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М инис т е р с т в о о б р а зо в а н ия и науки Р оссийской Федер ации

РОССИЙСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ НЕФТИ И ГАЗА


(НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ)
имени И. М. ГУБКИНА

К а ф е д р а иностранных я з ыков

Т. Л. Иванова
Н. Г. Лепешкина
Е. Ю. Симакова

PETROLEUM
GEOLOGY
Учебно-методическое пособие
по английскому языку

Москва 2017
УДК 802.0 (075)

Р еценз енты:
Т. Ю. Сафьянникова – к.б.н., доцент
заведующая кафедрой иностранных языков геологического факультета
Московского государственного университета имени М. В.Ломоносова
Е. Е. Жарова – к.ф.н., доцент кафедры иностранных языков
РГУ нефти и газа (НИУ) имени И. М. Губкина

Иванова Т. Л., Лепешкина Н. Г., Симакова Е. Ю.


Petroleum Geology: Учебно-методическое пособие. – М.:
Издательский центр РГУ нефти и газа (НИУ) имени И. М. Губ-
кина, 2017. – 119 с.
Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре иностран-
ных языков РГУ нефти и газа (НИУ) имени И. М. Губкина и предназна-
чено для студентов, изучающих базовый курс дисциплины «Иностран-
ный язык».
Целью пособия является развитие практических навыков всех
видов речевой деятельности: говорения, аудирования, чтения и письма,
а также перевода, аннотирования и реферирования литературы по спе-
циальности. Пособие направлено на развитие коммуникативных ком-
петенций в сфере профессионального общения, а именно: логически
верно, аргументированно и ясно строить устную и письменную речь.
Пособие рассчитано на 54 часа аудиторной работы и 55 часов само-
стоятельной работы.
Учебно-методическое пособие состоит из 7 блоков и охватывает
основные лексические темы геологической и геофизической направ-
ленности нефтегазового профиля такие как: науки о земле, породы и
минералы, геологические структуры, нефть и газ, геофизические
методы нефтегазовой разведки и т.д.
Пособие составлено на базе аутентичного текстового материала из
научных журналов, учебников и учебных пособий по геологии и гео-
физике нефти и газа, а также Internet-ресурсы.

Иванова Т. Л.,Лепешкина Н. Г.,


Симакова Е. Ю., 2017
РГУ нефти и газа (НИУ)
имени И. М. Губкина, 2017
CONTENT
UNIT 1………………………………..………………………………….. 4
Text: Geology
Grammar Revision: Modal Verbs + Perfect Infinitive, Passive Voice
UNIT 2………………………………………………………………………
16
Text: Minerals
Grammar Revision: Participle
UNIT 3…………………………………………………………………….31
Text: Rocks
Grammar Revision: Infinitive, Participle, Gerund
UNIT 4…………………………………………………………………….52
Text: Weathering
Grammar Revision: Pronoun “it”; Double Conjunctions
UNIT 5……………………………………………………………………… 64
Text: Where to Look for Petroleum
Grammar Revision: Passive Voice, the Verb “to do”
Participle II (Adverbial Modifier)
UNIT 6…………………………………………………………………….80
Text: Petroleum
Grammar Revision: Construction “Complex Object with the Infinitive”
Pronouns: some, any, no
The Word “most”
UNIT 7…………………………………………………………………….94
Text: Geophysics
Grammar: Degrees of Comparison
PART 1…………………………………………………………………….97
PART 2…………………………………………………………………….107
REFERENCES………………………………………………………….. 119

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UNIT 1
Text : Geology
Grammar Revision: Modal Verbs + Perfect Infinitive, Passive Voice

Ex.1. Read the following international words and word combinations and
give their Russian equivalents.
A. geology, approximately, classify, operate, mineralogy, petrology, archi-
tecture, geomorphology, constantly, paleontology, interior, stratigraphy,
geophysics, geochemistry, astronomy, spheroid, concentrically, atmos-
phere, gaseous, lithosphere, hydrosphere
B. physical process, mass of detail, composition and structure, fundamen-
tals of biology, social progress, outer zone, equatorial diameter, ocean
portion

Ex.2. Form adjectives from the following verbs by means of suffix “able”
and translate the resultant adjectives into Russian.
e.g. to observe - observable
Classify, determine, change, depend, obtain, understand, break

Ex.3. Give the related adjectives.


Physics, geophysics, mechanics, mathematics, economics, politics.

Ex.4. Arrange the following related verbs and nouns in pairs and translate
them into Russian.
origin apply classify application
classification compose dependence occurrence
occur originate composition depend

Ex.5. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to


“may”, “can”, “must” + Perfect Infinitive.
e.g. 1) The word must have originated from Latin.

4
Это слово, должно быть, произошло от латинского.
2) He can’t have used this method in his work.
Вряд ли он использовал в своей работе этот метод.
3) This area may have been subjected to severe earthquakes.
Этот район, возможно, подвергся сильным землетрясениям.
1. The earth may have undergone different stages of development.
2. You must have read about the evolution and development of the earth and its
inhabitants.
3. During the ice age much of the continental shelf must have been land.
4. This article must have dealt with the problem of oil origin.
5. The composition of this rock must have been studied.
6. Mineral matter may have accumulated in the seas, lakes, or in streams.
7. The inhabitants of an earthquake country can’t have originated the idea of
immovable earth.
8. According to the theory of this scientist oil cannot have originated from inor-
ganic matter.
9. Oxygen in the atmosphere must have been relatively stable in its concentra-
tion for a considerable time.

Ex.6. Find the place for the conjunction (that, which) between the two sen-
tences. Translate the sentences.
1. The field of science petroleum geologist work has made great progress.
2. Certain external processes have formed the landscapes we see today.
3. During the 1600s scientists believed the earth had been produced by gigan-
tic, sudden catastrophic events.
4. It is believed the climate of the world is gradually becoming warmer.
5. The hydrosphere covers about seven-tenth of the planet we live on.

5
WORDS TO THE TEXT “GEOLOGY”
1. inhabit v. жить, обитать, населять
The woods are inhabited by many wild animals.
Inhabitant n. житель, обитатель
A city of six million inhabitants.
2. disclose v. раскрывать
Some companies have already disclosed similar
information.
3. discourse n. рассуждение
He fired up a cigar and started a discourse on Moliere,
Balzac, Rostand.
4. constitute v. составлять
Seven days constitute a week.

5. trace v. следить, прослеживать


This custom has been traced to the twelfth century.
trace n. след
Paleontologists found some traces of ancient
animals, which lived during the Perm
6. sequence n. последовательность, порядок следования
The questions should be asked in a logical sequence.
7. branch n. ветвь, отрасль
A branch of a tree; a branch of knowledge.
8. concurrent adj. совпадающий, действующий совместно или одно-
временно
The exhibition reflected concurrent developments
abroad.

6
9. dimension n. размер
We’ll need to know the exact dimensions of the
room.
10. envelope n. оболочка
An envelope of gases around the planet
11. confine v. ограничивать
The speaker should confine to the subject.

Ex.7. Read the text and find English equivalents to the following:
Происхождение земли и ее обитателей, органические останки, современ-
ное значение, круг вопросов, поскольку, растительный и животный мир,
порядок и последовательность пород, в свою очередь, в некоторой степе-
ни, ряд, газообразная оболочка, недра земли.

GEOLOGY
Geology is the window from the past we use to see
the future.
Keny W. Rasmussen
Geology is the study of the origin and evolution of the earth and its inhabit-
ants, as disclosed by the study of the rocks (formations) and fossils. The word
“geology” is derived from the Greek “ge” meaning “earth”, and “logis” meaning
“discourse” and was first used in approximately its present sense in 1661.
The great mass of detail which constitutes geology is classified under the
headings:
Physical geology which is concerned with the physical processes that operate on
and within the earth –the processes that have given the rocks of the earth’s
crust their composition and structure, and the forces that have shaped the land-
scapes we see on its surface.
Mineralogy – the science of minerals; petrology – the science of rocks.
Structural geology which is the study of the architecture of the earth in so
far as it is determined by earth movements; geomorphology, which deals with

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the origin of landscapes and with the changes that are constantly occurring in
them; historical geology – the science that traces the evolution and development
of the earth and its animal and plant inhabitants with time; paleontology – the
science that deals with the study of animals and plants of the geologic past; stra-
tigraphy, the science that is concerned with the order and sequence of the rocks
that make up the earth’s crust; economic geology – the application of the science
of geology to the uses of man. Geology also embraces some branches of geo-
physics and geochemistry.
These subdivisions are not independent sciences. For example, physical ge-
ology could never have obtained its present development without the concurrent
progress in paleontology. These subdivisions are, in turn, dependent upon the
fundamental sciences of physics, chemistry, and biology, as well as to a certain
extent, upon astronomy and the social sciences of geography and economics.
To begin a study of the earth we shall need to know something about its di-
mension, shape, and its outer zones. The earth is a spheroid, its equatorial diam-
eter being 26 miles greater than its polar diameter.
Equatorial diameter 7,927 miles
Polar diameter 7,900.4 miles
Difference 26.6 miles

The earth is divided, concentrically, into a number of spheres:


Atmosphere: a gaseous envelope which covers both the lithosphere and
hydrosphere.
Hydrosphere: water which covers only a portion of the lithosphere and is
mainly confined to the seas and oceans.
Lithosphere: the observable solid portion of the earth’s lithosphere has a
density less than 3, but the density of the earth is 5.52. Therefore the inte-
rior of the earth must be denser than the outer lithic sphere.
Temperature increases 1° F for every 30 to 300 feet toward the center. Vol-
canic lavas suggest that temperatures as high as 1,800° F may exist not far be-
low the surface of the earth.

8
Ex.8. Translate the following word combinations.
present - gases present in the atmosphere; to be present at the lesson;
the present situation; at present; to present somebody with
flowers; to present a document
sense - a sense of humor; in present sense; there is no sense in do-
ing something
operate - to operate within the earth; to operate at 10°C; to operate a
factory
deal - the book deals with structural geology; a great deal of de-
tails; the man is easy to deal with
plant - to water the plants; plant and animal inhabitants; to work at
a chemical plant; pilot plant
application - a letter of application; application of new technology; prac-
tical application; to apply knowledge
turn - to turn to the right; to turn on (off) the light; in (one’s) turn;
it turns out that
well - to do something well; an oil (gas) well; well done work; to
look well; he did it as well; as well as
extent - to a certain extent; a vast extent of water; the extent of
damage; extent of exploration; areal extent of a reservoir
number - 2, 4, 6 – are even numbers; 1, 3, 5 odd numbers; the number
of the house; a large number of people; telephone number
envelope - gaseous envelope of the Earth; a letter envelope
foot - at the foot of the mountain; to go on foot; to be 25 feet long
and 10 feet wide
Ex.9. Pick out synonyms of the following words.
Fundamental, use, to be concerned with, meaning, to derive, to make up, to
deal with, to constitute, dimension, form, to come from, application, develop-
ment, main, evolution, sense, shape, size.

9
Ex.10. Translate the following.
Геология изучает
Историческая геология занимается
Палеонтология является наукой о
Структурная геология является наукой, которая
Физическая геология рассматривает

Ex.11. Put the proper derivative of the word “origin” in the blanks in the
sentences.
The . . . inhabitants of this island are not known.
These materials. . . in the ocean.
The island was . . . inhabited by Indian tribes.
This chapter of the book deals with the . . . of the earth’s surface features.

Ex.12. Read the sentences; define the tense and voice of the predicates.
Translate the sentences.
1. The origin and evolution of the earth and its inhabitants can be disclosed
by the study of the rocks and fossils.
2. The present landscapes have been shaped by the physical processes and
forces that operate on and within the earth.
3. The evolution and development of the earth and its animal and plant in-
habitants with time is traced by the science called historical geology.
4. The earth crust is made up of various rocks.
5. The present development of physical geology has been obtained due to
the progress in paleontology.
6. The lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered with a gaseous envelope
called atmosphere.
7. The earth’s surface is continually changing.
8. The problem of the age of the earth and the universe is still being dis-
cussed by scientists.

10
9. Spectroscopic studies of the sun have been made over many years and
many data have been accumulated.
10. For those who live on the equator, days and nights will always be equal.
11. The known history of the earth has been more or less definitely divided
into great eras, and these, in turn, into periods and epochs.
12. Minerals and rocks were variously utilized by ancient people.
13. Geoscientists have estimated the earth to be about 5 billion years old.
The earth has been cooling ever since and has formed a hard outer crust,
part of the interior is still hot and molten.
14. Our knowledge of natural sciences is being directed toward healing the
environmental damage that has been done to the earth’s surface and
groundwater.

Ex.13. Translate the following word combinations into English.


1.Это слово происходит от . . .
2.Земная кора сложена . . .
3.Физическая геология делится на . . .
4.Земля покрыта . . .
5.Это слово используется. . .
6.Эволюция земли прослеживается
7.Данные получены из. . .
8.Породы классифицируются в соответствии с . . .

Ex.14. Open the brackets choosing the proper English word from those giv-
en before the text.
GEOLOGY
(inhabitants, embraces, shape, constitution, deals with, includes, utilization,
origin, divisions, concerned, resources )
Geology is the science which (. . .) the history of the earth and its ( . . . )
.More specifically, it is ( . . .) with the earth’s ( . . . ) and structure, with the var-

11
ious stages through which it has passed, with the living things, with the agencies
and processes which are continually altering it, and with the (. . .) of the earth’s
materials by man. Standing on the broad foundations of astronomy, mathemat-
ics, physics, chemistry, and biology, geology ( . . . ) a long list of (. . . ), such as
physiography, meteorology, mineralogy, petrology, economic geology, paleon-
tology and many other “logies”.
Thus geology (. . .) the study of such diverse subjects as the earth’s land-
scapes, the processes which actively (. . . )its surface features, weather and cli-
mate, mineral (. . .), (. . . ) and development of animals and plants, minerals,
rocks and even the origin of man himself.

Ex.15. Say which geological subdivisions are described.


1. the science of the rocks of the earth
2. the arrangements of the structural relations of rocks and particularly
their relations to each other
3. the forces and the movements that have affected the rocks and the re-
sults of these movements
4. the study of the remains of ancient life that are found in the rocks
5. the study of the past of the earth as shown by its rocks and particularly
the record of events that is revealed in the rocks.
6. the study of the occurrence, origin, and distribution of the materials of
the earth that are valuable to man

Ex.16. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Геология – наука, изучающая происхождение и развитие земли.
2. Слово «геология» происходит от греческих слов.
3. Греческое слово «ге» означает «земля», а «логия» – рассуждение.
4. Круг вопросов, составляющих геологию, подразделяется на ряд раз-
делов.
5. Это такие подразделения, как физическая геология, минералогия,
структурная геология, палеонтология, историческая геология и т.д.

12
6. Все эти подразделения взаимосвязаны.
7. В свою очередь, все они связаны с основными науками, такими как
физика, химия, биология, а также астрономия, география и экономика.
8. Геолог должен начать изучение земли с таких сведений как ее раз-
мер, форма и внешние зоны.
9. С физической точки зрения землю можно разделить на зоны: лито-
сферу, гидросферу и атмосферу.
10. Литосфера – это твердая оболочка или корка земли.
11. Гидросфера – это вода, покрывающая литосферу.
12. Атмосфера – это воздушная оболочка.
13. Плотность земли изменяется с глубиной.
14. Температура земли также возрастает к центру.

Ex.17. Answer the following questions.


1. What does the text deal with?
2. What is defined as geology?
3. What is the word “geology” derived from?
4. What is physical geology concerned with?
5. What does mineralogy study?
6. What other geological sciences do you know? What does each of them
deal with?
7. Are geological subdivisions independent sciences?
8. What can you say about the shape and dimension of the earth?
9. What are the outer zones of the earth?
10. Is the density of the outer part of the earth the same as that of its inner
portion?

Ex.18. Refer to the text from Ex.7 and do the following tasks.
a) Give the main idea of each unit in one sentence.

13
b) Speak on the science of geology using the sentences from “a” as a plan.

Ex.19. Read the text and do the following tasks:


1. Give a heading to the text.
2. Divide the text into paragraphs (3 or 4)
3. Find the key sentences in each paragraph.
4. Write a summary of the text. Don’t forget to use the following connecting
words: “but, so, however, as, while, then, thus, and, although, etc.”
Today, as the human race stretches its curiosity into outer space to probe the
Moon, Mars and other planets, drills into the earth and explores the mysteries of
the seas, one of the most important sciences covering all these activities is our
own geology. So what is geology? Simply, it is the science that deals with the
Earth, its constitution and structure, the agencies and processes continually alter-
ing it, and the use of the Earth’s materials by man. Geology teaches us to under-
stand Nature. Our science is based on the ancient studies of astronomy, biology,
chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Geology is a curious and fascinating mix-
ture of many sciences; yet it is a definite science, distinct from all the others.
Although geology has its own laboratory methods for studying minerals, rocks,
and fossils, it is essentially an open – air science. It attracts geologists to moun-
tains and waterfalls, glaciers and volcanoes in search for information about the
earth and its puzzling mysteries. Geology is of great practical importance in re-
lation to the needs and industries of mankind. Thousands of geologists are actu-
ally engaged in locating and exploring the mineral resources of the earth. The
whole world is being searched for new deposits of coal, oil, gas and ores of use-
ful metals. Geologists are directly concerned with the problem of water supply,
environmental protection. Many engineering projects such as tunnels, canals,
docks, and reservoirs require geological advice in the selection of sites and ma-
terials. In these and many other ways geology is applied to the service of man-
kind.

Ex.20. Agree or disagree with the following statements:


1. Geology is concerned with the Earth constitution and structure.
2. To study geology is to understand Nature.

14
3. Geology is an open-air science.
4. Geology is of academic importance.
5. Geological subdivisions are independent sciences.
6. Geology is the window from the past we use to see the future.

Ex.21. Render the following text in English:


Геология – одна из наук о Земле. Слово «геология» состоит из древне-
греческих слов «ге», что значит «земля», и «логос» – «учение». Существу-
ют и другие науки, которые изучают Землю, например, астрономия, гео-
графия, геодезия, геофизика и геохимия. Однако, в отличие от этих наук,
геология изучает состав, строение, происхождение и развитие земной коры
и Земли и процессы, которые происходят в земной коре.
Геология делится на динамическую и историческую. Геодинамика изу-
чает геологические процессы, действующие на поверхности и внутри пла-
неты. Историческая геология изучает историю развития Земли, земной ко-
ры и жизни на Земле. Наука об останках древней жизни называется палео-
нтологией.
Из геологии по мере её развития выделились многие науки, которые
занимаются исследованием составных частей земной коры и разных про-
цессов, формирующих и изменяющих её. Все эти науки являются геологи-
ческими.
Земная кора состоит из минералов, которые образуют горные породы.
Изучением свойств и состава минералов занимаются науки кристаллогра-
фия и минералогия. Минералогия изучает такое образование /генезис/ и
изменение минералов.
Состав и строение горных пород изучают такие науки, как петрография
и литология.
Геология связана с геофизикой и геохимией – науками, которые изуча-
ют Землю физическими и химическими методами.

