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SCANTLING CALCULATION

Particulars:

Frame spacing, a = 0.5 m


Web frame spacing, e = 1.5 m
Length of ship, L = 73.23 m
Breadth of ship, B = 11.26 m
Draft, T = 4.5 m
Height, H = 6.4 m
Block co-efficient, Cb = 0.74
Speed, Vs = 11.5 knot
By Using the GL Rule book Scantling Calculation is given below

1) Bottom Shell plating:- (Chapter-1; section-6; paragraph –B; page-108)

The thickness tB of the bottom shell plating is not to be less than determined by the following formulae:
For ships without proven longitudinal strength:
tB = tB1 [within 0.4 L amidships]
tB = max[tB1 ; tB2 ] [within 0.1 L forward of the aft end of the length L and within 0.05 L aft of F.P.]

tB1 = 1.9 ∙ nf ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK [mm]


tB2 = 1.21 ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK [mm]

Where,
nf = factor to take the framing system into account, defined as

nf = 1.00 [for transverse framing]


nf = 0.83 [for longitudinal framing]

a = frame spacing = 0.5 m

PB = Load on bottom
= 10∙T + P0 ∙ CF [ KN / m2 ]
= 10 × 4.5 + 19.173 × 1
= 64.173 KN / m2

Where,
T = Draft
P0 = Basic External dynamic load [KN / m 2] for wave directions with or against the ship’s heading’s:

P0 = 2.1∙ (CB + 0.7)∙ C0 ∙ CL ∙ f


= 2.1 × (0.74+ 0.7) × 7.0292 × 0.902× 1
= 19.173 KN / m2

CB = block co-efficient [from principle particulars]


C0 = wave co-efficient
L
C0 = [ + 4.1]∙ CRW [for L < 90 m]
25
73.23
=[ + 4.1]∙ CRW
25
= 7.0292
300−L 1.5
C0 = [ 10.75 – ( ) ]∙ CRW [for 90 ≤ L ≤ 300 m]
100

C0 = 10.75∙ CRW [for L > 300 m]

Where,
L = length between perpendiculars
CRW = Service range co-efficient

CRW = 1.00 for unlimited service range


CRW = 0.90 for restricted service area RSA(200)
CRW = 0.75 for restricted service area RSA(50)
CRW = 0.66 for restricted service area RSA(20)
CRW = 0.60 for restricted service area RSA(SW)

CL = length co-efficient
𝐿
=√ for L < 90 m
90
73.23
=√
90
CL =0.902

CL = 1.0 for L ≥ 90 m
f = probability factor

Defined as,
f = 1.00 for plate panels of the outer hull (shell plating, weather decks)
f = 0.75 for secondary stiffening members of the outer hull (frames, deck beams), but not less than f Q
[ fQ is a function of the design lifetime. For a lifetime of n > 20 years, f Q may be determined by the following
formula for a straight-line spectrum of seaway-induced stress ranges:

2×10−5
fQ = - 0.125 log ( )]
𝑛

f = 0.60 for girders and girder systems of the outer hull (web frames. stringers, grillage systems), but not
less than fQ / 1.25

CF = Distribution factor
= 1.00

K = Material factor

K=1 for ReH = 235 N/mm2


K = 0.78 for ReH = 315 N/mm2
K = 0.72 for ReH = 355 N/mm2
K = 0.66 for ReH = 390 N/mm2
295
K= for 235 < ReH < 390 N/mm2 & ReH ≠ 315 or 355 N/mm2
𝑅𝑒𝐻 +60
tK = Corrosion addition
= 1.5 mm for t` ≤ 10 mm
1.5 ∙𝑡`
= for t` > 10 mm
√𝐾

where, t`= required rule thickness excluding tK [mm]

Therefore,
tB1 = 1.9 ∙ nf ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK
= 1.9 × 1 × 0.5 × √64.173 × 1 + 1.5
= 9.11 mm
And,
tB2 = 1.21 ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK
= 1.21 × 0.5 × √64.173 × 1 + 1.5
= 6.34 mm

Therefore we take the thickness of bottom plate as 10 mm

2) Flat keel plating:- (section-6; paragraph –B.4.1; page-110)

The thickness tFK of the flat plate keel is not to be less than be determined by the following formulae:

tFK = tB1 + 2.0 [within 0.7 L amidships and in way of the engine seating]
= 10 + 2
= 12 mm

Therefore we take the thickness of flat keel plate as 12 mm

3) Bilge plating:- Bilge plating is considered to be same as flat keel plating = 12 mm

Therefore we take the thickness of Bilge plating as 12 mm

4) Side shell plating :- (section-6; paragraph –C; page 110)

