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MISCONCEPTIONS IN MATHEMATICS

1. Math requires special or inherent intellectual abilities.

2. Math is gender dependent, ethnic based, hereditary.

3. Math in modern issues is too complex for the average person to understand.

4. It is difficult and dull.

5. Math makes you less sensitive to the romantic and aesthetic aspects of life.

6. Math makes no allowance for creativity.

7. Math provides exact answers.

8. Math is irrelevant to my life.

MATHEMATICS (definition)

The word mathematics is derived from the Greek word mathematikos which means

“inclined to learn” (thus literally, to be mathematical is to be curious, open-minded, and

interested in always learning more)

1. Mathematics as the sum of its branches

2. Mathematics as a way to model the world

3. Mathematics as a language

1. logic- study of the principles of reasoning

2. arithmetic- methods for operating on numbers

3. algebra- methods for working with unknown quantities

4. geometry-study of size and shape

5. trigonometry-study of triangles and their uses

6. probability- study of chance

7. statistics - methods for analyzing data

8. calculus - study of quantities that change

● Mathematics can be viewed as a tool for creating models, representations that

allow us to study real phenomena.

● Models allow us to gain insight into otherwise intractable problems; and point to

areas where further research is needed.

● Mathematical models take the form of tables, graphs, equations, etc. There are

numerous techniques for building mathematical models and use them to study

meaningful problems.

● However, models are not the “real thing”, they are only as good as the equations

and observations from which they are made.

MATHEMATICS AS A LANGUAGE

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● It is the language of nature because it is very useful for modeling the natural

world.

● It has its own grammar and vocabulary.

● You must be “fluent” in this language. Quantitative literacy is the level of

mathematical fluency required for success in today’s world.

POPULAR QUOTES

John Kerneny

The man ignorant of Mathematics will be increasingly limited in his grasp of the

main forces of civilization.

Roger Bacon

Mathematics is the door and key to the sciences.

Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Mathematics is distinguished to have a particular privilege, that is, in the course

of ages, they may always advance and can never recede.

*Quantitative literacy is fundamental to nearly every discipline of study and to different issues in

society that an individual faces.

INTERDISCIPLINARY THINKING

● Important issues, whether personal or societal, are interdisciplinary in nature.

They can best be understood when examined from various perspectives.

● Issues are better studied in an approach that recognizes how the various

branches of human knowledge are interconnected.

● The danger of compartmentalized education is the lack of perspective and the

inability to see the ‘big picture’.

QUANTITATIVE LITERACY

● Quantitative literacy is literacy in terms of information involving mathematical

ideas or numbers. It is the ability to interpret and reason with quantitative

information.

● Quantitative reasoning is the process of interpreting and reasoning with

quantitative information.

INNUMERACY

● It is the lack of quantitative literacy.

● Since quantitative literacy is a survival skill, the lack of it can lead to financial

trouble and personal problems.

● Innumeracy leads to a misunderstanding of logic, probability and statistics, thus

to an inability to distinguish between legitimate science and fraudulent science

1. It enriches the appreciation of both ancient and modern culture.

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2. It helps you appreciate literature.

3. It helps you appreciate the substantial contribution to mathematics, science and

technology of achievers in art, literature or politics.

4. It provides greater chances for employment.

1. Theoretical Mathematics

● discovery of entirely new mathematical principles [mathematicians,

theoretical scientists]

2. Applied Mathematics

● known mathematical tools are applied to problems of immediate interest

such as analyzing risk in insurance policies, developing mathematical

models to assess human impact on the environment, or teaching

mathematics [engineers, scientists, teachers, statisticians, business

analysts]

● Applied mathematics can be viewed as a central resource for addressing

and solving problems in a wide and growing variety of disciplines such as

business management, economics, engineering, biology/ecology,

computer science/artificial intelligence, physics, chemistry, medicine and

physiology, and even in psychology and sociology

3. Vocational Mathematics

● the use of mathematical tools routinely such as computer programming,

and accounting and banking wherein mathematical methods are used to

analyze financial records and investment strategies

● does not involve discovery of new principles or application of principles in

new ways [computer programmers, accountants, statisticians]

4. Quantitative Literacy

● necessary for everyone

● survival skill in today’s technological society

1. Identify your personal goals and strategies

Goal - an end toward which effort is directed

Strategy - a plan or method for achieving a goal

2. Break down your psychological barriers

3. Set your course

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CHAPTER 2.1: INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND REASONING

information.