Ex. 22. Speak on:


1) the science of geology
2) subdivisions of geology

15
UNIT 2
Text: Minerals
Grammar Revision: Participle

Ex.1. Read the following international words and give their Russian equiv-
alents.
homogeneous, aggregate, molecular, tetragonal, monoclinic, sulphide, silicon,
carbonate, atomic, orthorhombic, coherence, hexagonal, triclinic, abrasion, chlo-
ride, sulphate, sulphur, isometric, silicate, oxide

Ex.2. Arrange the following related nouns and adjectives in pairs.


different coherent presence coherence
dependent present absence importance
important dependence difference absent

Ex.3.
a) Learn the plural forms of the following nouns.
Axis – axes; analysis – analyses; index – indexes or indices; series – series;
species – species; radius – radii; phenomenon – phenomena; datum – data; stra-
tum – strata.
b) Use the proper form of the word in the following sentences.
1. Every geologic (phenomenon, phenomena) is inseparably linked with other
earth features and processes.
2. As the internal structure is the most diagnostic character of a mineral X-ray
(analyses, analysis) is one of the most fundamental methods of mineral iden-
tification.
3. These geological (data, datum) are of importance to geochemistry too.
4. The (radius, radii) of the four inner planets of the solar system are much
smaller than those of the outer ones (except Pluto).

16
5. By far the most abundant (stratum, strata) in the geologic column are marine,
so that determining the conditions of the origin of these rocks is a most im-
portant problem in stratigraphy.
6. The planets all rotate about their own (axis, axes).
7. (Analysis, Analyses) of very early gold objects show that their metals always
contain impurities such as silver, copper, antimony, and iron, which deter-
mine the color.
8. The surface of the ocean is the (datum, data) for all topographic and geologi-
cal work.

Ex.4. Translate the following word combinations into Russian.


1. earth crust - earth crust density - earth crust density examination - earth crust
density examination results
2. present day - present day geology - present day geology development
3. the earth interior - the earth interior temperature - the earth interior tempera-
ture increase - the earth interior temperature increase observation
4. the geological data - the geological data application - the geological data ap-
plication forecast
5. earth history - earth history understanding
6. earth landscape - earth landscape surface - earth landscape surface features
Ex.5. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
Present and Past Participle.
e.g. 1) The processes operating on the earth or within it give the rocks of the
earth crust their composition and structure.
Процессы, происходящие на земле или в ее недрах, формируют
состав и структуру пород земной коры.
2) Our earth is made up of various rocks composed of minerals.
Наша Земля состоит из разнообразных пород, сложенных минералами.
1. Various rocks found in nature differ both in colour and density as well as
other properties.

17
2. Rocks and soils made up of individual particles are aggregates of minerals.
3. Minerals composing rocks are to be studied by us.
4. The problem dealt with by geologists is of great importance.
5. Topography shaped by glaciers differs sharply from that shaped by running
water.
6. The science dealing with the earth crust movement is an independent sub-
division of geology.
7. The question discussed was paid much attention to
8. The lithosphere, consisting of solid, rocky material constitutes by far the
greater portion of the earth, including not only the lands, but also the rocky
materials under the ocean.
9. Fossils are the remains of plants and animals preserved in the rocks. In
some cases the entire animals have been preserved. The best known of the-
se are the woolly elephants frozen in the gravels of Siberia.
10. Wind is air moving essentially along the surface of the earth.

Ex.6. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words end-
ing in “-ed” and forms of irregular verbs.
1. A piece of land separated from larger masses and surrounded by the sea or
by water is called an island.
2. The Moon probably separated from the Earth at a very early stage in the
history of our planet.
3. Glaciers deposited their loads on land, in fresh water or in the sea.
4. Man makes many uses of the clays deposited in lakes.
5. The sedimentary rocks commonly contain fossils or the remains of plants
and animals that lived while the rocks were being deposited. Some fossils
are found only in the beds that were formed at certain times and we can tell
the relative ages of the beds on the basis of the fossils contained in them.
6. The rock samples (образцы) brought contained fossils of marine plants and
animals.

18
7. In this chapter we have discussed the surface features of the earth and
agencies by which the earth has been for millions of years modified.
8. The origin of the earth will be discussed in Chapter 5.

WORDS TO THE TEXT “MINERALS”


1. variety n. 1. разнообразие, ряд, множество
Our research will incorporate a variety of meth-
ods.
2. разновидность, вид, сорт, вариант
a new variety of apples
2. handful горстка, небольшое количество
He took a handful of coins from his pocket.
3. define v. определять
The word “reality” is defined as the state of things
as they are.
definite adj. ясный, точный
We need a definite answer by tomorrow.
4. transparent adj. 1. прозрачный; 2. очевидный
a transparent crystal; a transparent explanation
If a substance or material is transparent you can
see through it.
5. resemble v. походить на ч.-л., иметь сходство
After the earthquake the city resembled a battle-
field.
6. dull adj. 1.скучный; 2.тусклый, неяркий
1. a dull place, a dull person
2. a dull colour, dull weather
7. tiny adj. крошечный, миниатюрный
The baby’s tiny fingers

19
8.flake n. чешуйка, хлопья
fish flake, flakes of snow
9.flash v. сверкать, вспыхивать
Lightning flashed across the sky.
10. range n. 1. ряд, цепь, серия; 2. круг, область, сфера
The range and variety of his work is great.
A range of interests
11. exhibit v. показывать, проявлять, выставлять
To exhibit dependence
If someone or something shows a particular quali-
ty, feeling or type of behavior you can say that
they exhibit it.
12. bound v. ограничивать
England is bounded on the north by Scotland.
13. axis n. (pl. axes) ось
An axis is a line through the middle of something.
14. imaginary adj. воображаемый, нереальный
An imaginary person, place, or thing exists only
in your mind or in a story, and not in real life.
15. face n. зд.поверхность, грань(геометрического тела)
Crystal face
16. edge n. край, зд.ребро (геометрического тела)
The edge of a table; the edge of a triangle. An
edge is a line marking the outer limit of a surface.
17. intersect v. пересекать(ся)
The area is intersected only by minor roads.
18. angle n. 1. угол; 2. точка зрения, аспект
1. right angle, exterior angle, angle of slope
2. to look at the question from all angles
19. oblique adj. косой, наклонный
An oblique angle (line etc.), an oblique look

20
20. cleavage n. 1. расщепление, раскалывание, отслоение пород
2. спайность; кливаж
1. cleavage of crystals, rock cleavage
2. diamond cleavage
21. split v. раскалывать(ся), расщеплять(ся)
Some kinds of wood split easily.
22. arrange v. классифицировать, располагать в определен-
ном порядке, размещать, приводить в порядок
To arrange papers, to arrange one’s ideas
The books were arranged in alphabetical order.
arrangement n. расположение, классификация
Arrangement by number (size, weight, price)
23. fracture n. 1. зд. излом; 2. трещина, разлом
A fracture of a pipeline (a bone)
24. curve n. кривая (линия), дуга
A curve on a graph
сurve v. гнуть(ся), изгибать(ся)
The river curves round the hill.
25. uneven adj. неровный, шероховатый
An uneven road surface
The sign was painted in rather uneven letters.
26. resist v. сопротивляться, выдерживать
To resist heat
Medicine helps us to resist infection.
resistance n. устойчивость, прочность, сопротивляемость
Air resistance, resistance to corrosion
27. scratch v. царапать, скрести
He scratched his name on the top of his desk.
28. species n. вид, разновидность, род
(pl.species) Fish (animal) species, a species of minerals

21
29. luster n. блеск, глянец, лоск
The special luster of a pearl of the finest quality.
30. abundant adj. обильный, распространенный
While abundant in quantity, the quality of term pa-
pers found in the Internet is often lacking.
There was abundant evidence to support the theory.

Ex.7. Read the text and find English equivalents to the following.
Самые разнообразные породы и почвы; обломок породы; исследовать
более тщательно; мелкие упругие чешуйки; совокупность минералов;
внутреннее строение кристаллов; изогнутая или неровная поверхность; ус-
тойчивость механическому воздействию или царапанию; цветовая гамма;
облик поверхности минерала; самородные минералы; самые распростра-
ненные породообразующие минералы.

MINERALS
The earth’s crust is not a homogeneous substance. If we examine its surface
we find a variety of rocks and soils which differ in colour, in density, and in oth-
er characteristics. If we examine a fragment of rock or a handful of soil more
closely we find that it is a mixture of different substances. However, the indi-
vidual particles that make up the rocks and soils are not mixtures. Each is a dis-
tinct, homogeneous substance with definite chemical and physical characteris-
tics. Some may be hard, transparent particles that resemble bits of broken glass;
some may be dull, earthy grains; some may be tiny elastic flakes that flash bril-
liantly in the sun. Each of these distinct, homogeneous substances is a mineral.
Rocks and soils are aggregates of minerals. Hence, if we are to understand
the origin and classification of rocks, we must learn something about the various
minerals that compose them.
A mineral may be defined as a natural inorganic substance having a charac-
teristic range of chemical composition, usually definite crystal form and exhibit-
ing other physical properties.
Minerals may be classified according to their properties enlisted in A - F.

22
A. Crystal form. A crystal is a solid having a definite atomic or molecular
structure and bounded by plane surfaces called crystal planes. All crystal forms
are classified into six systems, each of which is determined by the relation of
axes, which are imaginary lines connecting the centers of opposite faces, oppo-
site corners or opposite edges and which intersect at a single point.
1. Isometric system. Three axes of equal length. Intersect at right angles.
2. Tetragonal system. Three axes intersect at right angles.
3. Hexagonal system. Four axes. Three horizontal axes intersect at 60°. Verti-
cal axes longer or shorter than horizontal.
4. Orthorhombic system. Three axes of different lengths. Intersect at right an-
gles.
5. Monoclinic system. Three axes of different lengths. Two intersect at right
angles. Third axis oblique to one of the others.
6. Triclinic system. Three axes of unequal length and all oblique to one another.
B. Cleavage. Property of minerals to split more easily in certain directions,
with the development of cleavage planes. Dependent upon atomic arrangement
of crystals.
C. Fracture. Property of minerals to break with curved or uneven surface.
D. Hardness. Resistance to abrasion or scratching.
E. Color Some mineral species may include a number of color varieties.
F. Luster. Appearance of the surface of a mineral in reflected light.
The common rock minerals may be divided into three general groups: 1) Na-
tive minerals. Composed of uncombined elements. 2) Mineral sulphides, chlo-
rides, and oxides. Composed of metals or silicon, with either sulphur, chlorine,
or oxygen. 3) Mineral silicate, carbonates, or sulphates. Composed of com-
pounds of basic oxides with oxides of silicon, carbon or sulphur. The silicates
are the most common rock-forming minerals. The third group is by far the most
abundant, particularly silicates and carbonates.

23
Ex.8. Find in the text from Ex.7
a) synonyms of the following words:
matter, definite, test, property, a piece of rock, various, compose, to determine,
to show, spectrum, confine, to look like.
b) antonyms of the following words:
heterogeneous, general, soft, dull, huge, liquid, artificial, straight, real, poor.

Ex.9. Translate the following word combinations into English. Remember


that nouns in common case are widely used as attributes in pre-position.
Облик кристалла, состав минерала, твердость минерала, плоскость
спайности, свойства минерала, форма кристалла, плотность самородных
металлов, зерна минерала, происхождение нефти, грани кристалла, ребра
кристалла, поверхность плоскости, расположение кристаллов, поверхность
излома, цвет минерала, разнообразие цветов.

Ex.10. Translate the following word combinations into English, use the Par-
ticiple.
1. Частицы, слагающие породу. . .
2. Порода, составленная из частиц. . .
3. Метод, определяющий химические и физические характеристики. . .
4. Характеристики, определенные в лаборатории. . .
5. Прозрачные частицы, напоминающие битое стекло. . .
6. Линии, пересекающиеся в одной точке. . .
7. Точка, в которой пересекается ряд линий. . .
8. Минералы, образующие породу. . .
9. Породы, образованные из минералов. . .
10.Центры поверхностей, соединенные воображаемыми линиями. . .
11.Воображаемые линии, соединяющие центры поверхностей. . .
12.Минералы, включенные в эту группу. . .
13.Группа, включающая эти минералы. . .

24
14.Породы, поделенные на группы . . .
15.Плоскость, разделяющая поверхности. . .

Ex.11. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Породы, различающиеся по цвету, плотности и другим характеристи-
кам, составляют земную кору.
2. Отдельные частицы, составляющие породы, не являются смесями.
3. Каждая частица, имеющая определенные физические и химические
характеристики, является однородным веществом.
4. Порода, исследованная в нашей лаборатории, состоит из двух минера-
лов.
5. Все формы кристаллов, найденные в природе, делятся на шесть кри-
сталлографических сингоний.
6. Историческая геология – наука, изучающая историю развития земной
коры и органической жизни.
7. Органические остатки, сохранившиеся в породах, помогают нам по-
нять природу (характер) прошлой жизни и ее эволюцию.
8. Свойства минералов, определенные в полевых условиях, затем тща-
тельно исследуются в лаборатории.

Ex.12. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to Modal Verbs.


1. Most of rocks can be recognized and identified by certain specific character-
istics.
2. One may define a mineral as a naturally occurring inorganic substance hav-
ing fairly definite chemical and physical properties.
3. To be classed as mineral, a substance must be of natural origin, must not be
organic (product of life), must be homogeneous and must have a composi-
tion so definite that it can be expressed by a chemical formula.
4. Oxygen and silicon (a gas and a solid) may be united to form the very hard,
common mineral called quartz.
5. All crystals may be grouped into six systems.

25
6. If we are to define a mineral, we should know its crystal form.
7. We had to scratch the mineral to determine its hardness.

Ex.13. Answer the following questions.


1. What is the earth’s crust composed of?
2. Do rocks composing the earth crust differ?
3. What is defined as a rock?
4. Are the individual particles that make up the rocks mixtures?
5. What is defined as a mineral?
6. What physical properties does a mineral exhibit?
7. Into what systems are crystal forms classified?
8. In what way are crystal forms classified?
9. Is the classification given in the text from Ex.7 similar to the classification
used in Russia?
10. What other physical properties of a mineral do you know?

Ex.14. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Земная кора сложена самыми разными породами.
2. Эти породы отличаются цветом, плотностью, сцементированностью и
другими чертами.
3. Некоторые породы являются однородными веществами, характери-
зующимися определенными химическими и физическими свойствами.
4. Другие породы представляют собой соединения различных веществ.
5. Они могут быть прозрачными или тусклыми.
6. Тело с определенным молекулярным строением, ограниченное пло-
скими поверхностями, называют кристаллом.
7. Формы кристаллов классифицируют на 6 кристаллографических син-
гоний.
8. Отношения между осями определяют каждую из сингоний.

26
9. Если мы знаем наиболее важные физические свойства минералов, мы
можем легко их узнать.
10. Такими свойствами являются твердость, спайность, излом, цвет, блеск
и другие.

Ex.15. Define the property of minerals described in “a”, “b”, “c’, “d”.
a. This property is the resistance of a mineral to scratching. This property de-
pends on the crystal structure of a mineral. Minerals are classified by this
property. This is done by rating the mineral against a standard called Mohs
scale. The scale is a set of ten minerals arranged in order of increasing this
property. For example, talc, which is very soft, is a 1 on the scale. Dia-
monds, which are very hard, rate as 10.
b. A useful identifying characteristic is the way in which light reflects off the
surface of a mineral. Minerals are classified by this property as: metallic
(gold), glassy (quarts), pearly (opal), silk (gypsum), waxy (turquoise), resin-
ous (amber), adamantine (diamond), or dull (chalk). Often, this property can
narrow your search for the correct mineral group of your sample. For exam-
ple, native metals, most sulphides, and some oxides have a metallic luster.
Sometimes, it is possible to identify a mineral based on just color and this
property.
c. Minerals can be identified by how they break apart. This property is the
splitting of a mineral in definite directions because of the internal structure
of the crystals present. Most minerals break along a certain plane. Mica
cleaves into thin sheets. Galena breaks into little cubes. This characteristic
splitting is also helpful in mineral identification. Quarts and malachite split
with shell-like curves. Native metals often break leaving jagged (зазубрен-
ный) edges.

d. This property is the result of the elements present and it can be a useful aid
for identification. For example, malachite is always green, and gold is al-
ways yellow. But trying to determine what a specimen is by this property
alone can be misleading. Impurities and defects in crystal structure can
change this property of a mineral. Pure quarts are clear, but they can occur in
white, pink, blue, purple, green, and yellow forms. Also, this property can

27
change as minerals are exposed to weathering and erosion. For this reason,
always examine a freshly broken surface when evaluating this property. In
general, most minerals cannot be identified by this property alone.

Ex.16. Refer to the text from Ex.7 and do the following tasks:
1) Give the main idea of each paragraph of the text.
2) Write a summary of the text.

Ex.17. Read the text and do the exercise that follows it.
A detailed study of the earth’s crust begins with the minerals.
The majority of the minerals known to man are in a crystalline state and only
a small number is in an amorphous state. The difference between the crystalline
and amorphous state is that when elements are in a crystalline state the mole-
cules, atoms or ions of each are arranged in a definite order and form a spatial
lattice, while in the latter state there is no regular arrangement of particles. The
difference in the internal structure of crystalline and amorphous bodies accounts
for the difference in their physical properties.
When minerals solidify and grow they usually form symmetrical shapes
known as crystals. The planes that form the outside of the crystals are known as
faces. Every crystal forms one of six groups of shapes called systems. Each
crystal system is different because the arrangement of atoms and ions within the
crystal is different. Thus, the sodium and chlorine ions in halite form cubes and
therefore the mineral crystallizes in cubes.
Each crystal has one vertical axis and two or three horizontal axes, which
extend through the center of the crystal. In each crystal system the length of the
axes and the angle of intersection are different.
There are different methods for identifying minerals based on a study of
their optical and chemical properties, chemical composition, and so on. Minerals
can be identified through X-ray diffraction, spectrographic and thermal analyses.
But when conducting geological exploration in the field a geologist should be
able to identify the principal minerals with a naked eye. To do this the following
physical properties are of great help: colour, luster, transparency, fracture,
cleavage, hardness, and specific gravity. These properties are closely associated
with the internal structure of minerals, with the texture of their crystalline lattice.

28
Ex.18. Agree or disagree with the following statements.
1. The difference between the crystalline and amorphous states is in the ar-
rangement of particles.
2. Every crystal has three axes.
3. The difference in the internal structure accounts for the difference in phys-
ical properties.
4. X-ray diffraction, spectrographic and thermal analyses are used to identify
minerals.
5. To identify minerals a geologist must know their physical properties.
6. All crystals are shaped like cubes.

Ex.19. Render the text in English.


Природные химические соединения /или отдельные элементы/, кото-
рые обладают определенными физическими и химическими свойствами,
называются минералами.
Физические свойства минералов – это удельный вес, твердость, блеск,
цвет черты и некоторые другие.
Твердость – это степень сопротивления минералов царапанию. Твер-
дость определяют по шкале Мооса, которая состоит из 10 минералов.
Блеск – это способность минерала отражать свет. Блеск может быть ме-
таллический, стеклянный, алмазный и т.д.
Важным признаком многих минералов является цвет. Один и тот же
минерал может иметь разный цвет. Это зависит от примесей.
В принципе, минералы встречаются обычно в твердом состоянии, реже
в жидком и газообразном. Ученые дают названия минералам по разным
признакам: по месту нахождения минерала или по химическому составу и
свойствам, или по фамилии ученого, изучившего или открывшего его.

Ex.20. Agree or disagree with the following statements and give your rea-
soning.
1. The earth’s crust is a heterogeneous substance.
2. Each mineral is a mixture of different substances.

29
3. A mineral may be defined as a natural organic substance.
4. Geologists classify crystals into 6 systems.
5. A mineral can always be identified with a naked eye.

