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# SCANTLING CALCULATION

Particulars:

## Frame spacing, a = 0.5 m

Web frame spacing, e = 1.5 m
Length of ship, L = 73.23 m
Breadth of ship, B = 11.26 m
Draft, T = 4.5 m
Height, H = 6.4 m
Block co-efficient, Cb = 0.74
Speed, Vs = 11.5 knot
By Using the GL Rule book Scantling Calculation is given below

## 1) Bottom Shell plating:- (Chapter-1; section-6; paragraph –B; page-108)

The thickness tB of the bottom shell plating is not to be less than determined by the following formulae:
For ships without proven longitudinal strength:
tB = tB1 [within 0.4 L amidships]
tB = max[tB1 ; tB2 ] [within 0.1 L forward of the aft end of the length L and within 0.05 L aft of F.P.]

## tB1 = 1.9 ∙ nf ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK [mm]

tB2 = 1.21 ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK [mm]

Where,
nf = factor to take the framing system into account, defined as

## nf = 1.00 [for transverse framing]

nf = 0.83 [for longitudinal framing]

## a = frame spacing = 0.5 m

= 10∙T + P0 ∙ CF [ KN / m2 ]
= 10 × 4.5 + 19.173 × 1
= 64.173 KN / m2

Where,
T = Draft
P0 = Basic External dynamic load [KN / m 2] for wave directions with or against the ship’s heading’s:

## P0 = 2.1∙ (CB + 0.7)∙ C0 ∙ CL ∙ f

= 2.1 × (0.74+ 0.7) × 7.0292 × 0.902× 1
= 19.173 KN / m2

## CB = block co-efficient [from principle particulars]

C0 = wave co-efficient
L
C0 = [ + 4.1]∙ CRW [for L < 90 m]
25
73.23
=[ + 4.1]∙ CRW
25
= 7.0292
300−L 1.5
C0 = [ 10.75 – ( ) ]∙ CRW [for 90 ≤ L ≤ 300 m]
100

## C0 = 10.75∙ CRW [for L > 300 m]

Where,
L = length between perpendiculars
CRW = Service range co-efficient

## CRW = 1.00 for unlimited service range

CRW = 0.90 for restricted service area RSA(200)
CRW = 0.75 for restricted service area RSA(50)
CRW = 0.66 for restricted service area RSA(20)
CRW = 0.60 for restricted service area RSA(SW)

CL = length co-efficient
𝐿
=√ for L < 90 m
90
73.23
=√
90
CL =0.902

CL = 1.0 for L ≥ 90 m
f = probability factor

Defined as,
f = 1.00 for plate panels of the outer hull (shell plating, weather decks)
f = 0.75 for secondary stiffening members of the outer hull (frames, deck beams), but not less than f Q
[ fQ is a function of the design lifetime. For a lifetime of n > 20 years, f Q may be determined by the following
formula for a straight-line spectrum of seaway-induced stress ranges:

2×10−5
fQ = - 0.125 log ( )]
𝑛

f = 0.60 for girders and girder systems of the outer hull (web frames. stringers, grillage systems), but not
less than fQ / 1.25

CF = Distribution factor
= 1.00

K = Material factor

## K=1 for ReH = 235 N/mm2

K = 0.78 for ReH = 315 N/mm2
K = 0.72 for ReH = 355 N/mm2
K = 0.66 for ReH = 390 N/mm2
295
K= for 235 < ReH < 390 N/mm2 & ReH ≠ 315 or 355 N/mm2
𝑅𝑒𝐻 +60
= 1.5 mm for t` ≤ 10 mm
1.5 ∙𝑡`
= for t` > 10 mm
√𝐾

## where, t`= required rule thickness excluding tK [mm]

Therefore,
tB1 = 1.9 ∙ nf ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK
= 1.9 × 1 × 0.5 × √64.173 × 1 + 1.5
= 9.11 mm
And,
tB2 = 1.21 ∙ a ∙ √PB ∙ K + tK
= 1.21 × 0.5 × √64.173 × 1 + 1.5
= 6.34 mm

