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“Today we are better than we were yesterday and tomorrow even better”

I TERM – SUPPORT MATERIAL – USE OF ENGLISH


Name : Class: 9th |10th | 11th Level: FCE
Prepared by: Paul Gaither Date: Adapted by: Isabel López

SKILL: Text Production


INDICATOR: Applies a good command of grammar and vocabulary; and uses effective strategies in order
to deal with Paper 1 Reading & Use of English in the B2: First (FCE) exam.

Key Word
Transformation #1
For questions 1-6, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence,
using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including
the word given.

1. Many people think Steve stole the money.


BELIEVED
Steve ______________________________ the money.
2. The strong winds blew down the two ancient trees during the storm.
BLOWN
The two ancient trees ______________________________ the storm.
3. He doesn't have enough money to buy the computer.
TOO
The computer ______________________________ to buy.
4. "You should start a new hobby, Mr. Jenkins", the doctor said.
TAKE
The Doctor advised ______________________________ a new hobby.
5. We have been waiting here since half past ten.
FOR
We have been waiting ______________________________ one hour.
6. The man suddenly realised that the neighbour was watching him.
WATCHED
The man suddenly realised that he ______________________________ the neighbour.
7. I could never have passed that exam without your help.
YOU
I could never have passed that exam ______________________________ me.
8. We paid some people to landscape the garden for us last year.
HAD
We ______________________________ last year.
SOURCE: Author: Unknown. (2019). Retrieved from: http://www.esl-lounge.com/first-certificate/first-
certificate-key-word-transformations-1.php

ANSWER KEY

READING and USE of ENGLISH | PART 4 #1

1. Steve __IS BELIEVED TO HAVE STOLEN__ the money.


2. The two ancient trees __WERE BLOWN DOWN DURING__ the storm.
3. The computer __IS TOO EXPENSIVE FOR HIM__ to buy.
4. The Doctor advised __MR. JENKINS TO TAKE UP__ a new hobby.
5. We have been waiting __HERE FOR__ one hour.
6. The man suddenly realised that he __WAS BEING WATCHED BY__ the neighbour.
7. I could never have passed that exam __IF YOU HADN'T HELPED__ me.
8. We __HAD THE GARDEN LANDSCAPED___ last year.
“Today we are better than we were yesterday and tomorrow even better”

I TERM – SUPPORT MATERIAL – USE OF ENGLISH


Name : Class: 9th |10th | 11th Level: FCE
Prepared by: Paul Gaither Date: Adapted by: Isabel López

Key Word Transformation


#1
 (someone/something) is believed to be

http://www.esl-lounge.com/first-certificate/first-certificate-key-word-transformations-1.php
PHRASE
used for saying that it is the general opinion of most people that something
is true although it has not been proved
 A third man is missing and is believed to have been taken into police custody.
Synonyms and related words

SOURCE: Author: Unknown. (2019). Retrieved from:


Not definite or based on fact: apparently, supposed, alleged...

 blow down
PHRASAL VERB
if something blows down or is blown down, the wind makes it fall
 A big tree had blown down in the storm.
 A sudden gust of wind blew down the fence.
Synonyms and related words
Movement by the wind: blow away, blow off, blow over...

 take up
PHRASAL VERB
to start doing something regularly as a habit, job, or interest
 I took up smoking when I was at school.
 Chris has taken up jogging.
Synonyms and related words
To start doing something: start on, begin, set about...

 Causative “have”
Give someone else the responsibility to do something
Grammatical structure:
 HAVE + PERSON + VERB (base form)
 HAVE + THING + PAST PARTICIPLE OF VERB
 I’ll have my assistant call you to reschedule the appointment.
 The businessman had his secretary make copies of the report.

https://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/causatives-have-get.html
Try an exercise about 'have something done' and 'get something done' here.
Try an exercise about 'have someone do something' and 'get someone to do something' here.

Causatives: Have and Get


We use a causative verb when we want to talk about something that someone else did for us
or for another person. It means that the subject caused the action to happen, but didn't do it
themselves. Maybe they paid, or asked, or persuaded the other person to do it. For example,
we can say:
 I cleaned my house. (This means I cleaned it myself).

If I paid someone to clean it, of course I can say:


 A cleaner cleaned my house.

Another way is to use a causative construction.


 I had my house cleaned.

In a sense, using a causative verb is similar to using a passive. The important thing is that the
house is now clean. We don't focus on who did the cleaning.

Have + object + past participle (have something done)


We usually use 'have something done' when we are talking about paying someone to do
something for us. It's often used for services. The form is 'subject + have + object + past
participle'.
 I had my car washed.
 John will have his house painted.

Get + object + past participle (get something done)


We can also use 'subject + get + object + past participle'. This has the same meaning as 'have',
but is less formal.
 The students get their essays checked.
 I'll get my hair cut next week.
 He got his washing machine fixed.

Have someone do something (have + person + infinitive)


We can also use the construction 'subject + have + person + infinitive'. This has a very similar
meaning to 'have something done', which we've already talked about, but this time we say
who did the thing - we talk about the person who we asked to do the thing for us.
 I had the electrician look at my broken light.
 The doctor will have the nurse call the patients.
 The teacher had the students write the answers on the whiteboard.

Get someone to do something (get + person + to + infinitive)


Finally, we can also use the construction 'get + someone + to + infinitive'. Again, this means
that you cause the other person to do the action, maybe by paying them to do it, or by asking
them to do it, or by persuading them to do it.
 She gets her son to do his homework by promising him ice cream when he's finished.
 I got the cleaner to clean under the cupboards.

Sometimes, this construction has the feeling that we needed to convince someone to do
something, while the other constructions on this page are neutral.