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Spring 2015 Week 3 Module 14

Digital Circuits and


Systems

Multiplexers

Shankar Balachandran*
Associate Professor, CSE Department
Indian Institute of Technology Madras

*Currently a Visiting Professor at IIT Bombay


Multiplexers
 Multiplexing means transmitting a large number of information
units over a smaller number of channels or lines.
 A digital multiplexer (MUX) selects binary information from one
of many input lines and directs it to a single output line.
 Data selector (2n:1 MUX).
 Inputs: 2n data inputs, n select lines.
 Output: 1 data output line.

s1 s0 Out
Out D0
0 0 D0 s0 0
s1 1 D1
0 1 D1 0 D0 D1 Out
1 0 D2 D2
1 D2 D3
1 1 D3 D3
s1 s0
(control)
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2:1 Mux

s
s f
w0 0 w0
f 0
w1 1 1 w1

(a) Graphical symbol (b) Truth table

w0

s f

w1

(c) Sum-of-products circuit

Multiplexers 3
Internal Structure of a 4:1 MUX

 A 2n:1 MUX needs 2n, (n+1)-input AND gates for selection and a
2n-input OR gate to generate the final output.
  AND/OR logic structure
Multiplexers 4
Closeness to Decoders

D0

D1

D2
D3

En

Connect all the input lines of the multiplexer together (to make enable)
and remove the OR gate to give you a decoder
Multiplexers 5
MUX Output Boolean Expression
 2:1 MUX

Out  s  D0  s  D1

 4:1 MUX

Out  s1 s0  D0  s1 s0  D1  s1 s0  D2  s1 s0  D3

 General expression for 2n : 1 MUX


2n 1
Out   mi  Di  where mi is the i th minterm
i 0

Multiplexers 6
Using 2:1 Muxes to Build a 4:1 Mux

s1
s0

w0 0
w1 1

0
f
1

w2 0
w3 1

Multiplexers 7
Practical Application of Multiplexers
s

x1 y1

x2 y2

2x2 crossbar switch

x1 0
y1
1

x2 0
y2
1

Multiplexers 8
MUX Based Logic Design
 MUXes are sometimes called hardware look-up tables.
 To implement an n-variable function using a 2n:1 MUX
 Use a 2n:1 MUX, connect n input variables to the n select lines
(in the correct MSB-LSB order).
 Wire MUX input Di to 1 if function includes minterm mi. All other
inputs are set to 0.
 Example: Implement the function
F a , b, c    1, 2, 4, 7 
using a MUX of appropriate size.
F

Multiplexers 9
MUX Based Logic
 Advantages:
 Easier to design combinational circuits.
 Easier to debug circuits designed using multiplexers.
 Disadvantages:
 Multiplexers can become very large for a large number of inputs.

  Good for small circuits.

 Normally, any function with more than 4 variable is


impractical for direct implementation (i.e., using a single
large MUX).
 Use tree of small MUXes or using a variable as MUX data input or
Shannon’s Expansion Theorem for implementing large functions.

Multiplexers 10
Multiplexer Tree
 A larger MUX can be implemented using a tree of smaller
MUXes.
 Example: Implement the function F a , b, c    1, 2, 4, 7  using
smaller MUXes instead of one 8:1 MUX.

Multiplexers 11
End of Week 3: Module 14

Thank You

Multiplexers 12