## 2) Flat keel plating:- (section-6; paragraph –B.4.1; page-110)

The thickness tFK of the flat plate keel is not to be less than be determined by the following formulae:

tFK = tB1 + 2.0 [within 0.7 L amidships and in way of the engine seating]
= 10 + 2
= 12 mm

## t s = t s1 Within 0.4 L amidships

t s = max[t s1 ; t s2 ] Within 0.1 L forward of the aft end of the length L and within 0.05L aft of F.P

t s1 = 1.9. n f . a √P s . k + t k [mm]

t s2 = 1.21. a √P s . k + t k [mm]

## Where Ps = loads on Ship’s sides (Section-4; Paragraph –B.2; page 65)

20
Ps = Po . cf . kN/mm2
10 + z − T
20
= 19.173 × 1 ×
10+3−4.5

= 45.113 KN/mm2 [for wave directions with or against the ship′ s heading ]

Where,

Z = vertical distance (m) between load center of element and base line

=3m

So,

t s1 = 1.9. n f . a √P s . k + t k [mm]

## = 1.9 × 1 × 0.5 × √45.113 × 1 + 1.5

= 7.88 mm

t s2 = 1.21. a √P s . k + t k [mm]

= 5.56 mm

## 5. Shear strake :- (section-6; paragraph –C.3; page 111)

The width b of the sheer strake is not to be less than determined by the following formula:
b = 800 + 5 ∙ L [mm] [ with b ≤ bmax ]
= 800 + 5 x 73.23
= 1166.15 mm

## bmax = maximum width of the sheer stake [mm]

= 1800
So, the thickness t of the sheer strake is, in general, not to be less than determined by the following Formula:

## t = 0.5. (t D + t s ) [mm] with t ≥ t s

Where,
tD = required thickness of strength deck = 3 mm
ts = required thickness of side shell = 8 mm

## Therefore we take the shear strake as 6 mm

6. Mainframe spacing :- (section-3; paragraph –B.3.3; page-34)
lku lko
mk3 = 1.0 − ( + 0.4 × ) [with mk3 ≥ 0.6]
l l
lku, lko = Length of lower/ upper braket connection of main frames within the length l (m) (= unsupported
span)

## Here we assume lku = 0.2m , lko = 0.2m

So,
0.2 0.2
mk3 = 1.0 − ( + 0.4 × ) [with mk3 ≥ 0.6]
2.5 2.5
= 0.888
Section modulus:-

The section modulus W R of the main frames including end attachments are not to be less than determined
by the following formulae:

## WR = n⋅mk3 ⋅ (1−m2a) mc ∙ a ⋅l2 ⋅p⋅k

Where,

mc = 1

mk3 = 0.888

n = factor , defined as

## ma = Factor to take the load distribution into account

a a 2 a
= 0.204 × × [4–( ) ] [with ≤1]
l l l

0.5 0.5 2
= 0.204 × × [ 4 –( ) ]
2.5 2.5

= 0.161568

## l = Unsupported span [m] = 2.5 m ( l ≥ 2.0)

p = ps = 45.113 KN / m2

Therefore,

= 109.73 cm3

## Therefore the dimension of mainframe L Sec is - 120×80×10

7. Web – frame:- Where web frames and supporting stringers are fitted instead of tiers of beams,

their section modulus W to be determined by the following formulae: (section-9; paragraph –B 5.3.1; page-
163)

W = 0.55 × e × l2 × p × nc × K [cm3]

where,

## l = unsupported span [m], without consideration of cross ties, if any

= 2.9
l1 = Similar to l , however, considering cross ties, if any = 1.5
p = Design pressure = ps = 45.113 KN / m2
nc = co-efficient according to the following Table = 1