For ships without proven longitudinal strength:

t s = t s1 Within 0.4 L amidships

t s = max[t s1 ; t s2 ] Within 0.1 L forward of the aft end of the length L and within 0.05L aft of F.P

t s1 = 1.9. n f . a √P s . k + t k [mm]

t s2 = 1.21. a √P s . k + t k [mm]

Where Ps = loads on Ship’s sides (Section-4; Paragraph –B.2; page 65)


For elements having the load center located above the load waterline:
20
Ps = Po . cf . kN/mm2
10 + z − T
20
= 19.173 × 1 ×
10+3−4.5

= 45.113 KN/mm2 [for wave directions with or against the ship′ s heading ]

Where,

Z = vertical distance (m) between load center of element and base line

=3m

So,

t s1 = 1.9. n f . a √P s . k + t k [mm]

= 1.9 × 1 × 0.5 × √45.113 × 1 + 1.5

= 7.88 mm

t s2 = 1.21. a √P s . k + t k [mm]

= 1.21 × 0.5 × √45.113 × 1 + 1.5

= 5.56 mm

Therefore we take the thickness of Side Shell plating as 8 mm

5. Shear strake :- (section-6; paragraph –C.3; page 111)

The width b of the sheer strake is not to be less than determined by the following formula:
b = 800 + 5 ∙ L [mm] [ with b ≤ bmax ]
= 800 + 5 x 73.23
= 1166.15 mm

bmax = maximum width of the sheer stake [mm]


= 1800
So, the thickness t of the sheer strake is, in general, not to be less than determined by the following Formula:

t = 0.5. (t D + t s ) [mm] with t ≥ t s

Where,
tD = required thickness of strength deck = 3 mm
ts = required thickness of side shell = 8 mm

t = 0.5 x (3+8) = 5.5 mm = 6 mm

Therefore we take the shear strake as 6 mm


6. Mainframe spacing :- (section-3; paragraph –B.3.3; page-34)
lku lko
mk3 = 1.0 − ( + 0.4 × ) [with mk3 ≥ 0.6]
l l
lku, lko = Length of lower/ upper braket connection of main frames within the length l (m) (= unsupported
span)

Here we assume lku = 0.2m , lko = 0.2m

So,
0.2 0.2
mk3 = 1.0 − ( + 0.4 × ) [with mk3 ≥ 0.6]
2.5 2.5
= 0.888
Section modulus:-

The section modulus W R of the main frames including end attachments are not to be less than determined
by the following formulae:

WR = n⋅mk3 ⋅ (1−m2a) mc ∙ a ⋅l2 ⋅p⋅k

Where,

mc = 1

mk3 = 0.888

n = factor , defined as

= 0.9 [for L< 100 m]

ma = Factor to take the load distribution into account


a a 2 a
= 0.204 × × [4–( ) ] [with ≤1]
l l l

0.5 0.5 2
= 0.204 × × [ 4 –( ) ]
2.5 2.5

= 0.161568

l = Unsupported span [m] = 2.5 m ( l ≥ 2.0)

p = ps = 45.113 KN / m2

Therefore,

WR = n⋅mk3 ⋅ (1−m2a) mc ∙ a ⋅l2 ⋅p⋅k

= 0.9 × 0.888 × { 1 − (0.161568)2 } × 1 × 0.5 × 2.52 × 45.113 × 1

= 109.73 cm3

Therefore the dimension of mainframe L Sec is - 120×80×10


7. Web – frame:- Where web frames and supporting stringers are fitted instead of tiers of beams,

their section modulus W to be determined by the following formulae: (section-9; paragraph –B 5.3.1; page-
163)

W = 0.55 × e × l2 × p × nc × K [cm3]

where,

l = unsupported span [m], without consideration of cross ties, if any


= 2.9
l1 = Similar to l , however, considering cross ties, if any = 1.5
p = Design pressure = ps = 45.113 KN / m2
nc = co-efficient according to the following Table = 1

Table of reduction co-efficient , nc

Number of cross ties nc


0 1.0
1 0.5
3 0.3
≥3 0.2

Therefore ,

Section modulus is ,

W = 0.55 × e × l2 × p × nc × K [cm3]
W = 0.55 × 1.5 × (2.9)2 × 45.113 × 1 × 1 [cm3]
W = 313 cm3

Therefore the dimension of webframe T-sec is 240×160×6

8. Dimension of side stringer :- We take the dimension of side stringer same as that of the web frame .

Therefore the dimension of webframe T-sec 240×160×6


9. Dimension of deck beam :-

The section modulus Wd and of transverse deck beams and of deck longitudinals not contributing to the
longitudinal strength are to be not less than determined by the following formulae: (section-10; paragraph
–B1.1; page-174)

