and accommodating.

Ahmad, et al, (2013), compressive strength of over burn brick units and over burn block
workmanship divider turned out to be more than compressive quality of empty solid
square units and empty solid divider brick work. Sound protection property of empty solid
stone work is more than that of over consume block workmanship. Warm protection
property of empty solid stone work is more than that of over consume block brick work
because of essence of air in empty solid units. The cost of square dividers per metre3 of
workmanship turns out to be 17.78%less than that of over consume block dividers. In this
way, square stone work is temperate than over consume block workmanship. Upkeep cost
of empty solid square stone work is not exactly finished consume block workmanship on
account of blooming in finished consume block brick work divider. Empty solid square
stone work is naturally eco neighborly on the grounds that in empty solid square units
constituents can be substituted by squander items like fly fiery remains. It square stone
work shows better building view when contrasted with over consume block
workmanship. Empty solid workmanship development exhibits a speedier development
framework when contrasted with over consume block brick work development. This solid
square workmanship expends less mortar than over consume block stone work since
volume of joints is less in empty solid square brick work. If there should arise an
occurrence of over consume block brick work divider disappointment happens by split
arrangement along one side face all through the tallness of divider, while as in empty
square workmanship disappointment happens by pulverizing of best layer as it were.
Factor of security for empty solid square stone work is more than over consume block
workmanship.

2.3 LITERATURE GAP

In The north of india there is substantial zone where stone totals are not accessible in the
region development. Because of extreme cost on transportation of stone totals,
development winds up costly for the typical structures. This prompts look of elective
materials for street development instead of stone total. The locally accessible over
consumed over burn brick are additionally the best elective material against stone totals
in blends however here we are utilizing over burn brick total of the pounded over burn

18
brick to build up the adequate quality for taking advantage over stone total. The request
of normal stone totals can be diminished by new finished consume block and waste over
burn brick from over burn brick furnace and annihilated building individually. However,
a not very many explores have been done to examine their appropriateness and restricted
data's is accessible about their exhibitions. In this manner, these papers portray the
specialized plausibility on utilization of the over copy block totals in building
development as an option against normal total. The examination program focused on the
current works on identifying with utilization of over burn bricks in building development,
utilization of smashed over burn bricks in substitution of entire over burn bricks and
supplanting of stone total with pulverized over burn brick wherever financially
achievable. The quality properties of coarse total and fine total were performed by the
test strategies.

2.4 OBJECTIVE

As from the scope our aim is to make the over burn brick aggregate more and more
capable to give compressive strength then people need not to use this stone aggregate
because of scarce and there will be other option to use over burn brick aggregate, having
low price, easily available, manufacture and also transferable. Over burn bricks are
common place in modern building construction. recent building codes need to be
anchored to a structural backing in order to transfer out-of-plane loads. conversely, for
in-plane loads structure code assign over burn brick as nonparticipating elements. This
study exploits an experimental method to study the more strength provided by the cements
using over burn brick aggregate.

2.5 SCOPE

In the northern side there is a scarce of the natural aggregate. The people having so many
problem regarding stone aggregate, because also they can purchase from the Greater
Noida but have to pay more, so it will be better that if we use this type of aggregate at
these places. Because over burn brick we can manufacture everywhere but not stone
aggregate. Concrete is the most for the most part used man made development material.
Totals educate higher volume consistency and enhanced strength than hydrated bond glue
in cement and give around 75 percent of the heft of cement. The total are for the most

19
part gotten from consistent sources yet in locale, for instance, Greater Noida, India where
trademark shake stores are uncommon, crushed over consume block are used as a
substitute wellspring of coarse total. Here, development of inflexible asphalt, little to
medium-traverse scaffolds and ducts and structures up to six stories high utilizing
pounded over consume block (over consume block total) concrete is somewhat broad. In
upper east locales, over consume block total are effortlessly accessible and substantially
less expensive than pulverized stone total. Additionally concrete with compressive
quality of around 28MPa are effectively accomplished by utilizing smashed typical
quality over consume block and following the standard routine with regards to solid
making. also the unit mass of over consume block total cement has been answer to be
significantly not as much as that of stone total solid What's more, the usage of over
consume block add up to as opposed to stone aggregate in various parts of a building
structure can realize a basic abatement of dead load on section and in addition
establishment. Henceforth, the substitution (incompletely or completely) of stone total by
finished consume block total may yield cost-viability in making concrete.