## Number of cross ties nc

0 1.0
1 0.5
3 0.3
≥3 0.2

Therefore ,

Section modulus is ,

W = 0.55 × e × l2 × p × nc × K [cm3]
W = 0.55 × 1.5 × (2.9)2 × 45.113 × 1 × 1 [cm3]
W = 313 cm3

## Therefore the dimension of webframe T-sec is 240×160×6

8. Dimension of side stringer :- We take the dimension of side stringer same as that of the web frame .

## Therefore the dimension of webframe T-sec 240×160×6

9. Dimension of deck beam :-

The section modulus Wd and of transverse deck beams and of deck longitudinals not contributing to the
longitudinal strength are to be not less than determined by the following formulae: (section-10; paragraph
–B1.1; page-174)

## mk1 = factor to take a shortened unsupported span into account

lKI +lKJ
= 1− (Section-3; Paragraph –B3.3.1; page 32)
103 ×l

Here ,

lKI,lKJ = Effective supporting length [mm] due to heel stiffeners and brackets at frame I and J
1
= min [ hs + 0.3×hb + ; Ib+hs]
c1

Here ,

## c1 = Co-efficient [1/mm] defined as

=0 for Ib ≤ 0.3 hb

hb = 0.25 mm

## lb = [c= 19.6 + 0.3 × 0.25 ] (According to fig)

= 1.17mm

C = 0.75 [for beams, girders and transverses which are simply supported at one or both ends]

ma = 0.161568

So ,
1
lKI = min [ hs + 0.3×hb + ]
c1

= min 0.275 mm

lKJ = lb + hs

= 1.17+ 0.20

= 1.37 mm
Now ,
lKI +lKJ
mk1 = 1−
103 ×l

0.275+1.37
= 1−
103 ×2.5

= 0.99981

## P = PD = Load on weather deck

20×T
= P0 × × CD [ KN / m2 ] where z=3
(10+z−T)H

20×4.5
= 19.173 × (10+3−4.5)6.4 × 1 [ KN / m2 ]

= 31.72 [ KN / m2 ]

Here ,

CD = Distribution factor according to table 4.1 in sec 4 page 64 = 1.0 for midship

So ,

= 72.375 cm3

## Therefore the dimension of web frame L-sec is 100×50×10

10. Dimension of deck girder:- The section modulus of deck girder should not be less than

## W DG = c × e × p × l2 × k (section-10; paragraph –B 2.2.1; page-175)

Here ,

P = PD = 31.72 KN/m2

So ,

W DG = c × e × p × l2 × k

= 223.03 cm3

## Hence the dimension of the deck girder T-section is 178×88×5

11. Dimension of deck web:-

## Hence the dimension of the deck girder T-section is 178×88×5

Thickness of deck plate:- The plate thickness t is determined by the following formula – (section-7;
paragraph –C.1; page-136)

tD = 1.1×a× √pL × k + tK

Where ,

a = acceleration addition = av = F× m

And ,
v0
F = Co-efficient = F = 0.11
√L

And ,

## Here ,V0 = Velocity of the ship = 11.5 knot

So ,
11.5
F = 0.11 = 0.147
√73.23

Now ,

av = F× m

= 0.147 x 1.0

= 0.147

And , pL = pc × ( 1 + av )

= 31.5 x ( 1 + 0.147 )

= 36.1305 [ KN / m2 ]

tK= 1.5

So , tD = 1.1×a× √pL × k + tK

= 2.47 mm = 3mm

## We can take Thickness of deck plate as 3 mm

12. Dimensions of longitudinal:- (section-9; paragraph –C 3.2; page-166)

a. Deck longitudinal:- Section modulus WL of longitudinal and longitudinal beams of strength deck is
determined by the following formulae :-
83 m2
Wl =
σpr
× (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p [cm3 ] {With(m2k1 − m2a ) ≥ k1
2
}

Where ,

## σpr = permissible local stress [KN/mm2] , defined as :

150
= σperm − | σL | { With σpr ≤ }
k

Here ,

## σperm = total permissible stress [N/mm2]

L 230 230
σperm = ( 0.8 + ) × { With σperm ≤ }
450 k k

73.23 230
σperm = ( 0.8 + ) ×
450 1

= 221.428 KN/mm2

| σL | = 75 (assumed)