WHAT IS LOGIC

● Logic is the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct reasoning

from wrong reasoning. Copi

● Logic deals with arguments and inferences. It provides methods for distinguishing those

which are logically correct from those which are not. Salmon

● Logic is concerned with the question of adequacy or probative value of different kinds of

evidence. Cohen

● Logic is both science and art; it is concerned with the quest of knowledge and truth; it is

also the study of the validity or correctness of our reasoning. Mourant

● The main business of logic is the systematic evaluation of arguments for internal

cogency. Smith

● It is not a science of thought because psychology also is and they are two different fields

of study.

● Thought refers to any process that occurs in the mind and not all thought is an object for

a logician.

● All reasoning is thinking but not all thinking is reasoning.

● Reasoning is a special kind of thinking in which inference takes place, where

conclusions are drawn from premises.

INFORMAL LOGIC

● Study of natural language arguments.

● Its branches include the study of fallacies, critical thinking and argumentation theory.

● There is no method of establishing the invalidity of an argument since there is no

underlying theory.

FORMAL LOGIC

● Study of the inference with purely formal content so that the inference can be expressed

as a particular application of a given abstract rule.

● Lacks reference to meaning or content and simply evaluates the correctness of the form

(or structure) of the argument.

*insert logical arguments slides here

CHAPTER 2.2: PROPOSITIONAL AND PREDICATE LOGIC

PROPOSITIONS

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● A proposition (or statement) is a declarative sentence that makes a distinct claim, such

as an assertion or denial; it proposes something to be true or false.

● A proposition is that which is expressed by certain sentences in certain context and of

which it is proper to say that it is true or false.

● Examples: The Earth revolves around the sun.

I am hungry.

● In an argument, both premise and conclusion are propositions. Each makes a distinct

claim that, depending on your viewpoint, is either true or false.

● A proposition must have a subject and predicate.

● A proposition must be capable of being true or false, but not both at the same time,

though we may not know which it is.

PREDICATE LOGIC

is the part of logic that deals with the inner structure of the propositions, that is, it

analyzes the subject-predicate structures of a proposition.

PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC

deals with connections between propositions only. It does not break propositions

into smaller constituents.

PREDICATE LOGIC

*TYPES OF PROPOSITIONS

1. Categorical Proposition - a proposition that expresses a relationship

between two categories or sets, the subject set S and predicate set P.

1. All S are P

2. No S are P

3. Some S are P

4. Some S are not P

*A proposition always makes a claim of truth. This claim however is not necessarily true.

Although a proposition is capable of being either true or false, determining which

it is may not be possible.

*CLAIMS OF TRUTH

A proposition maybe

1. unambiguous - no one can reasonably disagree with its truth or falsity

2. unverifiable - would require impossible or impractical procedures to determine

its truth or falsity

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3. matter of opinion - truth can be argued endlessly

PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC

cont

*TYPES OF PROPOSITIONS

2. Compound Proposition - a proposition that consists of two or more simple

(or

prime) propositions joined together by logical connectors.

not (negation)

and (conjunction)

or (disjunction)

if – then (conditional)

if and only if (biconditional)

Conjunction - Let p and q be propositions. If both p and q are true, then the

compound proposition p and q (denoted as p q) is true. Otherwise p q is false.

the compound proposition p or q (denoted as p q) is true. Otherwise, p q is

false.

- p is called the antecedent, while q is called the consequent

- The conditional proposition if p then q (denoted as p q) is true unless p is

true and q is false.

- Non-sequitur - logic is the art of going wrong with confidence

true if p and q have the same truth values. It is false if p and q have opposite

truth values.

LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE

Two compound propositions are logically equivalent (denoted ≡) if they have the same

truth tables.

RULES OF REPLACEMENT

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1. De Morgan’s Theorems

i.) ~(p˄q) ≡ ~p˅~q

ii.) ~(p˅q) ≡ ~p˄~q

2. Commutation

i.) p˄q ≡ q˄p

ii.) p˅q ≡ q˅p

3. Association

i.) (p˄q)˄r ≡ p˄(q˄r)

ii.) (p˅q)˅r ≡ p˅(q˅r)

4. Distribution

i.) p˄(q˅r) ≡ (p˄q)˅(p˄r)

ii.) p˅(q˄r) ≡ (p˅q)˄(p˅r)

5. Double Negation

p ≡ ~~p

6. Transposition or Contraposition

p → q ≡ ~q → ~p

7. Material Implication

p → q ≡ ~p ˅q

8. Exportation

p → (q → r) ≡ (p˄q)→ r

9. Idempotence

i.) p ≡ p˅p

ii.) p ≡ p˄p

DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS

Goal: to investigate how arguments actually proceed from premises to conclusions. This

process is called inference (we infer the conclusion from the premises).

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1. Deductive Inference - a specific conclusion is deduced (or logically derived)

from general premises

2. Inductive Inference - a conclusion is formed by generalizing from specific

premises

● An argument is valid if its conclusion necessarily follows from its premises - even though

we may not agree that its premises are true or that its conclusion is true.

● In logic, there is a distinction between validity and truth. Validity is concerned only with

the logical structure (or form) of an argument, not the truth of its premises or

conclusions.

1. Valid and sound (logical and with true premises and conclusion)

2. Valid but not sound (logical but the premises and conclusion are false)

3. Invalid with a false conclusion

4. Invalid with a true conclusion

(The Four Basic Conditional Arguments)

1. Affirming the antecedent (valid argument: modus ponens)

Form: Premise: If p, then q.

Premise: p.

Conclusion: q.

2. Affirming the consequent (invalid argument) (Converse error)

Form: Premise: If p then q.

Premise: q.

Conclusion: p

The conclusion does not follow from the premises.

3. Denying the consequent (valid argument: modus tollens)

If p then q.

Not q

∴ Not p

4. Denying the antecedent (invalid argument) (Inverse error)

If p then q.

Not p

Not q

HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISM

deductive arguments with a chain of conditionals

If p then q. // If q then r. // = If p then r.

RULES OF INFERENCE

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1. Disjunctive Syllogism p v q // ~p // ∴ q

2. Simplification: p˄q // ∴ p

3. Conjunction: p // q // ∴ p˄q

4. Addition: p // ∴ p˅q

5. Absorption: p→q // ∴ p →(p˄q)

6. Constructive Dilemma: (p→q) ˄(r→s) // p˅r // ∴ q˅s

THEOREMS

are statements of mathematical truth which requires proof which is possible only through

deductive logic.

AXIOMS

are the starting points for mathematical proof, the “givens”, assumed to be true without

proof.

Goldbach Conjecture (1742)

“Every even number (except 2) can be expressed as a sum of two prime numbers.”

Fermat’s Last Theorem (Pierre Fermat, 1601-1665)

“For any natural number n except 1 or 2, it is impossible to find natural numbers a, b,

and c that satisfy the relationship an + bn = cn.”

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

We describe the inter-relationships among logic, mathematics and science,

which

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open the way to understanding the scientific method, the principal means by which

knowledge is acquired today

Mathematics establishes the truth of a theorem by constructing a proof, which

essentially, is an argument wherein established mathematical facts serve as premises,

and the theorem is the conclusion (the last line of the proof).

Pythagorean Theorem. For any right triangle whose legs measure a and b units and

whose diagonal measures c units, a2 + b2 = c2.

Proof: Proof of Bhaskara (12th century Hindu mathematician)

● the similarity between logic and mathematics explains why many philosophers

were also mathematicians.

● well-known Greek philosopher, tutor of Alexander the Great

● probably the first person who attempted to give logic a rigorous foundation.

