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HACKING:

Learn Hacking FAST! Ultimate Course Book for Beginners

Gary Mitnick

© 2016

© Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

Third Edition: January 2016

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without prior written permission from the author or copyright holder except in the case of brief quotations embodied in reviews.

Although the author has exhaustively researched all sources to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. Any slights of people or organizations are unintentional. Reader should use their own judgment and/or consult a programming expert for specific applications to their individual needs.

Published by Waxed Publishing

Dedications

For computer nerds and to those who are striving for something more.

Table of Contents

Introduction

FREE BONUS

Chapter 1 – Hacking into the Hacker World What is hacking? The Effects of Hacking in the world Welcome to the Digital World (Hack) Second Method of Entry Welcome to the Digital World (Hack 2) Chapter 2 – Foundations Classifications of Hackers Hacking Tools Run Windows Programs without Installing Them (Hack) Chapter 3 – Ethical Vs. Unethical Ethical Hacking Unethical Hacking Shutdown Timer (Hack) Shutdown Timer (Hack 2) Chapter 4 – Rewards Careers in Hacking Hacking as a Hobby Create a Hidden/Invisible Folder (Hack) Chapter 5 – War, State of Hack Creating a Keylogger (Hack) Protecting Against Keyloggers Further Safety Tips Chapter 6 – Exploring Beyond Programming Languages Command Line Continuous Learning Further Resources FREE BONUS

Conclusion

Introduction

When people hear the word hacking, usually one image stands out in their head, that of a dishonest loner sitting in a messy room taking sips of coffee trying to gain access to something that doesn’t belong to them. As the media portrays it, what else would a hacker do besides try to break into a company’s firewall or break the code to gain access to government files? Over the years the news has been reporting their hacking stories with added over the top nonsense involving car explosions, death threats, and gay porn.

By definition, a hacker is a person who looks for security holes and weaknesses, then exploits them to break into a computer system or network in order to get unauthorized information or to inflict intentional damage, but thinking that hacking is only about breaking into a system with malicious intent misses a large part of what the hacking community is about.

You don’t have to be a bad person to be a hacker and being a hacker does not make you unethical. It does not turn you dishonest it turns you prepared and adds to your online security. We want to invite you to take a look inside this hidden world full of pixels and programs, sided with benefits, challenges, and that awesome feeling of accomplishment. By the end of this book you will have a good feel of what it takes to be a hacker, you will also have the personal knowledge to keep your devices protected from outsiders.

Taking part in this eBook and actively participating is a great way to know if hacking is right for you. You can potentially turn hacking into your new full blown hobby or your next big paycheck career! Either way it goes we want you to enjoy yourself, so let’s soak up these words like a tree soaks up water. Are you ready?

“Being a hacker means making a computer do what you want, whether it wants to or not” - unknown

Chapter 1 – Hacking into the Hacker World

What is hacking?

The word hacking has quite a buzz to it in the online world, and with good reason. Hacking has been around for a long time tracing all the way back to 1878 just 2 years after the phone line was invented, but it wasn’t until the early 1980’s that hacking began to be frowned upon as computers progressed and grew in popularity. In 1983 the first convictions for a computer crime took place, Gerald Wondra and 2 other members of the hacking collective 414 (Timothy D. Winslow and Michael J. Wesolowski) plead guilty to “harassing telephone calls” and were sentenced to 2 years’ probation. At the time, no laws against computer crimes existed, prosecutors struggled to find a criminal charge that fit the crime and harassing telephone calls was the closest thing that could be applied.

Hacking is in its simplest form, the action of looking for security holes and weaknesses (vulnerabilities) in computer systems, networks, and web applications. It requires skills and knowledge of operating systems, databases, and programming languages as well as a participation of continuous learning to implement in the field. Hacking is also known as Penetration Testing or Pen Testing when done ethically or offered as a service from security consultants. The way hacking skills are put to use depend entirely on morals. The term used for ill hacking is subbed “Cracking”.