Ex.21. Speak on minerals, their classification and properties.

30
UNIT 3
Text: Rocks
Grammar Revision: Infinitive, Participle, Gerund

Ex.1. Read the following international words and word combinations and
give their Russian equivalents.
magma, granite, quartzite, intrusive, texture, reservoir, lava, basalt, volcano, to
erode, pore, to metamorphose, aggregates of minerals, accumulation and cemen-
tation of fragments, physical characteristics, typical metamorphic agent

Ex.2. Give all the possible derivatives of the following words. Translate
them into Russian.
Hard; to differ; to solve; to compose; deposit; divide; form; inhabit; to vary;
origin; to depend; measure; change.

Ex.3. State the part of speech of the underlined words. Translate the sen-
tences.
1. Glacial deposits have almost no relation to the character and the structure
of the underlying rocks.
2. Glaciers deposit their loads on almost any surface, on land, in fresh water,
or in the sea.
3. The change in fossil forms results from the change in environmental condi-
tions.
4. This results in a general blowing of the air from the poles towards the
equator.
5. An earthquake is any vibration of the earth’s surface due to natural causes.
6. The formation of clay minerals is the direct result of weathering (выветри-
вание).
7. The rotation of the earth causes day and night change.
8. The rise of temperature causes snow to melt.

31
9. The possibility that some of the material lying on the lunar surface is chem-
ically unchanged since the formation of the planet remains high.
10.These rocks are made up in part or entirely of the remains of animals and
plants.
11.Running water can never lower very large areas of the land below sea level.
12.The lower limit of wave action varies.
13.Roads and railroads often follow both banks of a river, since the land there
is fairly level.
14.The work of the atmosphere is to level the land surface.
15.Variations in the temperature of the atmosphere effect great changes in
rocks.
16.Temperature changes are usually of more effect in the case of igneous
rocks than in that of sedimentary rocks.

Ex.4. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
Infinitives.
e.g. 1) To divide rocks into classes we should know the modes of their origin.
Чтобы подразделить породы на классы, нам следует знать харак-
тер их залегания.
2) Rivers carry their debris and deposit it at the estuary to be dealt with
later on the sea.
Реки несут с собой обломочный материал и откладывают его в
устье, а затем эти обломки поступают в распоряжение моря.
1. To trace the evolution of the earth and its inhabitants we must study geol-
ogy as well as other sciences which are concerned with the physical pro-
cesses on and within the earth.
2. To understand the origin and classification of rocks we must learn some-
thing about the various minerals composing them.
3. Fragments of rocks, minerals and organisms accumulate at the earth sur-
face to form sedimentary rocks.

32
4. To begin the study of the earth we have to know something about its di-
mension, shape, and outer zones.
5. To understand the meaning of the word “petroleum” we must know its
origin.
6. To be classed as hard rocks must resist abrasion or scratching.
7. Some heavy elements unite readily with oxygen to make oxides and with
silicon to make silicates.

Ex.5. Translate the following into English.


1. Для того чтобы подняться на поверхность……
2. Для того чтобы исследовать породу………
3. Для того чтобы понять происхождение земли ……..
4. Для того чтобы классифицировать эти породы…….
5. Для того чтобы изучить состав породы………
6. Для того чтобы отличить эти минералы……..
7. Для того чтобы увидеть отдельные зерна песка…….
8. Для того чтобы пробить себе путь……..

Ex.6. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Для того чтобы различить образцы пород, нужно рассмотреть их под
микроскопом.
2. Для того чтобы рассмотреть минералы, слагающие породу, он взял
увеличительное стекло.
3. Он провел ряд исследований, чтобы понять происхождение породы.
4. Чтобы начать изучение земли, необходимо знать ее размеры и форму.
5. Чтобы понять происхождение и классификацию пород, важно знать
состав минералов, из которых они состоят.

33
Ex.7. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
Verbals underlined.
1. When solidifying magma turns into an igneous rock.
При затвердевании магма превращается в изверженную породу.
2. Magma forces its way through strata thus causing the overlying rock
layers to be domed.
Магма пробивается сквозь пласты пород, тем самым выгибая эти вы-
шележащие слои в куполообразные формы.
3. On reaching the surface molten material solidifies into an extrusive ig-
neous rock.
Достигая поверхности, расплавленное вещество затвердевает и пре-
вращается в эффузивную магматическую породу.
1. When examining a fragment of rock or a handful of soil more closely we find
that it is a mixture of different substances.
2. Many different factors have to be considered when selecting a site for drilling.
3. In examining rocks a geologist distinguishes two major groups.
4. It is important when exploring a new area, to determine whether the organic
matter has been heated enough to produce oil.
5. It’s often very difficult to identify a mineral simply by looking at it.
6. When determining hardness, mineralogists usually scratch the rock.
7. When conducting geological exploration in the field, a geologist should be
able to identify the principal minerals with a naked eye.
8. While studying the west coast of Africa and the east coast of South America,
Alfred Wegener noticed the extraordinary way these coasts mirrored each
other.

Ex.8. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
construction «Nominative +Infinitive”.
e.g. 1) Rocks are known to be divided into three great classes.
Известно, что породы делятся на три большие группы.

34
2) Earth appears to have undergone cyclic changes.
По-видимому, Земля претерпела циклические изменения.
1. In many regions great thickness of strata is found to have been tilted, so that
they now lie in inclined positions.
2. The earth is considered to have undergone great changes during its exist-
ence.
3. Some properties of minerals are likely to be associated with their internal
structure.
4. The Earth seems to have been formed at least 4.55 billion years ago out of a
cloud of cosmic dust.
5. The Himalayas are believed to be still rising by a measurable amount today.
6. The properties of minerals appear to be closely associated with their internal
structure.
7. The word “geology” is not likely to be used in its present sense before the
17th century.
8. About half of the world’s oil reserves has been estimated by the geologists to
occur in carbonates.
9. Igneous rocks are sure to be the most dense rocks.
10.Quarts, feldspar, mica, garnet, dolomite, and some others are known to con-
stitute an important group of rock-forming minerals.

WORDS TO THE TEXT “ROCKS”.


1. melt v. плавить(ся), таять
Snow melts when the sun shines.
The sugar melted in the tea.
2. erupt v. извергать(ся), выбрасывать
When a volcano erupts it throws out a lot of hot,
melted rock called lava, as well as ash and steam.

35
3. solidify v. твердеть, застывать, кристаллизоваться
Water solidifies by reduction of temperature.
4. igneous adj. магматический, изверженный
In geology, igneous rocks are rocks that were once
so hot that they were liquid.
5. extrusive adj. эффузивный
These hills are the extrusive edges of strata.
6. grade v. классифицировать, сортировать
I’ve graded their work from 1 to 10.
The species were graded by size.
7. coarse-grained adj. крупнозернистый
Ant. fine-grained course-grained minerals
8. subsequently впоследствии, позднее, позже
The Queen visited the new museum and subse-
quently attended a banquet in the Town Hall.
9. expose v. обнажать(ся), выходить на поверхность; подвергать
The rocks are exposed at low tide.
Thousands of people were exposed to radiation when the
nuclear reactor exploded.
10. precipitate n. осадок
The atmospherical precipitates are rain and snow.
precipitate v. осаждать(ся), выпадать (об осадках)
Particles may precipitate in crystalline form as a fi-
ne powder.
11. pile n. куча, кипа, пачка (геол.)
a pile of stones, a pile of papers, a pile of rocks
12. disturb v. нарушать, приводить в беспорядок
to disturb the order of deposition
13. folding n. образование складок
Folding is a geological process.
14. overturn v. опрокидывать(ся), переворачивать(ся)
The car hit a tree and overturned.

36
15. constituent adj. образующий, составляющий часть целого Atoms
are constituent parts of molecules.
16. clastic adj. обломочный, кластический
The word “clastic” is derived from Greek klastos”,
meaning “broken in pieces”.
17. limestone n. известняк
Limestone is used as building material and in the
making of cement.
18. sandstone n. песчаник
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock consisting of sand
or quarts grains cemented together. It is often used
for building houses and walls.
19. clay n. глина
Clay can be shaped and baked to make things such
as pots and bricks, and ceramics.
20. subject to v. подвергать чему-либо
This metal should not be subjected to too high tem-
peratures.
21. marble n. мрамор
The staircase of this palace is made of marble.
A marble statue.

Ex.9. Read the text and do the following tasks:


1. Give examples of each class of rocks.
2. Find the construction “Nominative + Infinitive”.
3. Find English equivalents to the following.
По-разному; характер происхождения; пробиться в другую породу; в
любом случае; в основном; в виде лавы; глубинные массы; водные раство-
ры; другими словами; снизу вверх; представляют большой интерес.

37
ROCKS
Rocks are aggregates of minerals. They form the solid crust of the earth. Dif-
ferent kinds of rocks contain different minerals, have different physical proper-
ties, and were formed in different ways. Geologists group the rocks of the
earth’s crust into three types according to their mode of origin: igneous, sedi-
mentary and metamorphic.
Deep in the earth’s crust, temperatures are high enough to melt rock into
magma. Magma sometimes erupts to the surface as lava, or it may force its way
into other solid rock underground. In either case, when magma cools, it solidi-
fies, forming igneous rocks, such as granite and basalt.
Two subdivisions of the igneous rocks are recognized. The lavas and solid
fragments erupted from volcanoes are called extrusive rocks. They are com-
posed in large part of microscopic mineral crystals and glass. In a few places ig-
neous rocks can be seen to grade into rocks composed of much larger crystals.
These coarse-grained igneous rocks are called intrusive rocks, and are wide-
spread at the earth’s surface, but have not been observed in process of for-
mation. The intrusive rocks were not thrown up to the surface like lavas, but so-
lidified deep underground. Subsequently, the roof rock that covered many of
these buried masses was eroded away, thus exposing the intrusive rock at the
surface.
The sedimentary rocks have been formed at the surface of the earth, either
by accumulation and cementation of fragments of rocks, minerals, and organ-
isms, or as precipitates from sea water, and other water solutions.
Most sedimentary rocks form distinct layers or strata. In any pile of sedi-
mentary strata that has not been disturbed by folding or overturning since accu-
mulation, the youngest stratum is at the top and the oldest at the base. In other
words, the order of deposition is from the bottom upward. Sedimentary rocks are
classified and named on the basis of their texture, that is, the size and shape of
their constituent particles; and on their composition, that is, the kinds of miner-
als that compose the particles and cements. Two general subdivisions may be
recognized: clastic sedimentary rocks and organic and chemical sedimentary
rocks.
It should be noted that sedimentary rocks are of great interest to petroleum
geologists because most oil and gas accumulations occur in these rocks due to

38
their most important physical characteristics: porosity and permeability. The
greater the porosity of a formation, the more petroleum it is able to hold. A rock
is permeable when its pores are connected, that is, oil, gas, and water can flow
through it by moving from one pore to another. Thus to be commercially pro-
ductive a petroleum reservoir must be both porous and permeable. Limestone,
sandstone, and clay are considered to be typical sedimentary rocks.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks either igneous, sedimentary, or other meta-
morphic rocks that have been buried deep in the earth where they are subjected
to high temperatures and pressures. The term comes from the Greek “meta”, the
change, and “morphe”, form or shape. When undergoing the metamorphic pro-
cess, physical and chemical properties of the original rock are found to change,
thus altering rock composition and appearance. To form a metamorphic rock
metamorphic agents (heat, pressure, various gases and vapors) interact with the
parent rock. So, for example, limestone can be metamorphosed into marble, and
sandstone into quartzite.

Ex.10. Pick up pairs of a) synonyms and b) antonyms


a) solid, like, type, bed, deep, size, sufficient, as, hold, little, layer, hard,
high, various, make up, dimension, enough, kind, compose, different, pro-
found, few, keep, tall,
b) different, high, coarse-grained, upward, permeable, solid, extrusive,
downward, deep, low, top, same, fine-grained, shallow, liquid, bottom,
impervious, intrusive.

Ex.11. Translate the following word combinations.


1. way - the best way to learn the language; ways and means of examin-
ing rocks; in the same way; in different ways; the only way
out; the shortest way to the station
2. high - waves up to 40 meters high; high in the mountains; at high
speed; goods of high quality; a highly-qualified specialist;
highly-educated person
3. recognize - to recognize somebody; to recognize three groups of rocks; to
recognize officially

39
4. solution - water saline solution; the best solution to the problem
5. pile - a pile of rocks; a pile of books
6. order - the order of deposition; in order to do something; to keep doc-
uments in order; alphabetical order
7. bottom - the bottom of the sea; the bottom of the page; the order of dep-
osition is from the bottom upward; the well bottom
8. subject - the subject of discussion; school subject; the subject of a the-
sis; to change the subject; to subject substances to intense heat;
a metal subject to corrosion

Ex.12. Say which word doesn’t match.


1. Form, make up, contain, shape.
2. Different, kind, various, unlike.
3. Property, characteristic, type, feature.
4. Solid, dense, hard, clastic.
5. Source rock, parent rock, mother rock, reservoir rock.
6. Cover, layer, bed, stratum.
7. Divide, link, disconnect, separate.
8. To change, to alter, to transform, to act.
9. General, common, only, usual.
10.To subject, to expose, to submit, to disturb.

Ex.13. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. Rocks composed almost entirely of fine-grained silica are common, but
they are unlikely to form large masses.
2. Basalt is the world’s most abundant solidified lava.
3. Granite, characterized by a granular texture, has feldspar and quartz as
its two most abundant minerals, and therefore most granite is light col-
ored.

40
4. Clastic sedimentary rocks are those composed of broken fragments of
pre-existing minerals, rock particles or precipitates that have been ce-
mented together.
5. The materials erupted from volcanoes include solids, liquids and gases.
6. Naturally enough, as soon as the lava reaches the surface it cools rapidly
and the fluid tends to solidify. In some cases the solidification occurs on-
ly at the surface and subsequently a stream of lava flows along beneath
the hardened crust.
7. The conditions to which the rocks are subjected determine the kind of
metamorphic changes that occur.
8. Since any rock may be metamorphosed in one or several different ways,
there are different kinds of metamorphic rocks.
9. When melted rocks are erupted to form extrusive rocks.
10. In many limestones it is easy to see the remains of small organisms
without using the microscope.
11. Folding takes place when a force horizontal to the surface of the earth
make rock strata bend.
12. Although intrusive rocks were always originally formed deep under-
ground, they are now widely exposed because of earth movements and
erosion processes.
13. The folding of rocks, after erosion has worked at the surface, originally
makes the surface more uneven than it was before.
14. It is indeed, only through the removal of the products of weathering that
fresh surfaces are exposed to the further action of weathering processes.
15. Nearly all the great mountains of the world have been formed by the
folding of layers of the earth’s crust.
16. Limestone is quantitatively much less important than shale and sand-
stone among sedimentary rocks of the world, but it is the chief non-
clastic type. Kinds of limestone, graded on the basis of composition and
texture, are almost without number, and each represents somewhat dif-
ferent conditions of making.

41
17. There are very few areas in the British Isles which have not been dis-
turbed in some way or another by human activities.
18. Rocks are constantly subjected to a wide range of chemical and meta-
morphic changes, all of which affect their strength.
19. In many regions the earth’s surface has been disturbed by folding more
than once along the same axes.
20. If magma when forcing its way upward has sufficient heat and pressure
it reaches the surface to become an extrusive igneous rock.
21. With progressing regional metamorphism, the constituent rock minerals
often grow more coarse-grained.
22. Chemically formed rocks are those derived when mineral matter that has
been in solution becomes insoluble and is precipitated.
23. The great piles of sediments are the inevitable result of long continued
operation of the slow process we observe today.
24. Rocks are aggregates of minerals. The wide variations in appearance and
physical properties they exhibit depend on the amounts and kinds of dif-
ferent minerals they contain, and on how the grains of these minerals are
arranged.
25. Sometimes thick piles of layers can be overturned by rapid vibrations
such as those that result from earthquake.

Ex.14. Give the terms to the following definitions.


1. Any mass or aggregate of one or more kinds of mineral or organic mat-
ter, forming the solid crust of the earth.
2. A sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand grains cemented together
in varying degrees.
3. Rocks formed by solidification of molten matter within the earth’s crust.
4. Fine-grained igneous rocks formed at the surface of the earth.
5. Rocks formed by consolidation of sediments.
6. The size and shape of rock constituent particles.

42
7. A rock which pores are connected.
8. Rocks derived from pre-existing rocks by mineralogical, chemical, and
structural alterations due to high pressure and heat.
9. Agents of metamorphism.
10. A hard crystalline metamorphic form of limestone, typically white,
which may be polished and is used in sculpture and architecture.

Ex.15. Arrange the following characteristics of rocks into three columns:


Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic
Cemented, fine-grained, loose, hard, stratified, crystalline, altered, permeable,
coarse-grained, unconsolidated, porous, impermeable, layered, glassy, metamor-
phosed, foliated, deep-seated, dense.

Ex.16. Open the brackets choosing the proper English word.


Rocks are a naturally occurring solid (mixture, aggregate) of minerals and,
sometimes, organic materials. Rocks are classified by mineral and chemical
(composition, structure), the texture of the (constituent, consisting) particles and
also by the processes that formed them.
Rocks can be (recognized, classified) into three main groups which are igne-
ous rock, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks. These three main groups
of rocks are classified by geologists on the basis of their mode of (occurrence,
origin).
Igneous rock (derives, originates) from the cooling and (solidification, ce-
mentation) of molten rock. Igneous rocks are formed either underground or
above ground. Underground the (molten, solidified) rock is called magma. As
the magma cools slowly it becomes (intrusive, extrusive) igneous rocks. On the
other hand, igneous rocks are also formed when volcanoes (erupt, expose), caus-
ing the magma to (rise, raise) (upward, downward) to the surface. Magma above
the earth is called (fluid, lava). (Intrusive, extrusive) igneous rocks are formed as
the lava cools above the ground.
Sedimentary rocks are rocks which are formed when layers of (cement, sed-
iment) – clay, sand, gravel, and minerals – (deposit, precipitate) to the bottom of
the ocean and then compact and (cement, solidify).

43
Ex.17. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Магматические породы образовались в результате остывания рас-
плавленного вещества, называемого магмой.
2. Различают два типа магматических пород: а) интрузивные, которые
образовались в результате остывания магмы в значительных глуби-
нах, в условиях больших давлений и высоких температур; б) эффу-
зивные породы, которые образовались в результате остывания ла-
вы, вылившейся на поверхность земли.
3. Классификация магматических пород основана на условиях их об-
разования и минералогическом составе.
4. Минералогический состав магматических пород в значительной
степени зависит от химического состава магмы.
5. Поднимаясь на поверхность и вытекая в виде лавовых потоков,
расплавленное вещество, в конце концов, остывает и превращается
в магматические породы путем отвердения.
6. Интрузивные магматические породы, глубоко под землей образо-
вавшиеся путем затвердения, иногда обнажаются на поверхности.
7. Гранит и базальт – типичные примеры магматических пород.
8. Породы, образующие земную кору, делятся на три основных клас-
са, причем такое деление основано на характере происхождения по-
род.
9. Некоторые осадочные породы образовались путем скопления и це-
ментации обломков пород или организмов.
10. Большинство осадочных пород залегает отчетливыми слоями.
11. В пачке осадочных пород, которая не была затронута процессами
складкообразования с момента накопления, самый молодой пласт
находится вверху, а самый древний—внизу. Иными словами, поря-
док отложения – снизу вверх.
12. Осадочные породы представляют наибольший интерес для геоло-
гов-нефтяников, что обусловлено их физическими свойствами: по-
ристостью и проницаемостью.