20
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1 GENERAL

As of late, countless development ventures (from six-storied to twenty storied) have been
embraced in the real urban communities of Greater Noida. To take care of the demand of
bond for development ventures, in excess of sixty concrete assembling enterprises have
been set up in Greater Noida. Concretes are additionally transported in from different
nations. Colossal quantities of over consume block fabricating ventures were perceived
around the significant urban areas. By and large, earth consumed over burn brick are
exceptionally well known due to the expect of stone totals. Over burn brick are
additionally regularly broken physically or by utilizing an over consume block crusher
into coarse total for solid works. Stone chips and shingles are likewise utilized as a part
of development. unfortunately, the disintegration of some solid structures happens inside
quite a while of development because of the absence of strength thought amid the plan,
development, and support of common infra structures.

3.2 EXPERIMENTAL WORK

3.2.1 Preparation Of Sample

Crude materials that are utilized as a part of this investigation were ordinary Portland
concrete, rock as coarse total, squander over consume block and fine blend. diverse
fundamental materials were natural frothing operator and appropriate water content. amid
this investigation, an entire of fifty solid blocks with measurement 150 mm x 150 mm x
150mm are made. All examples were made exploitation standard steel forms and were
perfect to maintain a strategic distance from any pollutions snared to solid blends. One
arrangement of solid examples were moreover been made as controls. After conventional
commixture of between stone, squander over consume block, bond, sand and water,
frothed were infused into the concrete blender all through commixture technique. The
volumes of frothed required amid this investigation made up our psyches based generally
from focused thickness at day 28. Foames zone unit made of a mix of water and
characteristic natural substance compound. Elements of those air pockets region unit to
help ensnared air into the blend and culminated the region. The examples are tried for 7,

21
14 and 28 days severally. The decrease in compressive quality was watched all the more
essentially in reused concrete made with 50% Over Burn Brick replacement. The author
concluded that the compressive strength and cylindrical splitting strength were crucially
effected when the replacement levels of Over Burn Brick was varying between 0 to 50%
and no predominant change was observed in

3.2.2 Water Absorption Test Of Over Burn Bricks

Just a single sort of unused mud over burn brick of 90mm x 90mm x 190 mm working
sizes was utilized as a part of the examination before the over torch blocks were
pummeled into a coarse aggregate, their uniaxial compressive quality was recorded for
relationship with the aggregate made by squashing them down to coarse aggregate. The
compressive nature of the entire over consume block is observed to be 14.5MPa. The
water absorption take a look at was administrated for each OVB and GA in accordance
with IS 2386 (Part3) – 1963. The water absorption of mixture is decided by measurement
the rise in mass of AN oven-dried sample once immersed in water for twenty-four hours.
The magnitude relation of the rise in mass to the mass of the dry sample, expressed as a
share, is termed as absorption7. The water absorption results were shown in Table.3.1.
The water absorption in OVB was found to be 5.47%. This worth was abundant beyond
that of GA, of that absorption was solely zero.25%. the upper water absorption was owing
to the presence of a lot of pores in OVB Water absorption, % by mass, after 24 hours
interest in cold water in given by the formula,

M m
w 100
m

3.2.3 Compressive Strength Test Of Over Burn Brick

For determining the compressive strength of over burn bricks by Compression testing
machine, the pressure plate of which should have ball seating as segment of a circle focal
point of which matches with the centrel point of the plate. Three numbers of whole over
burn bricks from sample collected should be taken. Measurements estimated to the closest
1mm.Remove unevenness watched the bed countenances to give two smooth parallel

22
faces by pounding .Immerse in water at room temperature for 24 hours .Remove the
example and deplete out any surplus dampness at room temperature. Fill the frog and all
voids in the bed faces flush with concrete mortar (1 bond: 2 sand). Store it under the moist
jute packs for 24 hours filled by drenching in clean water for 3 days .Remove and wipe
out any hints of dampness. Contact zone =250x120mm2. Table 3.2 show the compressive
test result underneath.

Fig. 3.1 Compressive strength test of over burn brick

3.2.4 Fine Aggregate

One type of fine total was utilized all through the trial work in order to keep the fine total
variable steady. The sand was gathered from a neighborhood little stream from the
streaming water which is by and large utilized as a part of the majority of developments
in close region of this stream. The grain size of sand from every one of the sources in
Greater Noida is pretty much comparable. The strainer examination was done according
to IS Code: 383-1970 for the fine total. The consequences of the evaluating fits inside the
breaking points set out in IS: 383-1970 for reviewing zone – IV, which is the finest among
all the reviewing zones according to Indian standard. The fineness modulus of the sand

23
observed to be 1.97 and particular gravity 2.67. The sediment and mud substance of the
fine total is 2%.