As technology moves forward and becomes more complex so does hacking. Hacking can be described as a form of art and a way of expression. You have undoubtedly heard of phones, tablets and computers being hacked, but it doesn’t stop there. Here is a short list of things that can be hacked apart from the more traditional devices:

- MacBook batteries – This was discovered by Charlie Miller in 2011. Hacked MacBook batteries had a

possibility of overheating and at worst case scenario one could cause the battery to explode. (Findings were reported to Apple and patched)

- Cars – Vehicle disablement, tire pressure system hacking, and disabling brakes are all possible.

- Computer camera – Webcams may be a great way to stay in touch with friends and family, but they also pose risks of people hacking into them and spying on you.

- ATMs – ATM scams are on the rise worldwide. Statistically, Russia comes in number 1 with the most reported ATM infections followed by the U.S.

- Airport security monitors – Though not impossible with the right credentials and machine, you could upload custom images to cover banned items otherwise seen through x-ray.

- Vending machines – Some are now accepting credit cards. Although unethical to do, old vending machines (early 2000’s models) could still be “hacked” through the old tape on a dollar and sliding out trick.

The Effects of Hacking in the world

Hacking has brought both positive and negative effects to the world. It has improved the online security of online businesses, organizations, and government associations. On the other side of the spectrum, it has cost millions of dollars in damages and repairs such as the case with Sony who in 2011, reported a loss of $170 million due to being hacked. One could however say that because of those damages and repairs, hacking has pushed online security to another level.

Every year annual reports reveal deep financial losses caused to being breached. The amount of the total loss equates to the amount of time and money it took to resolve issues, such as repairs for security systems, addressing lawsuits, and repaying customer losses. While the motives of breaking into a secured network vary from corporate espionage to political insubordination or just plain robbery the personal or political information gained from hacking into other networks can serve as an advantage in a business or political setting. Some companies and organizations steal information from other’s businesses through their secret security operations; they could take anything from private research, business strategies, financial reports, customer information from databases; as well as sabotage competition through deletion of data, anonymous leaks of information or modification of important files.

The act of hacking has contributed to the advancement of online security, which has led to several breakthroughs in software protection. The usual pattern follows as hackers manage to break into a system (ethically or unethically)

which then gets updated and patched, later the improved security then gets hacked again (ethically or unethically) and later updated and patched and the cycle repeats. With every successful infiltration stronger security comes along.

Welcome to the Digital World (Hack)

To receive a big and warm welcome from your computer and officially start the first hack, you will be using your Window’s Notepad application for the following:

1. Open up your Windows Notepad. You can find it by clicking the windows button and searching for “Notepad” on the search bar.

2. In your Notepad type in with exact formatting:

Dim speaks, speech speaks="Welcome to your PC, Username" Set speech=CreateObject("sapi.spvoice") speech.Speak speaks

3. Replace “username” with your name or anything you would like your pc to communicate, for example:

Dim speaks, speech speaks=”Welcome to your PC, Gary

4. Click on File Menu - Save As – “Save as Type” - select “all files”. Save the file as Welcome.vbs

5. After saving, right click and copy this file. 6. Now if you are a

5. After saving, right click and copy this file.

6. Now if you are a windows XP user, navigate to C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\ Programs\Startup.

If you are in Windows 8, Windows 7 or Windows Vista navigate to C:\Users\ {User-Name}\AppData\ Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup

Note: AppData is a hidden folder. So, you will need to select show hidden folders in folder options to locate it.

7. Paste the file that you copied earlier “welcome.vbs” to “\startup”. \Start Menu\Programs\Startup

Perk/achievement: At startup time you will be greeted by your computer. You can customize the message between both parentheses to get a more personal greeting beyond your name.

Second Method of Entry

Alternatively, if you are having trouble for windows 8.0 and above you can access your startup folder by hitting the Window’s button on your keyboard and the “R” key. Hitting Windows+R.