● believed that truth could be established from three basic laws

1. The law of identity (A thing is itself.)

2. The law of excluded middle (A statement is either true or false.)

3. The law of non-contradiction (No statement is both true and

false.)

EUCLID

● Aristotle’s laws were the basis of the logic used by the Greek mathematician

Euclid to establish the foundations of geometry (in his famous treatise The

Elements (300 BC).

● Euclid began with only 5 postulates or premises from which he derived all of

classical geometry, also known as Euclidean geometry.

“If we could find characters or signs appropriate for expressing all our thoughts as

definitely and as exactly as arithmetic expresses numbers or geometric analysis expresses

lines, we could in all subjects in so far as they are amenable to reasoning accomplish what is

done in Arithmetic and Geometry. For all inquiries which depend on reasoning would be

performed by the transposition of characters and by a kind of calculus... And if someone would

doubt my results, I should say to him: “let us calculate, Sir” and thus by taking a pen and ink, we

should soon settle the question. “

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Leibniz’s Dream

● Recognizing that logic could be used to establish mathematical truths,

could logic also be used to establish other truths? Could it be used to

determine “universal truths”?

● Leibniz (1646-1716) attempted to establish a calculus of reasoning which

can be used to decide all arguments; suggested that an international

symbolic language for logic be developed with which equations of logic

could be written and used to calculate a “solution” to any argument.

So what really became of Leibniz’s dream?

● Kurt Godel in 1931 proved that the dream could never be achieved.

● Leibniz’s dream was shattered!

● But this ushered in a new period in the relationship between logic and

mathematics, often termed the period of modern logic.

Classical Logic (300 BC to mid 1800’s) Aristotelian Logic // Euclidean Geometry

Symbolic Logic (mid 1800’s to 1931) Algebra of Sets

Modern Logic (since 1931) Godel’s Theorem

GÖDEL’S THEOREM

Mathematicians believed that for an ultimate system of logic to be realized, a first

step is to show that mathematics could be wholly understood as a system of logic. Only

then could mathematical logic be developed into Leibniz’s dream of a calculus of

reasoning.

DAVID HILBERT

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sought to formalize mathematics as a system in which all mathematical truths, or

theorems, could be derived from a few basic assumptions called axioms, by applying

rules of logic.

1. It must be finitely describable, that is, the number of basic axioms should

be limited.

2. It must be consistent, that is, it should have no internal contradictions

(statements that are both true and false).

3. It must be complete, that is, the basic axioms should allow analysis of

every possible situation.

*In 1931, Kurt Gödel, an Austrian mathematician, proved that no formal system of logic

can possess all three required properties. He proved that no system can be simultaneously

complete, consistent and finitely describable.

● Logic allows the discovery of new knowledge and the development of new

technology.

● Logic provides ways to address disputes, even if it cannot always ensure their

resolution.

● Through logic, you can study your personal beliefs and societal issues.

● Logic can help you study the nature of truth, though logic cannot ultimately

answer all questions.

● Though logic alone may fail under some circumstances, logical reasoning is an

excellent tool for understanding and acquiring knowledge.

● Finding the proper balance between logic and other processes of decision

making is one of the greatest challenges of being human.

SCIENCE

Lat. scientia which means “having knowledge” or “to know”.

Science is knowledge acquired through careful observation and study;

knowledge as opposed to ignorance or misunderstanding.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

- It is a set of principles and procedures, based on logic, for the systematic

pursuit of knowledge.

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- an idealization of the process used to discover or construct new knowledge

Some Terminology:

● Fact - a simple statement that is indisputably or objectively true, or close as

possible to being so.