44
13. Наиболее распространенные осадочные породы—песчаник и глина.
14. Под метаморфизмом понимают любое изменение минералогическо-
го состава, структуры или текстуры изверженной, осадочной или
метаморфической породы.
15. Благодаря метаморфизму первоначальный характер породы заметно
изменяется.
16. Видоизмененные таким образом породы составляют метаморфиче-
скую группу пород.
17. Различные факторы, такие как температура, давление, различные
газы и пары, влияют на образование метаморфических пород.
18. Метаморфические породы широко распространены в земной коре.
Под действием различных метаморфических агентов известняк пре-
вращается в мрамор, а песчаник в кварцит.

Ex.18. Answer the following questions.


1. What is a rock?
2. What is the classification of rocks based on?
3. What rocks are known as igneous?
4. In what way have igneous rocks been formed?
5. What subdivisions of igneous rocks are recognized?
6. What is the subdivision of igneous rocks based on?
7. Do intrusive and extrusive rocks differ greatly? Can they be told from
each other with naked eye?
8. What rocks are known as sedimentary?
9. What is the mode of occurrence of sedimentary rocks?
10. Into what groups are sedimentary rocks subdivided? What is the main
principle of these subdivisions?
11. Why are sedimentary rocks of prime importance for petroleum geolo-
gists?
12. What is referred to as metamorphism?

45
13. What kinds of rocks can be metamorphosed?
14. What agents are considered to be the most effective in altering the rock
material?
15. Can you give examples of each class of rocks?

Ex.19. Read the text and do the following tasks:


a. Divide the text into paragraphs and give headings to the paragraphs.
b. Find key sentences of each paragraph.
c. Render the text using the found key sentences as a plan.
Igneous rocks derive their name from Latin word “ignis” meaning “fire”.
The ancient people thought that there were fires within the earth. They described
volcanoes as burning mountains, whereas we realize today that combustion is
almost absent in volcanoes although there is abundance of heat. We do not be-
lieve there are “fires” within the earth, yet we are practically certain that the in-
terior of the earth is very hot. We know that for the first mile the temperature
varies about one degree Fahr. for every 60 feet of added depth. It is practically
certain that the major part of the interior is solid at all times. But limited quanti-
ties of the earth’s crust at times melt, cool again, and resolidify. Sometimes this
molten rock comes up a long way to reach the surface of the earth. But molten
rock does not always rise far enough to reach the earth’s surface. It may consol-
idate between walls of older rocks. Any rock which forms by consolidation from
a molten material is called an igneous rock. In this group there are two distin-
guishing features. Firstly, the size of the crystals, which is an indication of the
rate of cooling and hence of the depth of formation. For instance, granite which
has large crystals was cooled very slowly and formed at great depth within the
crust, while rhyolite which has no crystals, being like glass, was cooled very
rapidly and is a form of lava, emitted by a volcano directly onto the surface.
Thus we may divide the igneous rocks into those which crystallize within the
earth and those which solidify at the surface. The former is called intrusive rock
and the latter is named extrusive rock. Intrusive rocks are well-crystallized and
generally coarse-grained, the crystals being large enough to be recognized with
naked eye. Extrusive rocks are commonly fine-grained, with crystals too small
to be distinguished without a magnifying glass. The second feature is the chemi-

46
cal composition. Igneous rocks are described as acidic and basic, according to
the proportion of silica (quartz) in their make-up. Often a chemical analysis
must be carried out to determine the correct composition and name of the rock.

Ex.20. Read the text and say why metamorphic rocks are of little im-
portance for oil hunters.
In examining rocks the geologists distinguish two major groups, sedimentary
rocks being of the utmost importance for petroleum geologists. But a third group
of rocks is also recognized. This is composed of rocks whose texture or mineral
composition has been changed under the action of heat, pressure and chemically
active fluids with the possibility of admixture of another rock. These rocks are
known as metamorphic rocks. They are only of negative interest to the geologist
looking for oil since their presence indicates conditions which are impossible to
the preservation of large volumes of oil.
Metamorphism is referred to as the process, by which changes are brought
about in rocks within the earth’s crust by various metamorphic agencies. The
end-product of metamorphism, the metamorphic rock, is the result of the inter-
action of the metamorphic agencies and the parent rock.
The most significant agency of all is probably dynamic metamorphism,
which is produced by actual movement or change in the shape of the rock for-
mation. The action of solutions accompanies this process and gives rise to talc,
mica, and chlorite. Dynamic metamorphism forms shists and gneisses; it seems
to make highly effective all the other metamorphic processes which are other-
wise very slow and may be only potentially of importance.

Answer the following questions.


1. What is the subject of the text?
2. What is the purpose of the text?
3. What does the text start with?
4. What aspects related to metamorphism does the author consider in the text?
5. What conclusion can you make?

47
Ex.21. Translate the text in writing. Use a dictionary.
ATLANTIC ONCE A DEAD SEA
The Atlantic Ocean may once have been a shallow evaporating pan with wa-
ter as salty as that of the Dead Sea. A lifeless lake then only a few miles across,
the Atlantic waters deposited thick layers of salt on what are now the continental
margins of West Africa and North America.
This is the picture inferred from a seismic survey of the sea bottom of the
coast of North-West Africa. Dr. P.A. Rona, of Columbia University, New York,
has discovered that the thick layers of sediment which have accumulated on the
sea floor near the coast are punctuated by several giant pyramids of salt, up to 25
miles thick at the base.
The sediment layers revealed by the seismic waves are buckled upwards,
suggesting they have been pierced through pyramids of salt pushing upwards
from beneath.
How did the salt get there? From the theory of continental drift, it is known
that up to about 200 million years ago the land mass of North America abutted
on to Europe and North Africa. The continents were prised apart by volcanic ac-
tivity along what is known now the underwater mountain range known as the
Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
In the early stages of this process the Atlantic Ocean would have been a
shallow stretch of water, perhaps closed off from the other oceans of the world
in these circumstances the surface waters might have evaporated as fast as new
water could flow in, and a layer of salt up to a mile thick would have been de-
posited.
After several million years, when the neighboring continents had drifted fur-
ther apart, the north Atlantic joined up with the south Atlantic into a full-fledged
deep water ocean. Sediments of organic and mineral debris piled up on top of
the salt layer until the pressure of overlying material was sufficient to send pyr-
amids of salt punching up through the mile or so of sediments to the surface of
the sea floor.
Dr.Rona has geological evidence to believe that the salt layer was deposited
about 150 million years ago.
The salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico may have a similar origin, and may
even have deposited from seas contiguous with the early north Atlantic. When

48
salt domes push through petroliferous sediments they form excellent traps in
which oil accumulates; the salt domes of the Gulf coast provide millions of bar-
rels of oil yearly.
The structure discovered by Dr.Rona resemble salt domes in their seismic
reflections, but this will need to be checked.
(“THE TIMES”, LONDON)

Ex.22. Render the text in English:

В геологии горными породами называются природные минеральные


агрегаты. Горные породы состоят из одного или нескольких минералов.
Наука, которая занимается изучением горных пород, называется петрогра-
фией. В настоящее время известно около 1000 видов различных горных
пород. В петрографии принята классификация горных пород по их проис-
хождению. По этой классификации все горные породы делятся на 3 боль-
шие группы: магматические, осадочные и метаморфические. 90% земной
коры по объему составляют магматические и метаморфические породы и
только 10% составляют осадочные породы.
Минералы и горные породы, образующиеся из магмы, называются
магматическими. К ним относятся гранит, базальт и некоторые другие.
Образование магматических горных пород можно наблюдать в районах
действующих вулканов, где магма изливается на земную поверхность. Та-
кая магма, достигшая земной поверхности, называется лавой. При отверде-
вании лава образует эффузивные (излившиеся) горные породы. Горные
породы, образовавшиеся из магмы, которая затвердела на глубине, назы-
ваются интрузивными (или плутоническими, глубинными).
Осадочные и магматические породы образуют две основные группы
горных пород в литосфере. Но когда такие породы находятся в условиях
большого давления и высокой температуры, они изменяются и превраща-
ются, в метаморфические породы. Процесс изменения горных пород под
действием тепла, давления, жидких и газообразных веществ называется
метаморфизмом.

49
Осадочные горные породы образуются в самой верхней части земной
коры при невысокой температуре и давлении. Осадочные породы делятся
на три главных типа: обломочные, органогенные и хемогенные.
Как образуются обломочные горные породы? Под действием тепла и
холода, воды и воздуха горные породы постоянно разрушаются и делятся
на части, или обломки. Реки и ветер переносят этот обломочный материал
в другие места. Самое большое количество обломочного материала оседа-
ет в океанах и морях. Постепенно под давлением новых слоев он превра-
щается в твёрдую осадочную породу. Так, например, песок превращается в
песчаник, глина – в глинистый сланец и т.д. Песок, песчаник, глина – это
обломочные породы.
Второй тип осадочных пород - органогенные породы. Органогенными
называются горные породы, которые состоят из органических останков
животных и растений. Это такие породы, как мел, уголь, известняк и дру-
гие.
Третий тип осадочных пород - хемогенные породы. Эти породы обра-
зуются в результате выпадения веществ в осадок из водных растворов. Это
такие породы, как каменная соль (NaCl), гипс и другие.
Осадочные породы имеют большое практическое значение в нефтяной
геологии.

Ex.23. Agree or disagree with the following statements and give your rea-
soning.
1. Classification of rocks is based on their composition.
2. Igneous rocks are the best reservoir rocks.
3. Sedimentary rocks are formed at the surface of the earth.
4. Metamorphism is the change of texture and composition of metamor-
phic rocks.
5. Sedimentary rocks are of great interest for petroleum geologists.

Ex.24. Give summary of the text “Rocks” from ex.9.

50
Ex.25. Speak on:
1. Classification of rocks.
2. Igneous rocks.
3. Sedimentary rocks.
4. Metamorphic rocks.

51
UNIT 4
Text: Weathering
Grammar Revision: Pronoun “it”; Double conjunctions

Ex.1. Read the following international words and word combinations and
give their Russian equivalents.
Action of agencies; destructive effect; lithosphere; disintegration; bacteria;
complex process; to combine; general groups; operate in nature; intensity of
chemical reactions.

Ex.2. Translate the following word combinations paying attention to the


words of the same root:
near – A near distance, near the earth’s surface, nearly equal in density
high – A high mountain, high in the sky, highly deformed rock layers
deep – A deep-seated rock, deep in the ocean, deeply altered by metamorphic
agents
hard – Hard underlying rocks, hardly visible without a microscope, to work
hard
close – A close contact, close to the surface, closely related branches of geology
poor – A poor conductor of heat, poorly supplied with water, poor people
ready – A ready answer, readily dissolved by water
profound – Profound volcanic activity, profoundly modified by metamorphism
uneven – Uneven surface, unevenly distributed on the earth’s surface

Ex.3. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to different meanings


of “it”.
e.g. 1. It is interesting to know everything about the earth on which we live.
Интересно знать все о земле, на которой мы живем.

52
2. It is geology that gives us some information of the earth.
Как раз геология и дает нам сведения о земле.
3. It is known that our earth is a ball of rocks.
Известно, что наша земля представляет собой «каменный» шар.
4. Look at figure 1. It is a picture of various crystal forms.
Посмотрите на рисунок 1. Это рисунок различных форм кристалла.
5. Mineralogy is a subdivision of geology. It is the science of minerals.
Минералогия – это дисциплина геологического цикла. Она изучает ми-
нералы.
1. It is necessary to use some modern tools to make a close investigation of
any rock forming the earth crust.
2. It should be noted that the order of deposition is from bottom upward. It
can be distinctly observed by the microscope.
3. It was not until the late 18th century that geology emerged as a science.
4. It is the change in the velocity of currents as well as other factors that re-
sults in bedding or layering.
5. It is the business of mineralogist to learn the characteristics of minerals.
6. It is clear that mineralogy is an important part of geology.
7. Most of the hard, naturally formed substances of the earth’s crust are re-
ferred to as a rock. It occurs in the form of layers or in irregular masses.
It originated in many ways.
8. It is important to note the relative weight of the specimen examined be-
cause it often aids in recognizing the species.
9. It is most common for a given type of rock to possess two or more min-
eral species.
10. It is the science of geology that reveals so much knowledge of the physi-
cal world.

53
11. It was Newton who first showed that because of the earth’s daily rota-
tion, its matter is affected not only by inward gravitation, but also by an
outward centrifugal force.
12. It is the process of deposition that produces sedimentary rocks.

Ex.4. Fill in the blanks with the double conjunctions: “both…and”, “ei-
ther…or”, “neither…nor”, such as. Translate the sentences.
1. Historical geology deals… with the sequence of events brought about by the
operation of the physical processes,… with the history of the long procession
of life through the ages.
2. Cleavage flakes of mica are … flexible … elastic.
3. They could find … any plant … animal remains in the rock sample.
4. … igneous … sedimentary rocks can be transformed into metamorphic rocks.
5. Molten materials can be … thrown up to the surface … can solidify deep un-
derground.
6. … water … solid earth is a good conductor of heat.

Ex.5. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
underlined words.
1. The high velocities of steep streams especially when in flood, make
their current almost irresistible.
2. The metamorphic rocks are, on account of their complicated nature and
origin, difficult, if not impossible, to classify satisfactorily.
3. The discovery of a favourable structure does not, of course, guarantee
that oil will be found. On the other hand, the absence of surface indica-
tions is no proof that oil will not be found; it may also mean that oil, if
there, is sealed so efficiently that it cannot escape.
4. The work of solution accomplished by a stream flowing over a hard
igneous rock like granite is less effective because the quartz in this
rock is little, if at all, affected.

54
5. The question often arises as to what effect, if any, variations in reser-
voir properties have on the amount of hydrocarbon reserves present.

Ex.6. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the preposition


“through”.
1. Underground water returns to the surface through springs and seepag-
es.
2. In plants water is evaporated through leaves.
3. Oil is transported through pipelines.
4. Rocks through which water passes freely are called pervious.
5. Minerals can be identified through X-ray diffraction, spectrographic
and thermal analyses.

WORDS TO THE TEXT “WEATHERING”


1. crumble v. крошить(ся)
To crumble is to break apart into lots of little
pieces.
2. decay v. гнить, разлагаться
Organic substances are slowly decaying under
the action of natural chemical processes.
decay n. разложение
3. destruction n. разрушение
The floods brought death and destruction to the
area.
destructive a. разрушительный
a destructive storm
4. crevice a. щель, расщелина
Small creatures hide in the rock crevices.
5. loss n потеря
loss of interest; loss of control

55
6. disrupt v. подрывать, нарушать
Climate change can disrupt the agricultural
economy.
7. wedge n. клин
V-shaped piece of wood; to drive a wedge be-
tween two people.
8. namely adv. именно, то есть
Three students were mentioned, namely John,
Steve and Sylvia.
9. distinguish v. различать, отличать
The boys were so much alike that it was impos-
sible to distinguish the one from the other.
10. feldspar n. полевой шпат
11. precise a. точный, аккуратный
syn.-exact precise measurement
13. simultaneously adv. одновременно
In nature different processes may often occur
simultaneously.

Ex.7. Read the text and

1) Find the sentences with “it” and analyze them.


2) Name the agents of weathering.

WEATHERING
It has been found that all the materials of the outer or crustal portion of the
earth are subject to change. Under the action of the weather and other more or
less closely related agencies, even the hardest and most resistant rocks crumble
or decay in the course of time.
The destructive effect of the atmosphere on the lithosphere is called weather-
ing. The disintegration of rocks is effected through the action of external agen-
cies such as wind, rain, temperature changes, plants and bacteria.

56
It is the atmosphere that is the most important factor in the complex set of
processes called weathering, the atmospheric gases and temperature changes be-
ing the most significant agents. Additional help in the weathering processes
comes from water and chemicals dissolved in it, and, to a less extent, from light
and organisms. The various agents may work together or may be combined in
carrying on weathering. For example, water in rock crevices, through sufficient
loss of heat and drop of temperature, will freeze, expand, and disrupt the rock
through the force of wedging. Such weathering requires two agents, namely, wa-
ter and temperature change.
Broadly considered, there are two general groups of weathering processes –
one mechanical, and the other chemical.
In mechanical weathering the rock breaks up or crumbles with little or no
change in the composition of the material. It is essentially a physical process of
disintegration. Chemical weathering is mainly brought about by the action of
substances dissolved in rain water. They are acidic in character. Rocks which are
exposed to the oxygen and carbon dioxide of the atmosphere change in chemical
composition.
In chemical weathering the composition of rock or mineral matter is more or
less altered during its breaking up. It is essentially a process of decay or decom-
position.
Although the processes of disintegration and decomposition may be thus dis-
tinguished, nevertheless they commonly operate together in nature.
The presence of micro-organisms in the upper layers of the earth crust in-
creases the intensity of chemical reactions. Thus, according to V.I. Vernadsky,
feldspar undergoes weathering only when bacteria participate in the process.
When water and carbon dioxide are the only agents, weathering hardly affects
feldspar. Organisms alter rocks both mechanically and chemically.
It is often very difficult, if not impossible, to draw a precise line between
different types of weathering as in nature they usually act simultaneously.

Ex.8. Find in the text from Ex.7.


a) Synonyms
Part, to alter, decomposition, to bring about, significant, degree, different,
to unite, enough, to need, widely, chiefly, to differentiate, to be subjected,
exact.

57
b) Antonyms
Inner, internal, to contract, to rise, absence, simple, similar, to heat.

Ex.9. Translate the following paying attention to the different meanings of


the underlined words.
Hard rock – hard work, solution of limestone – solution of the problem;
source of minerals – river source; river bed – rock bed; one degree
Centigrade – to a considerable degree; a mountain range – a large range
of sizes – to range widely in size; modern means of investigation – this
means that…; the subject of great interest – the subject of the sentence
– in regions subject to earthquakes; a drop of acid – a sudden drop of
temperature; hundreds of square miles in extent – to be modified to a
great extent; periods of cold weather – to weather rather rapidly; the
most common minerals present in such rocks – in the present century –
at present – to present some interesting features; close contact – close
examination – close to the poles; only in sedimentary rocks – the only
representative of the group.

Ex.10. Translate the following word combinations:


Erosion–resistant rocks; more easily erodible rocks; colorless substances;
commonly occurring in regions subject to earthquakes; closely related phenom-
ena; loosely consolidated sediments; sufficiently resistant to erosion; the natural-
ly formed mineral matter; wind-laid dust deposits; loosely packed and poorly
cemented deposits; alternating layers of hard and soft rock; wind-built sand
hills; much richer in quartz than any nearby source rock; well-rounded uniform-
ly sized grains of quartz; a layer of disintegrated rock formed by weathering;
thin layers of alternating fine and coarse material; deposits composed of me-
chanically derived fragments; any other similarly displaced body.

Ex.11. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given in brackets and
translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The freezing of water in . . . and . . . in rocks . . . the disintegration of the
rocks, for water in freezing . . . about one-eleventh of its . . . and exerts
great pressure. (expands, pores, brings about, cracks, volume).