Wd = c × (mk12 –ma2 )×a× l2 × p× k [cm3]

mk1 = factor to take a shortened unsupported span into account


lKI +lKJ
= 1− (Section-3; Paragraph –B3.3.1; page 32)
103 ×l

Here ,

lKI,lKJ = Effective supporting length [mm] due to heel stiffeners and brackets at frame I and J
1
= min [ hs + 0.3×hb + ; Ib+hs]
c1

Here ,

c1 = Co-efficient [1/mm] defined as

=0 for Ib ≤ 0.3 hb

hs = Height of the heel stiffener [mm] = 0.20 mm

lb , hb = Dimensions of the brackets [mm]

hb = 0.25 mm

lb = [c= 19.6 + 0.3 × 0.25 ] (According to fig)

= 1.17mm

C = 0.75 [for beams, girders and transverses which are simply supported at one or both ends]

ma = 0.161568

So ,
1
lKI = min [ hs + 0.3×hb + ]
c1

= min [0.20 + 0.3×0.25 + 0 ]

= min 0.275 mm

lKJ = lb + hs

= 1.17+ 0.20

= 1.37 mm
Now ,
lKI +lKJ
mk1 = 1−
103 ×l

0.275+1.37
= 1−
103 ×2.5

= 0.99981

P = PD = Load on weather deck


20×T
= P0 × × CD [ KN / m2 ] where z=3
(10+z−T)H

20×4.5
= 19.173 × (10+3−4.5)6.4 × 1 [ KN / m2 ]

= 31.72 [ KN / m2 ]

Here ,

CD = Distribution factor according to table 4.1 in sec 4 page 64 = 1.0 for midship

So ,

Wd = c × (mk12 –ma2) ×a× l2 × p × k

= 0.75 × {(0.99981)2 – (0.161568)2}× 0.5 × (2.5)2 × 31.72 × 1

= 72.375 cm3

Therefore the dimension of web frame L-sec is 100×50×10

10. Dimension of deck girder:- The section modulus of deck girder should not be less than

W DG = c × e × p × l2 × k (section-10; paragraph –B 2.2.1; page-175)

Here ,

P = PD = 31.72 KN/m2

So ,

W DG = c × e × p × l2 × k

W DG = 0.75 × 1.5 × 31.72 × (2.5)2 × 1

= 223.03 cm3

Hence the dimension of the deck girder T-section is 178×88×5


11. Dimension of deck web:-

We take the section modulus of deck girder as, W DG = 223.03 cm3

Hence the dimension of the deck girder T-section is 178×88×5

Thickness of deck plate:- The plate thickness t is determined by the following formula – (section-7;
paragraph –C.1; page-136)

tD = 1.1×a× √pL × k + tK

Where ,

a = acceleration addition = av = F× m

And ,
v0
F = Co-efficient = F = 0.11
√L

pL = load on cargo deck = pL = pc × ( 1 + av )

And ,

Static load on cargo pc = 7× h = 7× 4.5 = 31.5 [ KN / m2 ]

Here ,V0 = Velocity of the ship = 11.5 knot

So ,
11.5
F = 0.11 = 0.147
√73.23

Now ,

av = F× m

= 0.147 x 1.0

= 0.147

And , pL = pc × ( 1 + av )

= 31.5 x ( 1 + 0.147 )

= 36.1305 [ KN / m2 ]

tK= 1.5

So , tD = 1.1×a× √pL × k + tK

= 1.1 × 0.147 × √36.1305 × 1 + 1.5

= 2.47 mm = 3mm

We can take Thickness of deck plate as 3 mm


12. Dimensions of longitudinal:- (section-9; paragraph –C 3.2; page-166)

a. Deck longitudinal:- Section modulus WL of longitudinal and longitudinal beams of strength deck is
determined by the following formulae :-
83 m2
Wl =
σpr
× (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p [cm3 ] {With(m2k1 − m2a ) ≥ k1
2
}

Where ,

σpr = permissible local stress [KN/mm2] , defined as :


150
= σperm − | σL | { With σpr ≤ }
k

Here ,

σL = design longitudinal hull girder bending stress

σperm = total permissible stress [N/mm2]


L 230 230
σperm = ( 0.8 + ) × { With σperm ≤ }
450 k k

73.23 230
σperm = ( 0.8 + ) ×
450 1

= 221.428 KN/mm2

| σL | = 75 (assumed)