● Law - a statement of a particular pattern or order in nature

● Hypothesis - a tentative explanation for some set of natural phenomena,

sometimes called “an educated guess”

● Scientific Theory - an accepted (that is, extensively tested and verified) model

that explains a broad range of phenomena

1. Recognition and formulation of a problem

2. Construction of a hypothesis

3. New predictions

4. Unbiased and reproducible tests of new predictions

5. Modification of hypothesis

6. Hypothesis passes many tests and becomes a theory

7. Theory continually challenged and re-tested for refinement, expansion, and/or

replacement

Nonscience - any attempt to search for knowledge that knowingly does not allow the

scientific method

Pseudoscience - that which purports to be science but, under careful examination, fails

tests conducted by the scientific method

PART 4: PARADOXES

PARADOX

- is a situation or statement that seems to violate common sense or to contradict itself.

- allow for the recognition of problems which may lead to new principles, to new facts, or

to a new scientific theory.

- may or may not be resolved.

EXAMPLES OF PARADOXES

● The “up-and-down” problem

● “I never tell the truth.”

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● Zeno’s Paradox (baffled mathematicians for 2,000 years but resolved already today)

● The Paradox of Light (now scientifically understood, but still baffles the common sense)

● The Paradox of Creation (not yet resolved and may never be)

● Liar’s Paradox “This sentence is false.”

● Barber’s Paradox “There was once a barber. Some say that he lived in Seville.

Wherever he lived, all of the men in this town either shaved themselves or were shaved

by the barber. And the barber only shaved the men who did not shave themselves.”

FALLACY

Latin “fallacia” meaning deceit or trick

*Previously we considered formal fallacies in which logical errors occur through a flaw in the

form or structure of the argument. Here, we consider informal fallacies, in which an argument is

deficient because of its content.

FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE

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committed when the premise is irrelevant to the conclusion of an argument.

1. SUBJECTIVISM

The fallacy of subjectivism has the form “I believe/want p to be true, therefore p is

true.”

2. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE

The fallacy of appeal to ignorance has the form “p has not been proven false,

therefore p is true.” Its other form is “p has not been proven true, therefore p is

false.”

3. LIMITED CHOICE (OR FALSE CHOICE)

The limited choice fallacy has the form “p is false, therefore q is true.”

4. APPEAL TO EMOTION

The appeal to emotion fallacy has the form “p evokes a strong emotional

response, therefore p is true.”

5. APPEAL TO FORCE

Appeal to force has the form “I say p is true and if you don’t agree with me, you

will be hurt or ridiculed; therefore p is true.”

6. INAPPROPRIATE APPEAL TO AUTHORITY

The fallacy of inappropriate appeal to authority is committed when the support for

a proposition relies on the testimony of an inappropriate or unqualified authority.

The appeal to emotion fallacy has the form “An authority says p is true, therefore

p is true.”

7. PERSONAL ATTACK (AD HOMINEM)

Ad Hominem - (Latin) “to the person”

This fallacy involves attacking the character, circumstances, or motives of a

person making an argument. The ad hominem fallacy has the form “Person X

says that p is true and person X is a bad person; therefore p is NOT true.”

8. BEGGING THE QUESTION(CIRCULAR REASONING)

p is true, p is true (often expressed using different words).

9. NON SEQUITUR

Non Sequitur - (Latin) “does not follow”

Two types of non sequitur:

Diversion or Red Herring

attention is diverted from the real issue to another issue

Straw Man

an argument is made against a distortion of someone’s idea or

position

few common fallacies that involve numbers or the collection and analysis of

statistical data. These fallacies are particularly important to our work in this course, and

15

you will see them arise again and again.

1. APPEAL TO POPULARITY

The fallacy of appeal to popularity has the form “many people believe p is true,

therefore p is true.”

The fact that large numbers of people believe a proposition is used as evidence

of its truth

2. APPEAL TO NUMBERS

The appeal to numbers fallacy has the form “p has been observed many times,

therefore p is true.”

A conclusion is drawn solely on the basis of quantity

3. HASTY GENERALIZATION

The fallacy of hasty generalization has the form “p is true one or a few

times, therefore p is always true.”

Supports a proposition with an inadequate number of instances or

instances that are atypical

4. BIAS AND THE AVAILABILITY ERROR

Availability error - the human tendency to make judgments based on what

is available in the mind.

The availability error takes the form “the first thing that comes to mind is p,

therefore p is true.”