So ,
150
σpr = 221.428 - |75| = 146.428 KN/mm2 ; where [ σpr ≤ ]
k

Therefore,
83
WDL = × (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p where, (P = PD = 31.72 KN/m2 )
σ pr

83
= × {(0.99981)2 − (0.161568)2 } × 0.5 × (2.5)2 × 31.72
146.428

= 54.72 cm3

## Hence the dimension of the Deck longitudinal is 100×50×10

b. Bottom longitudinal :- The section modulus of bottom longitudinal should not be less than
83.3
W BL = × (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p where, (P = PB = 64.173)
σ pr

83.3
W BL = × {(0.99981)2 − (0.161568)2 } × 0.5× (2.5)2× 64.173
146.428

= 111.06 cm3

## Hence the dimension of the bottom longitudinal is 120×80×10

c. Side longitudinal:- The section modulus of side longitudinal should not be less than
83.3
W SL = × (m2k1 − m2a ) × a× l2× p where, (P = Ps = 45.113)
σ pr

83.3
W SL = × {(0.99981)2 − (0.161568)2 } × 0.5× (2.9)2× 45.113
146.428

= 105.058

## 13. Centre girder:-

The web thickness tw and the sectional area Af of the face plate within 0.7L amidships are not to be less
than determined by the following formulae

## = 0.07 x73.23 + 5.5

= 10.6261 mm

Af = 0.07× L + 12 [cm2 ]

= 0.07 x 73.23+ 12

= 17.1261cm2

Scantlings:
The depth h of the centre girder is not to be less than determined by the following formula: [ Chapter-1;
section- 8; paragraph- C.2.2.1; page- 146 ]

h = 350 + 45 ∙ l [mm]

hmin = 600

## l : unsupported span [m] of the floor plates, defined as:

l = B in general

l = 0.8∙ B in case of longitudinal side bulkheads, the distance between the bulkheads can be used
as unsupported span

l = B' in case of double bottoms with hopper tanks (e.g. on bulk carriers) the fictitious breadth B'
can be used as unsupported span

However, l ≥ 0.8 ∙ B

## so, h = 350 + 45 × 0.8 × 11.26 [mm]

h = 755.36 mm

The thickness tm of the centre girder is not to be less than determined by the following formulae: [chapter-
1; section-8; paragraph- C.2.2.2; page: 147]
ℎ ℎ
𝑡𝑚 = ( + 1.0 ) √𝑘 [mm] ; for h ≤ 1200 mm
ℎ𝑎 100

ℎ ℎ
𝑡𝑚 = ( + 3.0 ) √𝑘 [mm] ; for h > 1200 mm
ℎ𝑎 120

However, tm ≥ t

## t : plate thickness of the longitudinal girders

ℎ ℎ
so, 𝑡𝑚 = ( + 1.0 ) √𝑘
ℎ𝑎 100

755.36 755.36
𝑡𝑚 = ( + 1.0 ) √1 mm [ha is taken as 790 mm]
790 100

tm = 8.1785 mm

= 10 × 8.1785 mm

= 81.785 mm

We are given,

## 400-450 cm3 – T- 320×200×7

Serial Items Thickness Dimension
Number

## 04 Thickness of Side Shell 8mm

plating
05 Shear Strake 6mm

## 07 Dimension of Webframe T-sec

240×160×6
08 Dimension of Side Stringer T-sec
240×160×6
09 Dimension of deck beam L-sec 100×50×10

178×88×5

## 11 Dimension of deck web T-section

178×88×5
Thickness of Deck plate 3 mm

## 12 Dimension of Deck 100×50×10

longitudinal
Dimension of Bottom 120×80×10
longitudinal
Dimension of Side 130×75×8
longitudinal
13 Dimension of Centre Girder 130×75×8