58
2. This pressure is . . . to . . . soft rocks . . . by partial . . . (decay, weakened,
sufficient, disrupt).
3. Rocks are subject to . . . when they are heated and to . . . when they are
cooled.(contraction, expansion).
4. . . . , or chemical weathering, is the term for . . . of rock that is accompa-
nied by . . . in chemical and mineralogical . . . (changes, composition, de-
cay, decomposition).
5. Rocks are . . . by alternate . . . and cooling. The heat of the sun . . . the sur-
face layers of the rocks; cooling . . . them to contract. (causes, affected,
heating, expands).
6. Rocks which are . . . to the oxygen and carbon dioxide of the atmosphere . . .
in chemical . . . Iron in the rocks combines with oxygen, forming iron ox-
ide. Other minerals join with oxygen or carbon dioxide. Thus the rock is . . .
or “broken up”. (decomposed, exposed, change, composition).

Ex.12. Translate the following word combinations into English.


под действием факторов выветривания; при существующих условиях; под
вымышленным(assumed) именем; по существующей классификации; под
руководством; под заголовком.

Ex.13. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Под действием выветривания происходит разрушение пород.
2. При данных условиях выветривание становится более разрушитель-
ным.
3. Под действием больших давлений зерна песка уплотняются.
4. При существующей классификации различают три основные группы
пород.
5. Под защитой растительного покрова породы более устойчивы к раз-
рушению.

59
Ex.14. Translate the following sentences into English. Use the double con-
junctions “both…and; either…or; neither…nor”.
1. Растения и животные как прямо, так и косвенно влияют на разруше-
ние пород.
2. Известно, что дождевая вода оказывает либо механическое, либо хи-
мическое воздействие на породы земной коры.
3. Ни состав, ни строение горных пород не являются однородными.
4. При определенных условиях и магматические, и осадочные породы
могут быть преобразованы в метаморфические.
5. Метаморфические породы образуются как из осадочных, так и из
магматических пород.

Ex.15. Translate the following sentences into English.


1. Все вещества, составляющие внешнюю часть земной коры, подвер-
жены воздействию различных атмосферных факторов.
2. Под действием этих процессов с течением времени происходит раз-
рушение даже самых твердых и устойчивых пород.
3. Действие различных атмосферных факторов, вызывающих разруше-
ние и распад пород, называется выветриванием.
4. Выветривание может быть двух видов.
5. При механическом выветривании вещества разрушаются под дейст-
вием температурных колебаний (изменений), морозного выветрива-
ния и различных организмов.
6. При химическом выветривании горные породы растворяются и хи-
мически разлагаются под действием атмосферных факторов.
7. Атмосферными факторами, как известно, являются дождевая вода,
ветер, морозное выветривание, а также животные и растения.

Ex.16. Answer the following questions.


1. What is referred to as weathering?
2. What are the agents of weathering?

60
3. What are the types of weathering processes?
4. What is the difference between chemical and mechanical weathering?
5. What is the role of micro-organisms in the process of weathering?
6. Can you draw a precise line between mechanical and chemical weather-
ing?

Ex.17. Give a heading to the following text.


Wind is an important geological agent of erosion and transportation of rock
material, but it is less effective than running water.
Wind is a significant agent of gradation. Its work is mainly twofold:
a) erosion and b) deposition. Wind erosion is mostly of two types – deflation
and corrosion. Both, of course, accomplish removal and transportation of rock
material, but the first is done without the aid of tools, whereas the second re-
quires the assistance of grinding materials.
Winds not only erode, transport, and deposit rock materials, but also stir up
waves and shore currents which in turn become effective and important agents
of gradation.

Ex.18. Read the text, divide it into logical parts and make a summary of it.

WEATHERING AND EROSION


The processes of weathering and erosion are going on continually all over
the world. Weathering is related to the surface of the lithosphere because it takes
place where rocks, air and water come together. Weathering causes much rock
material to be broken up and decomposed. It is a static process. On the contrary,
erosion is a dynamic process; it requires transportation of the rock waste to a
new location. The loosening and carrying away of rock debris by moving agents
operating at the surface is called erosion. Indeed, weathering, erosion and depo-
sition are the three main factors in an endless cycle of rock change: weathering
prepares the rock for transportation by decomposing and disintegrating it; ero-
sional agencies transport the material to a different locality (for example, the
ocean), and there deposit it in strata which then may be cemented into rock. This
rock may then be raised above sea level to the air and the rains, and again
weathered and eroded to start a new cycle.

61
Ex.19. Translate the following text in writing. Use a dictionary.

RATE OF WEATHERING
The rate of weathering depends upon the nature of the rocks and the kinds
and conditions of the weathering agents which operate upon them. It is a matter
of common knowledge that many stone buildings and monuments show marked
effects of weathering. An excellent case in point is Westminster Abbey in Lon-
don which was built of weak, rather porous stone in the 13-th century. Many of
the outer stones are badly weathered; some of its ornamental parts have been re-
duced to shapeless forms. Many of the exterior carvings of soft limestones of the
Louvre in Paris are also badly weathered. Inscriptions on many tombstones and
monuments only one or two centuries old are often nearly or quite illegible, due
to weathering.
Weathering is, however, much less rapid in the case of hard, resistant rocks.
Thus, even the polished surface of a very resistant rock, like granite or quartzite,
may be preserved for many years, although exposed to very changeable weather
conditions. There are ways of estimating that many of thousands of years are re-
quired for enough weathering to develop a soil a few feet thick from a hard rock
like granite.

Ex.20. Render the text in English.


Под действием тепла и холода, воды и живых организмов горные поро-
ды разрушается. Днем солнце нагревает горные породы, а вы знаете, что
при нагревании тела расширятся. Ночью, наоборот, происходит сильное
охлаждение, и породы сжимаются. В результате изменения температур на
поверхности пород образуются трещины. В эти трещины попадает вода.
При кристаллизации вода расширяется и расширяет трещины. В результате
горные породы раскалываются на части.
Процесс разрушения горных пород под воздействием внешних сил на-
зывается выветриванием.
Выветривание может быть связано не только с резким изменением
температуры. Минеральный состав пород изменяется в результате взаимо-
действия между породой и газами воздуха: кислородом, углекислым газом
и др. водные растворы тоже воздействуют на горные породы. Растения и

62
животные также выделяют растворы, разрушающие горные породы и ми-
нералы.
Выветривание представляет собой геологический процесс разрушения
пород.

Ex.21. Agree or disagree with the following statements and give your rea-
soning.
1. Weathering is a universal work of atmosphere.
2. Only sedimentary rocks are subjected to weathering.
3. Water is a purely chemical agent of weathering.
4. It is easy to draw a line between mechanical and chemical processes of
weathering.
5. Weathering is a surface process.

Ex.22. Speak on:


1. The effect of weathering.
2. Mechanical weathering.
3. Chemical weathering.
4. The difference between chemical and mechanical weathering.
5. Agents of weathering.

63
UNIT 5
Text: Where to Look for Petroleum
Grammar Revision: Passive Voice, the verb “to do”;
Participle II (adverbial modifier)

Ex.1. Translate the following pairs of words. Pay attention to the prefixes
and suffixes.
to form – to deform to colour – to decolorize to compose – to decompose
to place – to displace ability – disability advantage – disadvantage
to close – to disclose to connect – to disconnect continuous – discontinuous
uniform – non-uniform scientific – non-scientific resistant – non-resistant
regular – irregular responsible – irresponsible rational – irrational
usual – unusual to cover – to uncover certainty – uncertainty
consolidated – unconsolidated common – uncommon stable – unstable
organic – inorganic human – inhuman dependent – independent
possible – impossible moral – immoral mature – immature
legal – illegal literate – illiterate logical – illogical
shape – shapeless use – useless help – helpless
historic – prehistoric Cambrian – Pre-Cambrian geological – pregeological

Ex.2. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the words in bold
type.
1. The real difference between the center of Africa and the center of Antarc-
tica is that in the former, water is water and in the latter, water is ice.
2. The earth movement that causes earthquakes may be either volcanic or
tectonic, the latter type being more common.
3. Even a casual observer of nature knows from common experience that
certain animals and plants are confined to definite physical areas. The an-

64
imals of the mountains are different from those on the plateaus; the latter,
in turn, have characteristics which distinguish them from the creatures of
the low plains.
4. Aqueous (водный) deposits may properly be called sediments. They are
generally grouped into two main divisions: marine sediments and conti-
nental sediments. The former were deposited in the sea and the latter in
fresh water.

Ex.3. Translate the sentences. Pay attention to the tense and voice of the
predicates.
1. The Earth’s surface may be considered a huge chemical laboratory, in
which a rock analysis is being made.
2. It is observed that many important ore deposits occur at the contact be-
tween formations of different character.
3. On sloping (склон) ground the products of weathering are constantly be-
ing transported away by rain and streams.
4. Great numbers of islands consist of coral limestone which is still being
built up by the remains of algae and corals.
5. Certain features of ancient glaciations have been explained by some scien-
tists on the basis of changes in the position of poles.
6. Mountain climate is more influenced by the elevation than by any other
factor.
7. Strong submarine earthquakes are followed by seismic waves, technically
called tsunamis.
8. Of all geological agents, water is the most obvious and apparently the
greatest, though its efficiency is affected by many conditions, especially
the relief of the land, and the temperature.
9. Even the most stable minerals are in time affected by contact with rain wa-
ter.
10.Glaciers have been defined and often popularly referred to as streams of
ice.

65
11.If the Pre-Cambrian is called the “Age of Metals”, and the Paleozoic the
“Age of Stones”, the Mesozoic may be referred to as the “Age of Oil”.
12.Iron is looked upon as the most useful of metals.
13.A body will remain at rest or in a given state of motion if it is not acted
upon by the external force.
14.Investigations in different branches of science show that the age of the
earth is about 3,000 to 4,000 million years. These results are arrived at by
petrographers and physicists in collaboration with geologists and also by
astronomers.
15.Various parts of the crust have been, and are being, affected by sudden
movements resulting in earthquakes.
16.The classification of rock fractures is dealt with in great detail here.
17.The data obtained by the expedition are often referred to.
18.The damage the earthquake had caused was much spoken about.
19.This method of processing information is being gradually done away with.
20.The measurements obtained can be fully relied on.
21.Many compounds can be decomposed into simpler compounds, when they
are heated or when they are acted upon by other forms of energy.
22.The problem of oil origin will be dealt with in a number of articles.
23.The importance of water to living things is so evident, that it need not be
insisted on here.

Ex.4. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
grammatical functions of the verb do and its different meanings.
1. There is every reason to believe that the glaciers some 15,000 years ago,
when they were more widespread, formed, moved, eroded, and deposited
precisely as they do today.
2. The solid parts of comets reflect sunlight as the moon does.
3. Why do rocks sometimes bend, at other times break?

66
4. We do not know if on the whole the present movements in the earth’s crust
are proceeding more or less rapidly than in the past.
5. Only in the South of Russia we do encounter typical Triassic marine de-
posits of marl, clay, sandstone, and limestone.
6. We know that the rocks just below the earth’s surface do vary considera-
bly in density from place to place.
7. It is known that the sun does turn, and that it turns in the same direction
that the planets go around it.
8. Severe storms did cause a great deal of damage last year.
9. Amorphous solids do not have a definite arrangement of the atoms.
10.The means by which waves do their work are chiefly physical.

Ex.5. Translate the following sentences.


1. When properly applied the method can provide reliable results.
2. If made up of particles which do not adhere (сцепляться) to each other,
rocks are called unconsolidated.
3. When added to a drilling mud weighting materials (утяжелитель) can be
effectively used to control formation pressure.
4. When in a borehole filtrate from the drilling mud may displace some of the
formation water.
5. While out of operation this tool should be kept in a special place.
6. Like all substances rock expands when heated and contracts when cooled.
7. When consolidated into a hard rock sand is called sandstone.
8. When evaporated sea water leaves salt, the deposits of these salts being
called evaporates.
9. When solidified igneous rocks become mostly tight and hard.
10.When deposited on the ocean floor the rock particles are compacted by the
overburden pressure forming sedimentary rocks.

67
WORDS TO THE TEXT “WHERE TO LOOK FOR PETROLEUM”.

1. undergo v. испытывать, претерпевать


(underwent, undergone) The country has undergone great changes.

2. relative to adj. касающийся, относящийся к


Facts relative to the problem.
3. uplift n. (геол.) поднятие, воздымание
4. sink v. (sank, sunk) погружаться, опускаться
The sun is sinking in the west.
5. warp n. изгиб земной коры, прогиб
The earth’s crust may be slightly upwarping
or downwarping.
6. fold n. складка
fold v.
syn. bend (bent) сгибать (ся)
Fold the paper along the red line.
7. fault n. разлом
Faults may be of different types.
normal fault сброс
reverse fault надвиг
overthrust fault пологий надвиг
lateral fault разрыв со смещением по простиранию
growth fault конседиментационный разлом
strike – (slip) fault сброс (со скольжением) по простиранию
8. mantle n. мантия
The word “mantle” is used for the part of
the earth between the crust and the core.
9. flexible a. эластичный, гибкий
Rubber is a flexible substance.
10. tilt v. наклонять
The tree tilts to the south.

68
11. dip n. (структ. геол.) падение, наклон
Dip and strike are the characteristics of a
tilted stratum.
dip v. погружать
12. strike n. (структ. геол.) простирание
line of strike
13. bend v. (bent) изгибаться
The river bends here.
bend n. изгиб

14. arch n. свод, арка


arches of a bridge.
15. trough n. (геол.) прогиб, впадина, трог
16. joint n. (геол.) трещина отдельности
A joint is one of the types of fractures.
17. oil-bearing adj. нефтеносный
Sandstone is an oil-bearing rock.
18. unconformity (геол.) несогласие
Unconformity is a geologic structure.
nonconformity несогласие – отделяет молодые осадоч-
ные породы от интрузивных или мета-
морфических пачек
disconformity параллельное несогласие
angular disconformity угловое несогласие

Ex.6. Read the text and


1) find international words and give their Russian equivalents;
2) name the types of : a) folds
b) faults
c) unconformities
d) traps

69
WHERE TO LOOK FOR PETROLEUM
The earth’s surface is almost always undergoing movements. The certainty
of their existence is clearly shown by the displacements in the earth’s crust, by
the uplift of the land relative to the sea in some places, and by its sinking in oth-
er places. Thus, the crust of the earth rises or sinks to a considerable extent al-
most all the time. All movements of parts of the solid earth relative to each other
are usually referred to as diastrophism.
Geologists describe basic structures that occur when rocks deform, or
change shape, due to tectonic movement as folds, and faults.
Near the surface of the crust, at atmospheric temperatures and pressures,
rocks tend to break when subjected to great stresses such as earthquakes. How-
ever, deeper into the crust, heat rising from the mantle raises the rocks’ tempera-
ture, and the pressure of overlying rocks compresses them. At these higher tem-
peratures and pressures, the rocks become somewhat flexible. Instead of break-
ing, they tend to warp or fold when stressed. One of the most useful measure-
ments in interpreting structures is the strike and dip of a tilted rock unit.
Under great pressures, rocks undergo plastic deformation. If stress is applied
gradually and uniformly, rock layers bend without breaking. So a bend of a rock
layer or a wavelike structure is a fold. Folds are the most common structures in
mountain chains, ranging in size from less than an inch to many miles across.
The upfolded structures or arches are called anticlines; the downfolded struc-
tures or troughs are synclines.
When rocks near the surface break, or fracture they are classified as joints
and faults.
A joint is a fracture that has opened without displacement of its adjacent
walls. The two sides of a fracture may move in relation to each other. If they do,
the fracture is called a fault.
Geologists classify faults mainly by the direction of the movement. Move-
ment is mostly vertical in normal and reverse faults but horizontal in overthrust
and lateral faults. Combinations of vertical and horizontal movement are also
possible, as in growth faults. Another kind of fault is a strike-slip fault, that is an
inclined or vertical fracture along which movement has been predominantly hor-
izontal. Faults are important to the petroleum geologist because they affect the
location of oil and gas accumulations. For example, if a fault runs through a bed

70
of rock containing oil, the geologist can predict where in the same area another
part of the original oil-bearing rock might have moved.
The study of geologic structures has been of prime importance in petroleum
geology, because folded and faulted rock strata commonly form structural traps
for the accumulation and concentration of fluids such as oil and natural gas.
But also oil can be found in stratigraphic traps caused by unconformities. An
unconformity is a surface of erosion or nondeposition – usually the former – that
separates younger strata from older rocks. Geologists distinguish among three
types of unconformities: the nonconformity, the disconformity, and the angular
unconformity.

Ex.7. Find in the text from Ex.6


a) synonyms of the following words;
b) antonyms of the following words.
a) Degree; a form; wide; layer; examination; varying; upfolded structure; chief-
ly; oil-containing; to forecast; to differentiate.
b) Uplift; liquid; underlying; narrow; considerably; different; the latter; hori-
zontal.

Ex.8. Choose the proper definition to the following terms.


an upfolded structure
1. An anticline is
a downfolded structure

a bend of a rock
2. A fold is
a rock fracture

a rock fracture
3. A fault is
a wavelike structure

71
with displacement
4. A joint is a fracture
without displacement

deposition
5. An unconformity is the surface of
nondeposition

Ex.9. State what part of speech the underlined words are and translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. A fold is a bend in a rock layer.
2. Any rock mass, when subjected to sufficient pressure, must either bend or
fracture.
3. Almost all consolidated rock formations at and near the earth’s surface are
intersected by systems of fractures.
4. Rocks behave like plastic material when subjected to great pressure.
5. Due to the action of internal forces rocks are subjected to sudden move-
ments.
6. The rocks at and near the surface are called the zone of fracture while deep-
er portions may be called the zone of flow.
7. Very soft, plastic rock materials like wet clay at or near the surface will
readily flow under pressure.
8. A quickly applied pressure may cause a relatively soft rock to fracture at a
considerable depth.
9. What is the cause of this movement?
10. It now becomes clear that the earth is layered most of the way down and
that there are about ten layers in the mantle.
11. This liquid, carrying with it the chips of rock ground off by the bit, rises to
the surface between the sides of the hole and the pipe.
12.There is every ground to suppose that this problem will soon be solved.

72
13.When an earthquake causes a mass of sediments to be raised up above the
level of the sea it nearly always folds the strata of those rocks, sometimes
into gentle folds, sometimes into sharper ones.

Ex.10. Match A and B.


A B
1. dip (n) 1. the angle that a stratum makes with the hori-
zontal
2. mantle 2. to move or to cause to move into a sloping
position
3. structural geology 3. folded and faulted rock strata
4. flexible 4. all movements of the solid portion of the
earth
5. syncline 5. the portion of the earth's interior between
the crust and the core
6. structural trap 6. the science which deals with the physical
structure and substances of the earth, their
history and the processes that act on them
7. capable of bending easily without breaking
7. unconformity 8. a downfolded structure
9. a surface of contact between two groups of
8. stratigraphic trap unconformable strata
9. strike-slip fault 10. the horizontal direction of a stratum, fault
or other geological unit
10. thrust fault 11. a trap formed by unconformities
12. a reverse fault of low angle
11. strike (n) 13. a fault in which rock strata are displaced
12. diastrophism mainly in a horizontal direction, parallel to
13. tilt (v) the line of the fault

Ex.11. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given in brackets and
translate the sentences.
1. Mountains result from the (folding, faulting) of rocks which were formerly
flat.

