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 The Definition and Scope of International Relations.

International Relations is the study and practice of political relationships among the world's nations, especially their
governments. International relations mean interactions between nongovernmental groups, such as multinational
corporations or international organizations such as the OIC or the United Nations (UN).

They are closely connected with other actors (such as intergovernmental org., multinational corporations,
and individuals); with other social structures (including economics, culture, and domestic politics); and
with geographical and historical influences.

The discipline of international relations deals with the war, military alliance, diplomacy, trade,
cooperation & peace.

The ultimate aim of International Relations is the establishment of ‘International peace’ through
cooperation & agreement among different nations promoting mutual interests. In comparison to it,
International politics is ‘struggle for power’ through conflicts, wars, political maneuvers among
different nations.

There are many factors which affects nature of international relations such as evolution of new nations,
technological development, nuclear research, rise of multipolar world, emergence of new order, non-state
organizations, global problems, so and so forth.

The scope of international relations is not yet well settled. It is continuously expending & becoming very
complex due to many factors such as LPG (globalization, privatization, & liberalization), advancement in
technology (communication, transportation, & media), global issues (Terrorism, poverty, global warming,


A state is a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhibited by a population. A state

government answers to no higher authority; it exercises sovereignty over its territory-to make and
enforce laws, to collect taxes, and so forth.


Excluding state actors all other comes under non-state actors. Non-state actors influence decisions of
state actors

Non-state actors are categorized as follows:-


United Nations,
IGOs(intergovernmental Members are national
Org.) governments
BRICS, WTO, etc.

NGOs(nongovernmental Members are
International, Lions
Org.) individuals & Groups clubs, Red Cross,
Green Peace, etc.

TATA, amazon,
MNCs ( multinational Companies that span
Toyota, Wal-Mart,
Corporations) borders

Bono, Iraqi
Others including illegal Individual, cities, Kurdistan, al Qaeda,
actors constituencies, etc. Daesh (earlier ISIS)

 United Nations (UN) maintain international peace and security. Develop friendly relations
among states, achieve international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations,
and achieve international cooperation in solving international problems,

 World Trade Organization (WTO) manages disputes arising from trading partners,
monitoring trade in the agriculture and manufacture commodities, etc.

The Nation-State System

Palmer defines nation state system in these words; "Nation State System is a pattern of political life which
organizes people separately into sovereign states".

Elements of a Nation State

 Population as a nation
 Definite territory for that population to live in
 A government to govern that population with the defined territory
 Sovereignty of that nation state

Origin of the modern nation state system can be traced back into 1648 when the Peace Treaty of Westphalia
was signed. This treaty was actually an agreement to end the 'Thirty Years of War' from 1618 to 1648
between various religio - political factions of the landmass Europe.

 Evolution of International Society

International society can be defined as 'community of world states gathered under an agenda that may be in
the shape of international law at a universal organization in order to sort out the ways for achieving common
goals and averting common threats thus primarily fulfilling the aim of a peaceful world'.
Elements shaping International Society

 Nation states
 International organization
 International law
 Common Agenda
 Aim for world peace

Evolution of international society began with the birth of the League of Nations after the First World War.


Feminism is a non-traditional and modern theory of International Relations.