3.2.5 Over Burn Brick Aggregate

Full finished burn brick were pulverized to 20 mm ostensible size total according to
Indian code Seems to be: 383-1970. Over burn bricks squashed mechanically with jaw
crusher create flaky and stretched total. Preliminary of mechanical and physical properties
were done on the sums as indicated by IS:2386-1963, it was found that overwhelming
estimation of the aggregate 32% and water maintenance 5.47%, The fineness modulus of
the over consume block total observed to be 7.47 arranged for flexure test. Every one of
the examples were kept in the molds for 24 hours and from that point those examples
were demoulded and put in the curing tank for 28 days in encompassing temperature.
Every one of the examples were removed from the curing tank before testing and wiping
the surface important test for uniaxial compressive quality was done in a pressure testing
machine of 2000 kN limit. The flexural tests by two focuses stacking were done in a
flexural testing machine of 100 KN limit.

3.2.6 Specific Gravity Test

The Pycnometer strategy can be utilized for assurance of the particular gravity of strong
particles of both fine grained and coarse grained soils. The particular gravity of solids is
resolved utilizing the connection:

Fig. 3.2 Specific gravity test of over burn brick aggregate

24
3.2.7 Slump Test

The slump test result is a measure usefulness of cement and furthermore the conduct of a
compacted modified cone of cement under the activity of gravity. It quantifies the
consistency or the wetness of cement. The solid slump test is utilized for the estimation
of a property of new concrete. The test is an experimental test that measures the usefulness
of crisp cement. All the more particularly, it gauges consistency between clusters.The test
is popular due to the simplicity of apparatus used and simple procedure.

3.2.8 Hardness Test Of Concrete

Cube and beam specimens of size 150mm×150mm×150mm mm and of size


500mm×100mm×100mm, were used to determine the compressive and flexural strength
at the end of 28 days. This test was conduct in the laboratory, as per IS 516-1969 on a
compression testing machine of 2000 KN capacity and the load at the time of failure of
specimen was recorded. We create the concrete for M25, M30 and M35 by using three
type of cement like,OPC PPC and PSG

Fig. 3.3 Flexural test

3.3 CASTING OF BEAMS AND CUBES

The execution of cement is fractional by blending and an appropriate and great routine
with regards to blending can prompt predominant execution and brilliance of the solid. In
the present examination, M40 review standard solid shapes of size 150mm x 150mm x
150mm were thrown for deciding the compressive quality. The cast examples were
demoulded toward the finish of 24 hours and cured for the required 28 days curing. After
the example has been remixed instantly fill the cube shape and minimal the concrete either

25
mix by self hand or by vibrator machine. Any air caught in the solid will lessen the quality
of the cube. Consequently, the cube must be completely compacted. Nonetheless, mind
should likewise be taken not to over smaller the solid as this may cause isolation of the
totals and concrete glue in the blend. This may likewise diminish the last compressive
quality.

3.4 CURING OF SPECIMEN

Curing is the procedure in which the solid is shielded from loss of dampness and kept
inside a sensible temperature run. The consequence of this procedure is expanded quality
and diminished penetrability. Curing is additionally a key player in alleviating splits in
the solid, which seriously impacts toughness. Airs out enable access for destructive
materials to sidestep the low penetrability concrete close to the surface. Great curing can
help moderate the presence of spontaneous breaking. Whenever brilliant, appropriate, and
reasonable curing is utilized, the measure of bond required to accomplish a given quality
and solidness can be lessened by either exclusion or supplanting with supplementary
cementitious materials. Since the bond is the most costly and vitality serious part of a
solid blend, this prompts a decrease in the cost and the outright carbon impression of the
solid blend. Furthermore, pragmatic curing techniques can upgrade supportability by
decreasing the requirement for asset serious molding medicines, should the curing
strategy be incongruent with the proposed benefit condition.

CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

26
A comparative study of concrete mix is carried out to find the effect of replacing natural
coarse aggregate by crushed over burn bricks aggregate, without super plasticizer and
with super plasticizer. Properties of over burn bricks aggregate mix concrete, namely,
workability and compressive strength , flexural strength will be study and I will try to
give my best result in final dissertation.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

In this study I am not sure about the compressive strength is low or high but after studying
many similar projects I expected that the compressive strength of cube after mixing over
burn brick aggregate is lower than the natural coarse Aggregate but it is in acceptable
limit . Such situations are numerous used in civil engineering applications, namely,
precast bricks, partition wall panels, canal linings, and so forth. However the compressive
strength expected increases or decrease, when super plasticizer is added to the over burn
bricks aggregate mix concrete. When my dissertation will be completed, I assured about
my final conclusion.

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27
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