73
2. Folding results when a force horizontal to the surface of the earth causes
rock strata to (fracture, bend).
3. Folds are the most common (structures, strata) in present and former moun-
tain chains.
4. Upfolds or arches in rocks are called (anticlines, synclines); downfolds or
troughs are(anticlines, synclines).
5. (Joints, Faults) are fractures along which there has been movement or dis-
placement of the rock.
6. Anticlines in which one of the sides has a greater (deep, dip) than the other
are called asymmetrical.
7. Earth movements often bury or prevent the depositing of sediments. Such
buried erosion surfaces are called (troughs, unconformities).
8. Faults are classified by the (direction, displacement) of movements.
9. A (structural, stratigraphic) trap is formed by the folding or faulting of the
rock layer that contains the hydrocarbons.
10.Wherever molten rock (rises, raises) to the surface, volcanoes may be built
up.
11.Tectonic forces (rise, raise) up lands relative to sea level.

Ex.12. Translate into English.


1. Земная кора находится в постоянном движении.
2. Поверхность земли поднимается или опускается относительно уровня
моря.
3. Под термином « тектонические движения» подразумевают любые дви-
жения земной коры.
4. Существуют две основные глубинные структуры: складки и разломы.
5. Волнообразный изгиб пластов породы называется складкой.
6. Выпуклые складки или своды называют антиклиналями, а вогнутые
складки или впадины - это синклинали.
7. Геологи подразделяют трещины в породах на разломы и трещины от-

74
дельности.
8. Трещина, вдоль которой произошло смещение пород, называется раз-
ломом.
9. Трещиной отдельности называют такую трещину, которая открылась
без смещения смежных стенок.
10. Геологи различают несколько видов разломов. Направление смещения
является основой такого различия.
11. Перерыв или нарушение последовательности пластов приводит к обра-
зованию несогласных залеганий.
12. Различают три наиболее важные разновидности несогласных залега-
ний.
13. Изучение геологических структур представляет огромное значение для
нефтяной геологии, т.к. складки, разломы и несогласные залегания часто
образуют ловушки для скопления углеводородов.

Ex.13. Answer the following questions.


1. What proves the instability of the Earth's crust?
2. Why do rocks sometimes bend and at other times break?
3. What is a fold and what types of folds are known to you?
4. How do geologists classify fractures?
5. What kind of fracture is known as a fault?
6. What is the distinction of faults based on?
7. What three kinds of faults do you know?
8. What is described as a joint?
9. What is meant by an unconformity?
10.Why is the study of subsurface structures so important for oilmen?

Ex.14. Read the text and say whether the following statements are true,
false or there is no information in the text.
1. The text gives the difference between joints and faults.

75
2. To map fractures is of vital importance for field development strategies.
3. Horizontal wells increase oil recovery from fractured formations.
4. Seismic survey reliably measures the location, and the orientation of the
open fractures.
Natural open fractures and joints play an important role in production from
carbonate and consolidated sandstone fractured reservoirs because the fluid flow
is strongly influenced by the fracture orientation and the fracture density. The
ability to delineate (оконтуривать) and accurately map the fractures represents
critical information that is necessary for field development strategies.
Quite often horizontal wells are used to improve production efficiency from
fractured reservoirs. However, due to the absence of the information that accu-
rately maps the orientation and location of conductive faults, joints, and frac-
tures, there is a risk that water cut (обводненность) from a horizontal well may
increase rather than decrease if the well is not correctly positioned.
Using current seismic imaging technology, it is difficult to reliably measure
the location, orientation, spacing, and connectivity of the open fractures in the
reservoir formations.
Geologic fractures are cracks in the rocks that are caused due to stress. The
fractures by themselves do not cause any vertical displacement of the rocks for-
mations.
The seismic industry needs a new method to detect open natural fractures in
the subsurface rocks, since fractures control the efficiency of producing hydro-
carbons from more than half of the reservoirs in the world.

Ex.15. Read the text and answer the questions that follow it.
Instability of the Earth’s Crust – Diastrophism
The outer shell of the earth is unstable and it has been so for many millions
of years. Earth crust movements are too slow to be noticeable. They may be up-
ward or downward or sidewise. They may affect only small areas, or a large por-
tion of either a continent or an ocean basin. The general term diastrophism refers
to all actual movements of the earth’s solid crust. Crustal movements which take
place slowly and quietly are often of great significance in bringing about pro-
found physical geography changes.

76
The slow movements are of two varieties. In one type, known as epeirogenic
movement, there is either elevation or subsidence of a large or small portion of
the earth’s crust without notable compression or folding of rocks. Fracturing and
faulting of the rock masses often accompany such an epeirogenic movement. In
other type, known as orogenic movement, a relatively long, narrow belt zone of
the earth’s crust is subjected to a force of compression causing the rocks to be
more or less folded and upraised into a mountain range.
Various geological agencies, such as atmosphere, winds, stresses, glaciers,
and the sea, operate upon the earth, there general tendency being to cut down the
lands and to carry their waste into the sea. Such agencies would, if not interfered
with, completely level the lands and destroy the continents in the course of time.
However, such external agencies have operated upon the earth for countless ag-
es, and yet the continents have by no means been destroyed.
This is because the external agencies are now, and have been throughout
recorded earth history, opposed by forces operating from within the earth, that
is, by diastrophic forces. Through diastrophism, elevation and re-creation of
land have at least kept pace with the external forces of destruction: ocean basins
have sunk relative to continental areas, causing withdrawals of sea water; and
tremendous volumes of molten materials have been forced not only into the
earth’s crust, but also out upon its surface. Through sinking of land areas dias-
trophism has, in many cases, helped to destroy them but, on the average, dia-
strophic forces which raise up lands relative to sea level have predominated over
forces which have lowered them.
1. What is meant by the term diastrophism?
2. Why are slow crustal movements of great importance?
3. What types of slow movements are known to you?
4. What kinds of movements are known as epeirogenic?
5. What can follow epeirogenic movements?
6. What movements do you characterize as orogenic?
7. What other forces, besides diastrophism, operate on the earth?
8. Due to what haven’t the lands been completely leveled?

77
Ex.16. Read the text and make a summary of it.

UNCONFORMITIES
When strata are deposited in uninterrupted succession, layer upon layer, they
are said to be conformable. Often, however, there is a break or interruption in
the succession of strata which is usually indicated by the fact that one set of stra-
ta rests upon the eroded surface of another set.
An unconformity is a surface of erosion or nondeposition that separates
younger strata from older rocks. The development of an unconformity involves
several stages. The first stage is the formation of the older rock. Most commonly
this is followed by uplift and subaerial erosion. Finally, the younger strata are
deposited.
Rocks of various origin may participate in unconformities: sedimentary, ig-
neous, or metamorphic rocks may be involved.
The relief of unconformities differs greatly. In some localities the older
rocks were reduced to an extensive peneplain. In other localities, only a mature
stage in the erosion cycle was reached before the younger rocks began to accu-
mulate. The relief of an unconformity may amount to hundreds or even thou-
sands of feet.
There are various kinds of unconformities, the distinction depending upon
the rocks involved and the tectonic history. The most important varieties are
nonconformity, disconformity, angular unconformity, and local unconformity.
Nonconformity or angular unconformity in which the younger formations
have been deposited upon an erosion surface is developed on folded metamor-
phosed or intrusive igneous formations. A major nonconformity (hiatus) occurs
when the formations beneath the plane of erosion are highly metamorphosed,
while the overlying formations are not. The rocks on opposite sides of an angu-
lar unconformity are not parallel.
Disconformity or parallel unconformity occurs when the erosion surface
separates actually, or approximately, parallel formations.
A local unconformity is similar to a disconformity, but as the name implies,
it is local in extent. A local unconformity is disconformity of small extent repre-
senting a short interval of time.

78
Ex.17. Translate the text in writing. Use a dictionary.
Earthquakes are exceedingly common. It is probably true that the surface of
the earth is at no given time entirely free from earthquake vibrations. Earthquake
recording stations in many parts of the world bear out this statement. Fully
30,000 earthquakes recognizable by the senses occur each year. A great many of
these shocks are of course very slight. Only occasionally are the shocks very se-
vere. Earthquakes which cause considerable loss of life and property occur, on
the average, perhaps not more than once or twice a year. Earthquakes of varying
degrees of intensity have been recorded in Japan at the rate of several per day,
and in California at the rate of several per month, for many years, but most of
them have been of very low intensity.
The vibrations of earthquake shocks which are sensible to human beings last
from a few seconds to several minutes. In general the greater the intensity of the
shock, the longer it lasts. The average duration of shocks of considerable intensi-
ty is perhaps from one to two minutes.
Earthquake shocks of sufficient intensity to be noticed by man vary greatly
in regard to the size of the region throughout which they may be felt. They may
be felt over areas no larger than villages, or over considerable portions of conti-
nents.

Ex.18. Agree or disagree with the following statements:


1. The earth crust is stable.
2. A rock bend is a fault.
3. A joint is a fracture without displacement of walls.
4. Folds are classified as synclines and anticlines.
5. Petroleum is found in structural traps.
6. Unconformities form stratigraphic traps.

Ex.19. Speak on:


1. Fractures
2. Folds
3. Unconformities
4. Traps
5. Diastrophism

79
UNIT 6
Text: Petroleum
Grammar Revision: Construction “Complex Object with the Infinitive”
Pronouns: some, any, no
The Word “most”

Ex.1. Translate the adverbs formed by means of the suffix “-ward(s)”.


Inward, outward, downward, upward, sideward, northward, southward,
landward, seaward, backward(s), forward(s).

Ex.2.Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the


construction “Complex Object with the Infinitive”.
e.g. We know rocks to be divided into three great classes.
Мы знаем, что породы делятся на три большие группы.
1. High temperature often causes mineral composition, structure, and texture
to be greatly changed.
2. When most of mineral or crystal grains composing a rock are of the same
size and can be easily seen with the naked eye, we consider such a rock to
be of granitoid structure.
3. We know quartz, feldspar, mica, garnet, dolomite, and some others to con-
stitute an important group of rock-forming minerals.
4. Diastrophic forces which operate vertically cause some areas of the earth’s
crust to rise while others to sink.
5. In many regions we find great thickness of strata to have been tilted, so that
now they lie in inclined positions.
6. Geoscientists believe the earth to have undergone great changes during its
existence.
7. While examining the rock sample the students found it to be of sedimentary
origin.

80
8. Oilmen consider folded and faulted rock strata to accumulate hydrocarbons.
9. Folding occurs when a force horizontal to the surface of the earth makes
rock strata bend.
10.Scientists proved the processes of weathering and erosion to be proceeding
continually all over the world.

Ex.3. Translate the following sentences. Pay attention to the underlined


words.
1. Some water is present in nearly all rocks.
2. Any solid body is weaker at high temperature than at low.
3. Some of the water penetrates into the ground, some moves down the slope.
4. The hydrosphere is made up of fresh or salt water, or some form of water
such as ice or snow.
5. The earth is continually changing. Some changes are great and rapid, while
others are small and slow.
6. Have any plant or animal remains been preserved in these rocks?
7. There isn’t any direct evidence of oil presence in this area.
8. Minerals may form anywhere upon or within the earth.
9. Weathering may be so slow that one can see no marked changes in a life-
time of a man.
10.No substance, probably, is to be regarded as entirely insoluble.
11.Anything that is white reflects most of the radiation it receives.
12.Nobody knows the ultimate cause of earthquakes.
13.The water of the Dead Sea is so salty that nothing can live in it.

Ex.4. Translate the following sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the
word “most”.
e.g. Most sedimentary rocks form distinct layers or strata.
Большинство осадочных пород образуют ярко-выраженные слои.
Most of debris carried by the glacier during its advance is laid down…

81
Большая часть обломков, переносимая ледниками во время его про-
движения откладывается …
Geophysical surveys indicate the most likely places where to drill for oil.
С помощью геофизических исследований определяют наиболее веро-
ятные площади бурения.
This is a most interesting problem.
Это чрезвычайно интересная проблема.
1. Most lake bottoms receive sediments both derived by wave action and car-
ried in by streams.
2. Most of the materials which make up the vast bodies of sedimentary rocks
are products of rock weathering which have been transported from their
places of origin.
3. In most cases two or more of the chemical elements are variously com-
bined in such a manner (chemically) as to lose their individual identities.
4. Most of the minerals of the fine-grained rocks are extremely small.
5. Most of the ordinary rocks are made up of two or more minerals mechani-
cally bound together.
6. A most spectacular example of uplift is provided by Mount Everest, the
summit of which is of sediments that were originally deposited on the sea
floor of a former age.
7. The most important result of the solvent action of ground water on sedi-
mentary rocks is the dissolving of the cements which hold their grains to-
gether.
8. The origin of the earth is the most important and the most difficult question
of natural science.
9. A most sensational achievement was the discovery of a new planet, Nep-
tune, in 1846.
10.Quartz is not only abundant as a mineral, but is one of the most resistant to
all forms of weathering.

82
WORDS TO THE TEXT “PETROLEUM”
1. speculation (n) предположение, теория, догадка
The speculation on this phenomenon is unlikely
to be true.
2. abundant (adj.) (из)обильный
Russia is a land abundant in mineral resources
3. lithify (v) литифицировать (превращать в камень или
окаменелость)
Sand grains are lithified into a hard rock.
4. pressure differential перепад давления
Pressure differential causes oil to migrate from
the source rock to a reservoir rock.
5. pool (n) нефтяная залежь
Accumulation of oil can be referred to as an oil
pool.
6. actual (adj.) фактический, реальный
Actual and imagined conditions
7. saturate (with) (v) насыщать, пропитывать
Unfortunately, our culture is saturated with tele-
vision advertising.
8. confine (v) ограничивать(ся) ч-л.
The speaker should confine himself to the sub-
ject.

Ex.5. Read the text and


1) find the international words;
2) find the construction “Complex Object with the Infinitive”
3) find English equivalents to the following:
т. е.; химический состав сам по себе; а скорее; научные
исследования; промышленные залежи; соответствующее
время.

83
PETROLEUM
Petroleum geologists have written more on the origin of petroleum than on
any other subject. Speculation in this field was initiated in the 1860-s, but the
problem of oil origin is still with us. Even extraordinary theories on the origin of
hydrocarbons have surfaced over years. Some geologists believe petroleum to be
of inorganic origin.
But most geoscientists consider petroleum to result from the breakdown of
organic matter (plants and animals), which were deposited and buried over hun-
dreds of millions of years ago. Petroleum forms in marine sedimentary rocks
that contain abundant organic remains. This material lithifies into a source rock
that is buried by overlying sediments, and the resulting increased pressure, high
temperature, bacteria, chemical reactions convert the organic material into hy-
drocarbons.
Petroleum is an organic substance consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons,
that is, it is made up of the two chemical elements carbon and hydrogen in rather
complex and variable combinations. In addition to these principal elements oxy-
gen, sulfur, and nitrogen are usually found in petroleum composition.
So, the chemical composition itself, the kinds of rocks with which petroleum
is associated, and certain optical tests all point to the organic origin of petrole-
um.
Petroleum is not necessarily found where it was generated, but instead may
have migrated from its source rock over large distance. Under the pressure dif-
ferential petroleum moves outward and upward along zones of increased perme-
ability to a reservoir rock and accumulates there. Although the term “oil pool” is
commonly used, there is really no actual pool or underground lake, but rather
there is a porous rock saturated with oil and covered with an impermeable layer.
The general term “petroleum” includes both crude oil and natural gas, the
former being a liquid. Crude oil nearly always has more or less natural gas asso-
ciated with it, but in some places considerable quantities of gas may exist alone.
Investigation into petroleum genesis is not purely academic exercise. When
we can determine exactly under what conditions commercial deposits of oil are
formed and the date of their formation, we can confine our exploration for oil to
1) places that meet these conditions, and 2) traps of oil that were in existence at
the proper time.

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Ex.6. Match synonyms in A and B.
A B
1. speculation 1. indicate
2. composition 2. parent rock
3. point to 3. theory
4. migrate 4. make –up (n)
5. breakdown 5. move
6. convert 6. examination
7. oil pool 7. transform
8. in addition to 8. decomposition
9. actual 9. oil accumulation
10. subsurface 10. main
11. considerable 11. real
12. matter 12. underground
13. principal 13. besides
14. investigation 14. great
15. source rock 15. define
16. determine 16. substance
17. nearly 17. amount
18. quantity 18. limit (v.)
19. place 19. almost
20. confine 20. location

Ex.7. Match antonyms in A and B.


A B
1. more 1. outward
2. result from 2. high

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3. abundant 3. less
4. underlying 4. include
5. expose 5. result in
6. low 6. poor
7. destroy 7. overlying
8. inward 8. bury
9. dissipate 9. create
10. exclude 10. liquid
11. the latter 11. accumulate
12. solid 12. the former

Ex.8. Find in the text the words of the same root given before the text. State
the part of speech of the found words.
To mix, nature, occur, gas, to apply, to change, to constitute, to solidify, to
heat, convertor, to transmute(изменяться), to vary, chemistry, to form.
Petroleum is a mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons which may take
either the solid, liquid or gaseous state. These three phases of petroleum are
transmutable, one into the other, by the application of changes in temperature
and pressure. Some of the constituents of petroleum are solids at ordinary earth
temperatures, but the application of heat will cause them to take a liquid form,
and further heating may convert them into gases and vapors. The solid and gase-
ous forms are soluble in the liquid forms. Various chemical changes may also
cause solidification.

Ex.9. Translate the following word combinations. Pay attention to the dif-
ferent meanings of the words in bold type.
School subjects- the subject of the research-the subject of the sentence-
rocks subject to weathering; organic matter- a matter of great importance-
what’s the matter; organic remains-to remain stable-to remain friends; source
rock –source material –a source of energy; a pool on the ground-an oil pool-to
swim in a pool; natural phenomena-natural resource-natural gas-natural se-
lection; near the surface- the near fields-in the near future-nearly 30 miles; to

86
consider a problem- to take into consideration-a considerable amount-to a
considerable extent-financial considerations-to be under consideration; for-
mation of water- a water formation-sedimentary formation; a rather complex
mineral-to occur in liquid rather than solid state-I would rather watch TV than
do my homework.

Ex.10. Translate the following word combinations, paying attention to the


prepositions.
1. To write on the origin of oil
2. A theory on the origin of hydrocarbons
3. To point to the organic origin
4. To be deposited over hundreds of millions of years
5. To be buried by overlying sediments
6. To convert the organic material into hydrocarbons
7. Instead of breaking
8. To be made up of two elements
9. In addition to fracturing
10.Investigation in petroleum genesis
11.Under certain conditions
12.To confine to the seas and oceans
13.At the proper time
14.To consist of a mixture of substances
15.To result in weathering
16.To result from weathering
17.To saturate with water
18.To be covered with a sedimentary layer
19.To migrate over large distance

87
Ex.11. Translate the following sentences into English. Use proper preposi-
tions.
1. В условиях высокого давления и температуры органическое вещест-
во превращается в углеводороды.
2. Нефтяная залежь – это пористая формация, насыщенная нефтью, и
которая перекрыта непроницаемым слоем породы.
3. Все знают, что нефть состоит из нескольких компонентов; помимо
углерода и водорода в ней присутствуют и другие составляющие.
4. Данные исследований генезиса нефти указывают на ее органическое
происхождение.
5. Существуют разные теории происхождения нефти.
6. Нефть может мигрировать на большие расстояния.