So ,
150
σpr = 221.428 - |75| = 146.428 KN/mm2 ; where [ σpr ≤ ]
k

Therefore,
83
WDL = × (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p where, (P = PD = 31.72 KN/m2 )
σ pr

83
= × {(0.99981)2 − (0.161568)2 } × 0.5 × (2.5)2 × 31.72
146.428

= 54.72 cm3

Hence the dimension of the Deck longitudinal is 100×50×10

b. Bottom longitudinal :- The section modulus of bottom longitudinal should not be less than
83.3
W BL = × (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p where, (P = PB = 64.173)
σ pr

83.3
W BL = × {(0.99981)2 − (0.161568)2 } × 0.5× (2.5)2× 64.173
146.428

= 111.06 cm3

Hence the dimension of the bottom longitudinal is 120×80×10


c. Side longitudinal:- The section modulus of side longitudinal should not be less than
83.3
W SL = × (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p where, (P = Ps = 45.113)
σ pr

83.3
W SL = × {(0.99981)2 − (0.161568)2 } × 0.5× (2.9)2× 45.113
146.428

= 105.058

Hence the dimension of the Side longitudinal is 130×75×8

13. Centre girder:-

The web thickness tw and the sectional area Af of the face plate within 0.7L amidships are not to be less
than determined by the following formulae

tw = 0.07× L + 5.5 [mm]

= 0.07 x73.23 + 5.5

= 10.6261 mm

Af = 0.07× L + 12 [cm2 ]

= 0.07 x 73.23+ 12

= 17.1261cm2

Scantlings:
The depth h of the centre girder is not to be less than determined by the following formula: [ Chapter-1;
section- 8; paragraph- C.2.2.1; page- 146 ]

h = 350 + 45 ∙ l [mm]

hmin : minimum depth [mm] defined as;

hmin = 600

l : unsupported span [m] of the floor plates, defined as:

l = B in general

l = 0.8∙ B in case of longitudinal side bulkheads, the distance between the bulkheads can be used
as unsupported span

l = B' in case of double bottoms with hopper tanks (e.g. on bulk carriers) the fictitious breadth B'
can be used as unsupported span

However, l ≥ 0.8 ∙ B

so, h = 350 + 45 × 0.8 × 11.26 [mm]


h = 755.36 mm

The thickness tm of the centre girder is not to be less than determined by the following formulae: [chapter-
1; section-8; paragraph- C.2.2.2; page: 147]
ℎ ℎ
𝑡𝑚 = ( + 1.0 ) √𝑘 [mm] ; for h ≤ 1200 mm
ℎ𝑎 100

ℎ ℎ
𝑡𝑚 = ( + 3.0 ) √𝑘 [mm] ; for h > 1200 mm
ℎ𝑎 120

However, tm ≥ t

h : depth of the centre girder according to C.2.2.1

ha : depth [mm] of centre girder as built

t : plate thickness of the longitudinal girders


ℎ ℎ
so, 𝑡𝑚 = ( + 1.0 ) √𝑘
ℎ𝑎 100

755.36 755.36
𝑡𝑚 = ( + 1.0 ) √1 mm [ha is taken as 790 mm]
790 100

tm = 8.1785 mm

width of centre girder = 10 × tm

= 10 × 8.1785 mm

= 81.785 mm

Hence the dimension of the center girder is 130×75×8

We are given,

25-50 cm3 – L- 75×50×7

51-75 cm3 – L- 100×50×10

76-150 cm3 – L- 130×75×8 or L- 120×80×10

150-200 cm3 – L- 150×100×10

200-250 cm3 – T- 178×88×5

250-300 cm3 – T- 225×99×5.5

300-350 cm3 – T- 240×160×6

350-400 cm3 – T- 280×180×6

400-450 cm3 – T- 320×200×7


Serial Items Thickness Dimension
Number

01 Thickness of Bottom plating 10 mm

02 Thickness of Flat keel plate 12 mm

03 Thickness of bilge plating 12 mm

04 Thickness of Side Shell 8mm


plating
05 Shear Strake 6mm

06 Dimension of Main frame L-sec 120×80×10

07 Dimension of Webframe T-sec


240×160×6
08 Dimension of Side Stringer T-sec
240×160×6
09 Dimension of deck beam L-sec 100×50×10

10 Dimension of deck girder T-section


178×88×5

11 Dimension of deck web T-section


178×88×5
Thickness of Deck plate 3 mm

12 Dimension of Deck 100×50×10


longitudinal
Dimension of Bottom 120×80×10
longitudinal
Dimension of Side 130×75×8
longitudinal
13 Dimension of Centre Girder 130×75×8