5. FALSE CAUSE

The false cause fallacy has the form “A came before B, therefore A caused B.”

Correlation - exists between two different events when the incidence of one

event is related in some way to the incidence of another.

Positive Correlation - when the incidence of both events rises and falls

together.

Negative Correlation - When the incidence of one event increases while the

other decreases.

An event is a:

•Necessary condition - if the effect cannot happen in its absence.

•Sufficient condition - if the effect always happens when the event occurs.

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Confidence in Causality

•Possible Cause: An apparent linkage exists between two events, such as a

correlation, but no other evidence suggest causality.

•Probable Cause: A good reason to suspect causality exists

•Cause Beyond Reasonable Doubt: A model is so successful in explaining the

linkage between events that it seems unreasonable to doubt the causal

connection.

fallacies that involve a misunderstanding of how to work with percentages.

Definition (Cantor, Georg): A set is any collection into a whole of definite

distinguishable objects of our intuition or thought. The objects are called the elements or

members of the set, denoted by ∈ .

Two sets are equal if they have the same members.

2. The Intuitive Principle (Axiom) of Abstraction

A formula P(x) defines a set A by the convention that the members of A

are exactly those objects a such that P(a) is a true statement.

● This provides a set for each condition or property.

● It allows the creation of ”too large” sets.

● Leads to contradiction like the Russel Paradox

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ZERMELO-FRAENKEL SET THEORY

This eventually led to the restructuring of set theory along axiomatic lines.

By the Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory, Cantor’s Set Theory was axiomatized in

such a way that:

i. All undesirable features (like paradoxes) are avoided; and

ii. All desirable features are retained.

There exists a set which has no element.

Remark: Intuitively, there should only be one set that has no element.

Suppose A and B are sets. If for all x, x ∈ A if and only if x ∈ B then A=B.

Lemma 1: There exists only one set with no element.

The Empty Set - unique set with no element is called the empty set and is denoted ∅ .

Theorem 1: For any sets A, B, C. The equality relation satisfies the following:

i. A = A (reflexivity);

ii. A = B implies B = A (symmetry); and

iii. A = B and B = C imply A = C (transitivity)

Let P(x) be a property of x. For any set A, there exists a set B such that for any x, x ∈ B if and

only if x ∈ A and P(x) holds.

Theorem 2: B is unique

Proof:

Assume that there exists another set B’ such that for all x,

x ∈ B’ if and only if x ∈ A and P(x). Note that x ∈ B implies

x ∈ A and P(x) which gives x ∈ B’ . Also x ∈ B’ implies

x ∈ A and P(x), hence x ∈ B. Thus, x ∈ B if and only if

x ∈ B’ . Therefore, B = B’

If A and B are sets, then there exists a set C such that x ∈ C if and only if x = A or x = B.

For any set S, there exists U such that x ∈ U if and only if x ∈ A for some A ∈ S

Properties of the Inclusion Relation

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i. A ⊆ A. (reflexivity)

ii. A ⊆ B and B ⊆ A imply A = B. (antisymmetry)

iii. A ⊆ B and B ⊆ A imply A ⊆ C. (transitivity)

ZF2: Axiom of Extensionality

ZF3: Axiom Schema of Specification/Restricted Comprehension

ZF4: Axiom of Pairing

ZF5: Axiom of Union

ZF6: Axiom of Power Set

ZF7: Axiom of Infinity (to be discussed later in the course)

ZF8: Axiom Schema of Replacement

ZF9: Axiom of Choice (Well-Ordering Theorem) (to be discussed later in the course)

The concept of numbers has evolved over time. It developed in parallel with methods for

writing numerals which are symbols that represent numbers.

● Numeral systems relied on tallies with fingers or toes, piles of stones, or notches cut on

a bone or a piece of wood. But these systems are inadequate for large numbers.

● To simplify the process of counting, counts are grouped by 2’s, 3’s, then eventually, by

5’s, 10’s, and 20’s.

● In 3000 B.C., the Egyptians and Babylonians independently introduced the first numeral

system to go beyond tallying.

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