Ex.12. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given in brackets.
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Under pressure oil and gas … into … strata below or beneath them, then
… further into … that we now call... . (reservoirs, permeable, migrated (2),
traps).
2. Oil is seldom found in … amounts in the … rock where it was formed.
Rather, it will be found nearby, in … rock. These are normally …
rocks – layered rock bodies formed in ancient, … seas. Sandstone is the
most … of the … rock types. (shallow, common, source, sedimentary(2),
commercial, reservoir).
3. When … are interconnected, the rock is … and fluids can flow by … or
gravity … the rock body. (permeable, through, pressure, pores).
4. If the reservoir rock is … and … enough, then the petroleum will … . But
if it is to accumulate, something must stop the … . (migrate, migration,
permeable, porous).
5. A … is an arrangement of rock layers that contains an … of hydrocarbons,
yet … them from rising to the surface. The … consists of an … layer

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above a …, … layer containing the … . (impermeable, permeable, trap (2),
porous, prevents, accumulation, hydrocarbons).
6. A rock is … when its … are connected – that is, oil, gas, and water can …
through it by moving from one … to another. The unit of … of permeabil-
ity is the darcy. (pores, pore, permeable, flow, measurement).
7. Oil and gas tend to seek shallower levels. Unless they are … underground
by geological …, they will continue to move … until they escape at the
surface. In fact, … they do exactly this. Since ancient times people have
… oil in places known as … .(upward, sometimes, seeps, formations,
trapped, found).

Ex.13. Read the following sentences and find the construction “Complex
Object with the Infinitive”. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. One should not expect the irreducible (остаточное) water saturation to
exist in every reservoir.
2. The pressure differential makes oil migrate outward and upward.
3. Geologists consider the second phase in the burial of the organic sedi-
ment to be the deposition of a non-organic overlying rock.
4. Scientists showed aerobic bacteria to be abundant in stagnant waters.
5. We believe the research into oil genesis to be continued.
6. The researchers proved oil to have been generated under certain condi-
tions.
7. Some 50 years ago nobody expected considerable quantities of natural
gas to exist alone.
8. Everybody knows an impermeable layer to stop hydrocarbon migration
from a reservoir rock.
9. Geoscientists suppose the speculation on the genesis of petroleum to have
been initiated as early as the 1860-s.
10.Oilmen found the oil pool in this region to contain oil of high quality in
commercial quantities.

89
Ex.14. Translate into English:
1. Менделеев считал, что нефть имеет неорганическое происхожде-
ние.
2. Многие ученые полагают, что сам состав нефти, породы, где она
залегает указывают на органическое происхождение нефти.
3. Ученые показали, что высокие температуры и давление, наличие
бактерий и отсутствие кислорода являются важнейшими факторами
в процессе образования нефти.
4. Исследователи давно установили, что УВ нефтяных и газовых за-
лежей формируются в основном в глинистых нефтематеринских
осадках.
5. Мы знаем, что состав нефти зависит от места и природы ее образо-
вания.
6. Перепад давления приводит к тому, что нефть мигрирует из нефте-
материнской породы в породу-коллектор.

Ex.15. Answer the following questions.


1. What theories on the origin of hydrocarbons do you know?
2. Where and how is oil formed according to the theory of organic origin of
petroleum?
3. What conditions are necessary for hydrocarbon generation?
4. What causes hydrocarbons to migrate from a source rock to a reservoir
rock?
5. What does the term “oil pool” imply?
6. What is petroleum composed of?
7. Why is it important to investigate petroleum genesis?

Ex.16. Read the text, arrange the paragraphs logically and give a heading to
the text.
Subsequent deposition caused the earlier sediments to become buried and to
start to compact into sedimentary formations. Increasing depth of burial with re-

90
sultant pressure and temperature changes created the conditions for the for-
mation of oil and gas. The hydrocarbons thus formed migrated upward and
sideward into other sedimentary basin rocks, such as sandstones and fractural
limestones, which provide the necessary reservoirs.
It is generally believed that the greater part of the world’s hydrocarbons
originated in the deposition of dead organisms on the sea floor millions of years
ago. These organisms which include plankton, bacteria, and simple plants accu-
mulated with large quantities of inorganic particles deposited by rivers or
through chemical precipitation.
The organic theory of the origin of petroleum is now generally accepted by
most scientists but there remain many problems which are yet unsolved.
The word “petroleum” is derived from two Latin words: “petra” meaning
rock, and “oleum” meaning oil. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocar-
bons, but in addition to hydrocarbons small amounts of oxygen, nitrogen and
sulfur are also present.

Ex.17. Translate the text in writing. Use a dictionary.


Oil is considered to migrate from its place of formation. Oil is of less density
than water, and tends to move up the dip of the rocks until it either reaches the
surface or is trapped beneath an impermeable layer.
The task of the geologist searching for accumulations of oil is first to decide
whether oil is likely to have been formed in the area, and secondly to find struc-
tures in which the oil may have accumulated. He must consider the paleogeog-
raphy of the area and its geological structure, both of which depend on as com-
plete knowledge as possible of the succession and lithology, i.e. the stratigraphy
of the region.
Reservoir rocks in which oil may accumulate must be either strongly fis-
sured or of high porosity, conditions most commonly met with either in massive
limestones or sands and sandstones, while the migration of oil will be stopped
by a fine-textured stratum such as clay or shale.
Oil is particularly likely to accumulate in domes beneath an impermeable
layer.

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In any of the structures in which oil may be trapped it is usual to find a gas
zone immediately below the cover rock overlying the oil bearing zone beneath
which the reservoir rock is usually saturated with water, often brackish.

Ex.18. Agree or disagree with the following statements.


1. Petroleum is of organic origin.
2. Hydrocarbons are generated in reservoir rocks.
3. Petroleum is found in a source rock.
4. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrogen and carbon.
5. The knowledge of petroleum genesis is of great importance for geologists.

Ex.19. Render the following text in English.


Ученых давно интересует вопрос о происхождении нефти. Некоторые
полагают, что нефть имеет неорганическое происхождение, хотя привер-
женцев теории органического генезиса углеводородов, несомненно, боль-
ше. Они считают, что нефть и природный газ образовались в результате
распада органического вещества, захороненного в древних осадках. Под
действием бактерий, химических реакций в условиях высокого давления и
температуры это органическое вещество преобразовалось в углеводороды.
Нефть и газ представляют собой сложную смесь различных углеводо-
родных соединений. При перепаде давления жидкие и газообразные угле-
водороды сравнительно легко мигрируют по пористым и проницаемым
породам и собираются в природных ловушках, которые могут распола-
гаться на значительном расстоянии от места их генерации. Углеводороды
нефтяных и газовых залежей образовались по большей части в мелкозер-
нистых нефтегазоматеринских осадках. Породы, способные аккумулиро-
вать значительные количества мигрирующих в них нефти и газа, получили
название природных резервуаров или коллекторов. Наиболее распростра-
ненные коллекторы представлены главным образом песчаниками и карбо-
натами.

Ex.20. Speak on: 1) the formation of hydrocarbons


2) accumulation of hydrocarbons

92
3) composition of petroleum
4) theories on petroleum origin

Ex.21. Read the text and speak on the work of geological specialists engaged
in exploration activities.
The petroleum industry is so large, encompassing so many segments and ac-
tivities that it is easier viewed as a collection of industries – that translates into
vast needs for people with a variety of backgrounds and interests . . . and that, in
turn, translates into tremendous career opportunities. It all starts with explora-
tion. Using a variety of methods, on land and at sea, specialized professionals
search for geologic formations that may contain oil and gas. Sophisticated
equipment and advances in computer technology have increased the productivity
of exploration. Maps of potential deposits are made using remote-sensing satel-
lites.
People with many different skills needed to explore for oil and gas drill new
wells, maintain existing wells, and process natural gas.
A petroleum geologist or a geophysicist, who is responsible for analyzing
and interpreting the information gathered, usually heads exploration operations.
Other geological specialists also may be involved in exploration activities, in-
cluding paleontologists, who study fossil remains to locate oil; mineralogists,
who study physical and chemical properties of mineral and rock samples; stra-
tigraphers, who determine the rock layers most likely to contain oil and natural
gas; and photo-geologists, who examine and interpret aerial photographs of land
surfaces.

93
UNIT 7
Text: Geophysics
Grammar : Degrees of Comparison

Ex.1. Read the text, find international words and give their Russian equiva-
lents.

GEOPHYSICAL METHODS
Geophysicists use mathematics and physics to create a picture of the subsur-
face. They can identify types of rock by their density (mass) and magnetic quali-
ties. They use different equipment in their search. A gravimeter shows rock den-
sity, and a magnetometer measures magnetic fields. A magnetometer can be
used in planes while flying over an area. Another method is seismic exploration,
which uses sound. Shock waves are produced by explosives that are placed in a
hole in the ground. These waves are reflected back and show the different kinds
of rock under the surface. Instead of explosives, a vibrator truck can be used.

Ex.2. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. The geologic age of a reservoir is older than 10million years.
2. The crust 0-25 miles down is the earth’s thin topmost layer, thinnest under
the ocean and thickest under the continents.
3. The history of petroleum is almost as long as the history of civilization it-
self.
4. The slower magma cools, the larger crystals grow.
5. In general the greater the intensity of the earthquake shock, the longer it
lasts.
6. The older the rocks, the less their fossils resemble living forms; the
younger the rocks, the more their fossils resemble living forms.
7. The origin of the earth is the most important and the most difficult ques-
tion of natural science.

94
8. The quantity of water in the oceans is almost fifteen times as great as that
of all the rocks of the continents and islands above sea level.
9. The lower limit of wave action varies, and may be as much as 600 feet.
10.The more complex the geology of the area being studied, the more com-
puting power is required to process the massive quantity of data.
11.Relative magnetic measurements are much simpler and the instruments
are much lighter.
12.The greater the tectonic forces, the higher the pressure and temperature af-
fecting the rock mass and the greater the amount of resulting structural de-
formation and metamorphism.
13.The greater and the more sudden is the change of temperature, the greater
is the breaking of rocks.
14.As soon as rock is exposed to the weather, it gradually starts to break
down under the action of wind and rain, frost and sun.
15.The heavier and more viscous is the oil, the slower is the rate of flow.
16.Speculation on the origin of oil was initiated as early as in the 1860-s.
17.The process of soil formation is as old as most of the rocks now found in
the crust of the earth.

Ex.3. Combine two sentences into one using the Infinitive as an adverbial
modifier of result.
e.g. The problem is too complicated. It cannot be described in a few words.
The problem is too complicated to be described in a few words.
1. The error is too common. It cannot be neglected.
2. The data are accurate enough. It can be relied upon.
3. Seismic survey is reliable enough. It can provide a true picture of the
underground.
4. The grains of the mineral are too small. They cannot be seen with a na-
ked eye.
5. The movements of the earth crust are too slow. They are not noticeable.

95
Ex.4. State the part of speech of the underlined words. Translate the sen-
tences.
1. Movement of the atmosphere in the form of strong wind is an important
agency, and is, in addition, a leading means of erosion.
2. The mean density of the earth 5.5 means that a cubic foot of average
earth substance weighs about 5.5 times as much as a cubic foot of water.
3. Most minerals can be quickly identified by means of the petrographic
microscope.
4. We can read records in the rocks from which we reconstruct the evolu-
tion of the earth.
5. A seismograph records earthquake shocks.
6. Changes in velocity of the transporting agent commonly cause stratifica-
tion. Another cause of stratification is a change in the kind of material
that is being deposited.
7. Another, though much less important, cause of earthquake is volcanic
activity. A violent eruption often causes the earth to quake.
8. The chemical weathering effects of rain are seen in its solvent action on
some rocks, mainly limestones.
9. Variations in the temperature of the atmosphere effect great changes in
rocks. Temperature changes are usually of more effect in the case of ig-
neous rocks than in that of sedimentary rocks.
10.The horizontal sands were found to wave considerably in several places.
11.Waves and currents sometimes pile up sand along the coastline.
12.There are methods used to find indirect evidence of the presence of hy-
drocarbons.
13.Potential recoverable volumes estimated for the find are 710 million bbl
of oil.
14.During earthquakes compression of water-saturated sands may force the
underground water to rise along fractures.
15.Under the force of high pressure oil moves upward.

96
PART 1
WORDS TO THE TEXT “FIELD GEOPHYSICS”
1. sensitive adj. чувствительный (о приборе) Sensitive
instruments are able to measure very small
changes.
2. point n. 1.точка, отметка; 2. пункт, вопрос, дело
1. a freezing point; a northern point on the
map; a point of view
2. a turning point in a career, the point of
the discussion
point (at;to) v. указывать на (что-либо), свидетельство-
вать о
All signs point to a significant accumula-
tion of oil in this region.
3. oil – (gas -) bearing adj. нефте(газо)носный
an oil-bearing horizon; a gas-bearing layer.
4. enable v. делать возможным, позволять
The new method enabled the geologists to
get a true picture of the subsurface.
5. slight adj. небольшой, незначительный
a slight mistake, a slight difference
6. suggest v. 1. предлагать, советовать;
2. предполагать, наводить на мысль
1. Gubkin suggested new methods of train-
ing petroleum geologists.
2. The subsurface information suggests a
strong possibility of hydrocarbons at the
depth.
7. guideline n. основные направления, нормативы
The company has issued new guidelines
for working in harsh environment.

97
8. precise adj. точный, определенный
a precise meaning, a precise measurement
9. event n. явление, событие
a historical event; a geologic event; a seis-
mic event
10. reflect v. отражать
Silver paper behind a radiator helps to re-
flect heat.
11. refract v. преломлять
Light is refracted by a prism.
12. array n. (seismic) группа (источников), комплект
geophone array
13. inclination n. наклон; отклонение
There is a slight inclination in the trajecto-
ry of the well.
14. attenuation n. затухание, ослабление
The receiver recorded the attenuation of
the seismic signal.

Ex.5. Read the text “Field Geophysics”. Find international words in the text
and give their Russian equivalents.

FIELD GEOPHYSICS
Geophysics is the study of the physics of the earth, its oceans, and its atmos-
phere. Petroleum geologists are most interested in the earth’s magnetism, gravi-
ty, and especially seismic vibrations, or vibrations of the earth. Sensitive instru-
ments can measure variations in one of these physical qualities that may be re-
lated to conditions under the surface. These conditions, in turn, may point to
probable oil-or gas-bearing formations. Searching for oil and gas through geo-
physical means does not guarantee a successful find, but the combination of ge-
ophysical information and geological know-how reduces the chances of drilling
a dry hole.

98
Geologists searching for petroleum have made good use of the fact that the
earth has a strong magnetic field. Applying the principle that like rocks have like
magnetic fields enables the geologists to compare slight differences in the mag-
netism generated by the minerals in the rocks. These differences suggest the lo-
cations of different formations and a fairly good picture of its configuration.
Rocks of differing composition have different electrical properties. Geolo-
gists record and measure the naturally occurring flow of electricity between
rocks or across salt water, for example, and then analyze and interpret the in-
formation to reveal subsurface structures and oil-bearing rocks that are most
likely to be found.
Geophysicists also make use of slight variations in the earth’s gravitational
field caused by the varying weight of rocks. Gravity maps and models help the
geologists examine large areas of development and provide guidelines for plan-
ning a seismic exploration program, but it is not accurate enough to be fully re-
lied on.
Seismic survey unlike the methods mentioned above gives more precise de-
tails on the underground formations.
Seismic measurements involve first the generation of a seismic event, a mini
earthquake that is transmitted downward from the surface. A seismic wave mi-
grates into the ground and is reflected and/or refracted up from each interface
between layers of different hardness and density. The deeper the layer is in the
earth, the longer it takes for a signal reflected from that layer to arrive at the sur-
face and be detected by an array of receivers.
Massive amounts of data points are thus collected. They are then visualized
and analyzed. The interpretation of the information obtained allows determining
the depth and inclination angles of the subsurface reflectors. The lithological
characteristics can be determined from the reflection amplitudes and attenuation
characteristics contained in the reflected signals.
The evolution of seismic measurements has come a long way from an explo-
ration tool. Today the measurements under discussion provide information on
the structural features which are associated with hydrocarbon accumulations as
well as the presence of gas and the movement of fluids in the reservoir.

99
Ex.6. Match synonyms in A and B.
A B
instrument property
quality discovery
to relate tool
find to help
to reveal to connect
to reduce to bring about
enough to discover
to cause accurate
inclination pool
accumulation sufficiently
to enable dip
precise to decrease

Ex.7. Match antonyms in A and B.


A B
to reduce stable
strong different
like (adj) inaccurate
difference absence
artificially weak
varying to raise
downward naturally
presence likeliness
precise to prevent
to enable upward

100
Ex.8. Make word combinations from the given verbs and nouns. Form as
many variants as possible.
to measure find
to record vibrations
to reduce wave
to apply cost
to reveal survey
to interpret configuration
to cause structure
to provide information
to involve condition
to reflect generation
to identify tool
to determine generation
to locate inclination
to compare angle

Ex.9. Fill in the blanks choosing the proper word from those given above
the texts.
(travels; layers; pulse; exploration; reflected; thickness; densities)
A seismic survey is usually the last … step before drilling a prospective site.
Seismology works because the earth’s crust has many … with different … and
… . When seismic … from the surface strikes the layers, part of it … through
the layers and part of it is … back to the surface.
(geophones; records; survey; seismogram; waves; artificially; a seismo-
graph; cables)
Seismic … starts with small … produced “earthquakes”. Sensors called …
pick up the reflected seismic … and send them through … to a recorder. The re-
corder, …, amplifies (усиливает) and … their characteristics to produce a … .

101
Ex.10. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Существует определенная зависимость между плотностью среды и
скоростью звука. Чем меньше плотность, тем больше скорость
звука.
2. Чем больше разрешающая способность прибора, тем достовернее
информация.
3. Чем больше опыта у интерпретатора, тем интереснее ему решать
сложные задачи.
4. Чем выше перепад давления, тем больше насыщение.
5. Чем больше тектонические силы, тем выше давление и температу-
ра, затрагивающие породы.

Ex.11. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the underlined
words of the same root.
1. It’s of great importance to estimate the likely amount of these re-
sources.
2. These two substances exhibit like properties.
3. Fossils help us to imagine what some of the ancient plants and animals
looked like.
4. Geological maps help geologists to find the rock structures most likely
to contain oil and gas deposits.
5. In some ways, the geologist is like a detective – he studies the evi-
dence and work out just what has happened.
6. William Smith found that like geological horizons have like fossilized
remains.
7. By comparing the textures of the original and altered rocks often it be-
comes evident that they were alike, and parts of the same body.
8. Subsurface mapping and interpretation of seismic data are likely to be
the most important tools for locating oil and gas bearing formations.
9. Anticlines unlike synclines are upfolded structures.

102
10.The analysis used production data for forecasting likely future well
behavior.
11.Broadly speaking, the greater the water depth, the greater the likeli-
hood of finding oil.

Ex.12. Translate the following sentences into English using the Infinitive as
an adverbial modifier of result.
1. Полученные данные недостаточно точны, чтобы можно было сделать
окончательный вывод.
2. Рассматриваемый пример достаточно простой, и его можно приме-
нить в нашем анализе.
3. Вопрос слишком трудный, чтобы сразу ответить на него.
4. Успехи в области интерпретации сейсмических данных слишком
значительны, чтобы их можно было описать в одном коротком со-
общении.

Ex.13. Complete the following sentences.


1. Geophysics studies . . . .
2. Electrical survey deals with . . . .
3. Magnetic survey is the study of . . . .
4. Gravitational survey is concerned with . . . .
5. While conducting seismic survey geophysicists consider . . . .

Ex.14. Translate the following sentences into English. Use the active vocab-
ulary of the Unit.
1. Общеизвестно, что поиск нефтегазоносных формаций сегодня не-
мыслим без применения геофизических методов, главным среди ко-
торых является сейсморазведка.
2. Сейсморазведка – геофизический метод изучения геологических
объектов с помощью упругих волн - сейсмических волн.

103
3. Этот метод основан на том, что скорость распространения сейсмиче-
ских волн зависит от свойств геологической среды, в которой они
распространяются: состава пород, их пористости и др.
4. Эти и другие свойства проявляются в отражении, преломлении, ди-
фракции и поглощении сейсмических волн.
5. На грани раздела различных пластов волны как отражаются, так
частично и преломляются.
6. Горные породы отличаются по упругим свойствам и поэтому обла-
дают различными скоростями распространения упругих волн.
7. Методика сейсморазведки основана на изучении времени пробега
(travel time) различных волн от пункта их возбуждения до сейсмо-
приемников.
8. В сейсморазведке различают два основных метода: метод отражен-
ных волн и метод преломленных волн.
9. Сейсморазведка – очень важный и во многих случаях самый точный
метод геофизической разведки.
10.Главное назначение сейсморазведки – поиск структур, благоприят-
ных для накопления углеводородов.

Ex.15. Answer the questions.


1. What does geophysics study?
2. What geophysical methods are employed in search for oil and gas?
3. How can the chances of drilling a dry hole be reduced?
4. What can magnetic surveying result in?
5. What is the field of application of electrical methods?
6. How are gravity measurements connected with seismic exploration?
7. Which is the most reliable geophysical method?
8. What does a seismic survey consist of?
9. What information is obtained through seismic survey?
10.What equipment is used in geophysical surveying?

104
Ex.16. Read the text and make a summary of it.
Geophysics is a study of the physics of the earth with special reference to its
physical properties, structure and composition. It is commonly divided into two
general branches. The first includes the subdivisions of the physical properties
such as electricity, magnetism, heat, elasticity, chemistry, etc. , while the second
branch studies the three major components of the earth: solid (lithosphere), liq-
uid (hydrosphere), and gas (atmosphere).
Most underground structures can be diagnosed by geophysical methods.
Thus the four leading geophysical techniques relate to the four most common
physical characteristics which can be determined from the surface: magnetism,
density, electrical conductivity, and elasticity, which are investigated respective-
ly by magnetic, gravitational, electrical, and seismic methods.
The development of seismic imaging in three dimensions greatly changed
the nature of hydrocarbon exploration. This technology uses traditional seismic
imaging techniques, combined with powerful computers and processors, to cre-
ate a three-dimensional model of the subsurface layers. 4-D seismology expands
on this, by adding time as a dimension, allowing exploration teams to observe
how subsurface characteristics change over time. Exploration teams can now
identify hydrocarbon prospects more easily, place wells more effectively, reduce
the number of dry holes drilled, reduce drilling costs, and cut exploration time.
This leads to both economic and environmental benefits.

Ex.17. Translate the following text in writing. Use a dictionary.


Identifying and recovering hydrocarbons require an accurate, high resolution
geological model of the reservoir structure and stratigraphy.
Geological modeling is considered to be an applied science of creating com-
puterized representations of portions of the Earth’s crust, especially oil and gas
fields and ground water aquifers. In the oil and gas industry, realistic geologic
models are required as input to reservoir simulator programs to predict the be-
havior of the rocks under various hydrocarbon recovery scenarios. An actual
reservoir can only be developed and produced once, and mistakes can be tragic
and wasteful. Using reservoir simulation allows reservoir engineers to identify
which recovery options offer the safest and most economic, efficient and effec-
tive development plan for a particular reservoir.

105
Geological modeling is a relatively recent subdiscipline of geology which
integrates structural geology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleoclimatology and
diagenesis. In 2 dimensions a geologic formation or unit is represented by a pol-
ygon, which can be bounded by faults, unconformities or by its lateral extent, or
crop. In geologic models a geologic unit is bounded by 3 dimensional triangu-
lated or gridded surfaces.

Ex.18. Agree or disagree with the following statements.


1. Geophysics studies physical fields of the earth.
2. Like rocks have like magnetic fields.
3. Electrical survey is of no importance in petroleum exploration.
4. Seismic survey is based on the gravitational field of the earth.
5. Seismic survey gives precise and reliable information about under-
ground formations.

Ex.19. Speak on major methods of geophysical surveying. Use the following


words and word combinations.
Verbs: to measure; to be related to; to point to; to search for; to reduce; to apply;
to enable; to compare; to determine; to suggest; to record; to interpret; to reveal;
to reflect; to refract; to transmit; to analyze; to determine; to provide; to obtain.
Nouns and adjectives: physical qualities; magnetism; gravity; seismic vibrations;
survey; oil and gas bearing formations; subsurface conditions; slight differences;
the location of formations; configuration; flow of electricity; guidelines for a
seismic exploration program; precise information; seismic event; a seismic
wave; interface between layers; hardness; density; an array of receivers; inclina-
tion angles; subsurface reflectors; reflection amplitudes; attenuation.

106
PART 2

Ex.1. Read the text and answer the following questions:


1. What is a well log, and why is it important to keep one?
2. What sort of samples do chemists take? How can this help in the search?
When a possible future oil field is identified, an exploratory wells are
drilled. These are sometimes called 'wildcat wells'.
Each time a new well is drilled, a 'well log' is created. The 'well log' is a rec-
ord of the rocks and the depths at which they are found. Geologists also keep
core samples for analysis. Geologists can use the information from different well
logs to construct a map of the area between the wells. This process is called
'geological reasoning'.

WORDS TO THE TEXT “WELL LOGGING”


cuttings n. буровой шлам, обломки выбуренной породы
sample n. образец
I’d like to see some samples of your work.
integral adj. неотъемлемый, существенный
Vegetables are an integral part of our diet.
saturation n. насыщение, насыщенность
water saturation, saturation point
aid v. помогать, способствовать
This technique aids in geophysical interpretation
complete v. заканчивать, завершать
The building took two years to complete
complete adj. полный, завершенный
a complete edition of Shakespeare’s plays

107
procedure n. процедура
A test is a procedure intended to establish the
quality, performance or reliability of something.

wireline n. проволочный кабель


integrate v. объединять (в единое целое)
Transport planning should be integrated with en-
ergy policy.
drill string бурильная колонна
retrieve v. брать, вернуть обратно; извлекать информа-
цию
to retrieve information from a computer
infer v. заключать, делать вывод
A lot can be inferred from these statistics.
quantify v. определять количество
The damage caused in the industry is difficult to
quantify.
curve n. кривая (диаграмма)
The curve illustrates cost growth.
case v. крепить (скважину) обсадными трубами
a cased well
обсадная колонна
casing n. Casing is a steel pipe.
resolution n. разрешающая способность
Resolution is a power of a tool to give a clear pic-
ture.
advance n. продвижение, прогресс
advances of science.
The country has made great advances.

108
Ex.1. Read the text “Well logging” and find English equivalents of the fol-
lowing word combinations:
возможное присутствие углеводородов; внимательно следит; эксплуа-
тация скважин; показания снимаются; скважинные исследования во время
бурения; многожильный кабель; разработка пласта; межскважинная корре-
ляция.

WELL LOGGING
If all the surface and subsurface information indicates a strong hydrocarbon
potential an exploration well may be drilled. As drilling progresses, a geologist
keeps a watchful eye on the underground rock and fluids it contains by cutting
examination, core samples, well logs, and test results.
A well log is a graphical presentation of physicochemical characteristics of
the formation measured in a borehole as a function of depth.
Well logging is an integral part of formation evaluation. Borehole measure-
ments provide the largest source of data. These are used with core and fluid data
to determine reservoir depth and thickness, porosity, lithology, hydrocarbon sat-
uration, and permeability. Logging information also aids in drilling, completion,
and operation of wells; geological and geophysical exploration; and develop-
ment of reservoir models for efficient production.
The procedure for each log is basically the same. It consists of lowering a
“logging tool” (sonde) on the end of a wireline into a well to measure the rock
and fluid properties of the formation. The readings are taken at the surface. In
LWD (logging while drilling) instead of sensors being lowered at the end of
wireline cable, they are integrated into the drill string. The measurements are
made while the well is being drilled. Data are recorded downwhole and retrieved
when the drill string is removed from the hole. As well logging methods usually
do not measure directly the primary rock properties needed for reservoir engi-
neering purposes (porosity, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid mobility, etc.),
these are to be inferred from borehole measurements of electromagnetic, acous-
tic and nuclear properties. An interpretation of these measurements is then made
to locate and quantify potential depth zones containing oil and gas. Among the
most common wireline logs are electric, radioactivity and acoustic logs.

109
The first well log – electrical log – was designed in 1927 by the
Shlumberger brothers. At that time only a single resistivity (the property related
to porosity and permeability) curve was obtained in each well, but it is very use-
ful for well-to-well correlation.
Today wireline logging of high resolution is cheaper, faster, and more accu-
rate than ever due to advances in technology over the past decades. Logging
techniques are useful not only for evaluating exploration wells but also for plan-
ning the best way to produce the oil or gas in a development well.

Ex.2. Match synonyms in A and B.


A B
1. indicate 1. progress
2. potential 2. define
3. exploratory well 3. estimation
4. characteristic 4. show
5. a well 5. extract
6. evaluation 6. uncased well
7. determine 7. property
8. aid 8. aim
9. complete (v.) 9. possible
10. wireline 10. borehole
11. purpose 11. tool
12. subdivide 12. wild cat
13. accurate 13. fulfil
14. advance 14. help
15. technique 15. precise
16. produce 16. classify
17. open hole 17. cable

110
Ex.3. Say which word doesn’t match.
1. estimate –evaluate – assess- evolve
2. well – boring – wellbore – borehole
3. enable – help – hope – aid
4. progress – operation – process – procedure
5. similar – identical - some – same
6. pore – hole – void – voice
7. purpose – objective – object – aim
8. layer – stratum – bed – lower
9. investment – investigation – survey – study
10.exact – account – precise – accurate

Ex.4. Match A and B.


A B
1.development well 1.an instrument that automatically
transmits information about its sur-
roundings underground, in the atmos-
phere, etc.
2.core 2.a well that produces oil
3.well logging 3.a steel pipe placed in a well to pre-
vent the wall of the hole from caving
in, to prevent seepage of fluids.
4.borehole 4.a wellbore in which casing has been
run.
5.formation evaluation 5.a cylindrical sample of rock.
6.permeability 6.recording of information about sub-
surface
geologic formations.

111
7.well completion 7.a hole drilled by a bit.
8.sonde 8.determination of the ability of a
borehole to produce petroleum.
9.casing 9.activities and methods of preparing a
well for the production.
10.cased hole 10.a measure of the ease with which a
fluid flows through the connecting
pore space of a rock.

Ex.5. Explain the meaning of the following terms.


1. uncased well
2. logging tool
3. wireline measurements
4. drill cuttings
5. electric logging
6. radioactivity logging
7. acoustic logging
8. exploratory well
9. well log

Ex.6. Translate the following sentences into Russian.


1. Most rock is completely saturated with water.
2. Cased wells or opened holes with all types of fluid can be logged without
difficulty with radioactive logging.
3. Velocity logs must be run in open hole only, and the hole must contain a
liquid.
4. A geologist can test the cuttings to determine whether they contain hydro-
carbons.
5. Well logs not only indicate the presence of oil, they also aid to quantify
the reservoir.

112
6. Water saturation is the fraction of the pore space occupied by water.
7. In petroleum production completion is the process of making a well ready
for production or injection.
8. The simulation model computes the saturation change of three phases and
pressure of each phase.
9. In cased holes completion involves running casing down through the pro-
duction zone, and cementing it in place.
10.An operator probably would not decide to complete or abandon a well us-
ing only information from cuttings.
11.Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses
surface methods to measure the physical properties of the subsurface to
detect or infer the presence and position of ore minerals, hydrocarbons,
geothermal reservoirs, ground water reservoirs, and other geological
structures.
12.Careful examination of cuttings can indicate whether the well is likely to
produce.
13.Formation evaluation is the process of interpreting a combination of
measurements taken inside a wellbore to detect and quantify oil and gas
reserves in the rock adjacent to the well.
14.Gas content data are sufficiently accurate to be used as a tool to make ex-
ploratory and well completion decisions.
15.The same procedures were followed in all core sample examinations.
16.Detection of gases in the mud is essential for complete evaluation of the
hydrocarbon potential in the formation and for improved drilling safety.
17.The well-site geologist’s prime objective is to identify the hydrocarbon-
bearing zones and determine their characteristics.
18.The shale measurements are indicated versus (в зависимости, по отно-
шению) depth.

Ex.7. Translate the sentences into English.


1. В настоящее время насчитывается более 30 методов ГИС.

113
2. ГИС – комплекс физических методов, используемых для изучения
горных пород в околосвкажинном и межскважинном пространстве.
3. ГИС – измерение некоторых величин (свойств) горных пород, пере-
сеченных скважиной.
4. В задачу ГИС входит корреляция разрезов скважины, определение
литологии и глубины залегания пройденных скважиной пород; вы-
деление и оценка запасов; контроль за разработкой месторождений.
5. Методы ГИС позволяют определить остаточную (residual) и теку-
щую нефтегазонасыщенность продуктивных горизонтов.
6. ГИС дает возможность по всей длине скважины определить литоло-
гический состав, мощность пород, выделить интервалы залегания
продуктивных горизонтов, установить коллекторские свойства в
горных породах.
7. Существуют различные виды зондов – установок для измерения
электрических свойств, сопротивления, проводимости.
8. Геофизические датчики опускаются в скважину на кабеле, и их сиг-
налы передаются на поверхность и регистрируются наземной аппа-
ратурой.
9. Электрический каротаж – способ измерения удельного сопротивле-
ния пород.
10.ГИС в открытом стволе включает в себя скважинную сейсморазвед-
ку, замер пластового давления, отбор проб (керноотбор), а также
оценку пласта.
11.ГИС в обсаженной скважине – комплекс работ для оценки фильтра-
ционных свойств пласта, контроль качества цемента и комплекс ра-
диоактивных методов.
12.Сервисные компании (service companies) нефтегазовой отрасли пред-
лагают программные продукты для геологоразведки и добычи, а
также услуги по созданию и поддержке информационной инфра-
структуры и управлению информацией.

114
Ex.8. Interview with John Braun, a wireline logger.
It's my job

1. Read the text quickly and tick (+) the right box.
A well A wireline
log log
□ □ 1. uses a sonde
□ □ 2. records the details of samples taken
from drilling mud
□ □ 3. is created after the borehole is made
□ □ 4. lists fossils
□ □ 5. records measurements for resistivity
and radioactivity
□ □ 6. is based on the first drilling

2. Read the text again and answer the questions.


What is 'well completion'?
Which is more expensive, drilling the well or completing the well?
What is the basic reason for creating a wireline log?
Do you think this job sounds interesting? Would you like to do it?
John Braun is a wireline logger

What's a well log and what kind of information does it record?


Basically we create a well log when we first drill a hole. It is a record of some
basic information about the hole. A well log lists the rocks we meet and their
depth. We colour-code them. We make a note of fossil content too.

So what's a wireline log?


A wireline log comes after the hole is made. It's a second investigation of the
borehole to check that it is really worth completing. 'Completing a hole'

115
means that you get it ready for production. When a well is completed, the
hole has a casing that is made of steel and concrete. Completing a well is
far more expensive than drilling it.

And this is where the wireline logger comes in?


Exactly. We perform extra tests. We put a metal cable - the wireline - down the
hole with a sonde attached to it. This is a metal cylinder that contains measuring
equipment. It measures the porosity of the rocks, its radioactive properties, and
its electrical resistance. The oil company wants to be as sure as it can be that it
will be productive.

So the information you have is much more complete than that from the first
well log?
Exactly. The results from the wireline log are carefully analysed. And if they are
positive, the company will complete the well.

(From OXFORD ENGLISH FOR CAREERS) Jon Naunton and Alison Pohl

Ex.9. Read the text and make a summary.

THE SPIRIT OF LOG INTERPRETATION


Log interpretation began as soon as logs were systematically run, in the
late1920s. Soon afterwards, research work and by oil companies developed the
all-important relationships between resistivity, porosity and saturation. By the
1950s, interpretation experts had developed the science and art of log interpreta-
tion to a high degree of sophistication.
In that precomputer age, the log analyst would scan a few resistivity curves,
perhaps also a microlog, a gamma ray curve and one of the first so-called po-
rosity logs – and rapidly “interpret” the data into oil, gas and water zones. Later,
the combination of shallow and deep resistivity lgging data and the addition of
compensated density and neutron logs allowed easier detection of gas zones.
Seen through the eye of an expert analyst, the logs would first guide attention to
zones of interest, and then prompt basic quantitative interpretation at a few
depths.

116
This art was not to be radically affected by the first generation computers.
True, the machines allowed more accurate algorithms, but they could not replace
the eyes of the log expert. Quality interpretation remained dependent on the se-
lection of parameters made by the log analyst.
Computers especially could not resolve outstanding interpretation issues in
complex, heterogeneous formations, thinly laminated turbidites or fractured
formations. That took new downhole measurement technology. In 1967, the
borehole televiewer provided a radically new direction by providing the first
acoustic images of the borehole wall. But not until the 1980s was reliable meas-
urement technology developed – first for resistivity images and most recently
for ultrasonic images.
Borehole images created a revolution in log interpretation. Previously invis-
ible fractures, voids, heterogeneities and thin beds could at last be seen and
therefore better interpreted using existing logs. Other innovations, possibly just
as important, are coming. Interpretation needs both computer power and new
technology. But let us not forget its true spirit. The truth lies with the measure-
ments and deep understanding of what they may imply.

Ex.10. Answer the following questions.


1. How does a geologist (geophysicist) control the underground rock and
fluids?
2. What is a well log?
3. What information does a well logging provide?
4. Why is logging information of vital importance?
5. What is a well logging procedure?
6. Where are measurements made and taken?
7. How do you understand LWD?
8. What are the most common logging methods?
9. Do logging methods provide direct measurements of rock properties?
10.How can logging methods be subdivided?
11.How can you characterize wireline logging?

117
Ex.11. Agree or disagree with the following statements and give your rea-
soning.
1. Borehole measurements provide the most complete subsurface infor-
mation.
2. The procedure for each logging method is different.
3. Well logging provides direct measurements of porosity, permeability, sat-
uration, etc.
4. Well logging is run only in open holes.
5. Logging aids to evaluate exploration wells.

118
REFERENCES
1. Mark J. Crawford, M.S. Physical Geology. Lincoln, Nebraska 68501,
1998, ISBN 0-8220-5335-7.
2. Oil and Gas Journals 2013-2015 г.г.
3. AAPG Bulletin 2013-2015 г.г.
4. Е.К. Старшинова. Пособие по английскому языку для геологических
факультетов университетов, изд. «Высшая школа», 1979.
5. Kate Van Dyke Fundamentals of Petroleum. Petroleum Extension Ser-
vice, Division of Continuing Education, the University of Texas at Austin,
2000.

119
УЧЕБНО –МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

ИВАНОВА Татьяна Львовна


ЛЕПЕШКИНА Наталья Георгиевна
СИМАКОВА Екатерина Юрьевна

PETROLEUM
GEOLOGY

В АВТОРСКОЙ РЕДАКЦИИ

Компьютерная верстка: Л. О. Иванова

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