On the new screen which will look like this:

Windows+R. On the new screen which will look like this: Type %appdata% and hit enter. This

Type %appdata% and hit enter. This will take you to “C:\Users\<User-Name>\AppData\Roaming”.

Now navigate to the following “ > Microsoft > Windows > Start Menu > Programs > Startup”

The path should now look like this:

“C:\Users\(Username)\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup”

Right click, and paste your file “Welcome.vbs” here. You should now have a screen similar

Right click, and paste your file “Welcome.vbs” here. You should now have a screen similar to the image above.

On your next computer start up you will enjoy the sound of your amazing computer companion welcoming you with love.

Welcome to the Digital World (Hack 2)

As a third option, you can skip all of the file copy and pasting and get straight to the good stuff. You can get verbal confirmation from your computer and come to an agreement with it (My personal Favorite). Lets start by:

1. Opening up your “Notepad”

2. Type the following as is and with exact formatting:

Dim speaks, speech speaks="You have my consent to hack me. Welcome to the digital world" Set speech=CreateObject("sapi.spvoice") speech.Speak speaks

3.

Click on File Menu - Save As – “Save as Type” - select “all files”. Save the file as “Consent.vbs” to your desktop.

Now find and click “Consent.vbs” on your desktop and hear your compter graciously grant you access to the digital world!

Note: You can replace "You have my consent to hack me. Welcome to the digital world" with anything you’d like your computer to say. Simply repeat steps 1 to 3 and click on the saved file to hear your computer come to life!

Example:

Dim speaks, speech

speaks="Gary mitnick rules and he is awsome. If you receive any value from his book Hacking: Learn Hacking FAST! The Ultimate Course Book for Beginners. Then, I would like to invite you to leave an honest Amazon Review of your experience. It would really mean a lot to both of us."

Set speech=CreateObject("sapi.spvoice")

speech.Speak speaks

Perk/achievment: You now have access to tell your computer what to say and in what tone to say it, as your computer will speak with corresponding Commas and periods placed by you. This is a lot of fun with unsuspecting people and pretty cool to experiment with.

Chapter 2 – Foundations

Classifications of Hackers

There are 3 official names used to classify a hacker and all 3 are based on color or “Hat Color”. Why hat colors? Well there are 2 popular answers:

1. Traditionally, movies that were set back in the wild west times had a cowboy with a white hat who stood for good and a cowboy with a black hat who stood for bad.

2. Final Fantasy games. A white mage heals others while a black mage attacks with harmful magic.

To further classify a hacker, unofficial names are used which go beyond colors.

The Three Official Hat Colors:

• White hat

• Black hat

• Grey hat

Unofficial Hacking Names:

• Blue Hat

• Neophyte

• Script Kiddie

• Organized Criminal Gangs

• Hacktivist

• Nation State

• Elite Hacker

Official Hat Colors

The 3 official names to classify hackers’ types are based on “hat” color. These are the names that are generally most used when it comes to identifying a hacker’s code of ethics.

White Hat

White hats are ethical hackers; they hack with no malicious intents and offer their expertise for legal purposes. White hats are often employed by organizations for identifying security issues and testing purposes. Once employed a white hat hacker (ethical hacker) has authorization to compromise an organization’s computer security system with the objective of informing how they were able to gain access, allowing the organization to improve their defenses. Apart from a signed agreement, various organizations offer a “bug bounty program” where they reward money for responsibly disclosing found vulnerabilities through penetration testing techniques and vulnerability assessments. Being a white hat hacker can earn you a good income by offering your services to the public. Here is a list of notable white hat hackers:

Eric Corley

Przemysław Frasunek

Raphael Gray

Barnaby Jack

Tim Berners-Lee

Black Hat

This is the hacker with the most mainstream media attention. Black hats (unethical hackers) are also referred to as a “Crackers” within the security industry community and can also be viewed as computer or cyber-criminals. They can exploit vulnerabilities found in security systems for personal use or they can sell them on the black market to anyone willing to pay, e.g., criminal organizations. A black hat always operates with malicious intent; they will do things such as:

• Steal credit card numbers

• Create malware

• Sale personal data to identity thieves

• Steal identities

• Commit online vandalism

• Perform harmful attacks on others

Once in control of a security system, a black hat can apply patches or fixes that will allow him to be undetected, from there he can experience freedom to roam the system and/or cause internal damage. The following is a list of notable black hat hackers:

Kevin Poulsen (Dark Dante)

Vladimir Levin

Gary McKinnon

Jonathan James (c0mrade)

Adrian Lamo

Gray Hat

A gray hat stands on the middle ground, participating in both legal and illegal activities depending on their current

objective.

Unofficial Hacker Names

These unofficial hacker names are used inside the computer security community. They can each be inserted into one

of the three official hat colors above (ethical, unethical, or both). These are the most popular unofficial names and

often used beyond the 3 official names.

Blue Hat

Blue hat is a term mostly used by Microsoft. A blue hat is a security leader or professional invited by Microsoft to speak at their annual BlueHat security conference to share their research, perspective, or ideas to help improve or find vulnerabilities in windows. The last held BlueHat conference was dubbed BlueHat V15 and took place in January 12-13, 2016. It was hosted on Microsoft Conference Center 16070 NE 36th St, Redmond, WA 98052 and was invitation only.

“The BlueHat conference is dedicated to educate Microsoft engineers and executives on current and emerging security threats, to help them address security issues in Microsoft products and services and protect customers. BlueHat serves as a great opportunity for us to bring the brightest minds in the security ecosystem together to discuss and tackle some of the biggest challenges facing the industry today.” – Microsoft.

A blue hat hacker can also refer to someone outside computer security consulting firms who are employed to test

bugs in a system before its launch in hopes of finding and closing potential exploits.

Neophyte

Neophyte is a name given to a new hacker who has little to no computer hacking experience or knowledge. It can also be given to a new hacker who shows signs of interest and eagerness to learn.

Script kiddie

A Script Kiddie (also known as a Skiddie) is a hacker with little to no understanding of networking, programming

languages, or operating systems. Their source of power comes from downloading scripts and programs written by experienced hackers to commit attacks or breaches on computer systems and networks, because of this, a script kiddie can be just as dangerous as an experienced black hat. It is also used to label a wannabe hacker who is pretending to hold computer knowledge for the sake of his/her reputation. Script Kiddie’s have reportedly stated “Not every swordsman is a blacksmith”.

Organized Criminal Gangs

Organized cybercrime is rapidly rising, these are the hacking groups who partake in criminal organization activities around the world. Bestselling author and global security strategist Marc Goodman stated in an interview with The Wall Street Journal: “People are choosing this as a profession,” he said. “That’s a radical shift, and it’s led to the creation of increasingly sophisticated criminal organizations that operate with the professionalism, discipline, and structure of legitimate enterprises.”

Hacktivist

A Hacktivist is a hacker who is driven by a political, religious or social motive. They will hack to bring awareness to their cause. Hacktivist have been known to deface websites belonging to governments and groups who oppose their ideology. They are also known to release information that is not publicly accessible to others. Hacktivist hackers can be separated in to two groups: Cyber- Terrorism and Freedom of information.

Nation State

These are intelligence agency’s operatives who operate at nation state level.

Elite Hacker

Elite hackers hold a social status among other hacking groups and are considered the most skilled. They are highly regarded and often imitated. Newly discovered exploits circulate around elite hackers. They are highly experienced and can experiment with new technology being released. They are often referred to as 31337 (Eleet) – 3 is E, 1 is L, and 7 is T.

The following is a list of recognized elite hacker groups:

Hidden Lynx

Anonymous

Syrian Electronic Army (SEA)

Tarh Andishan

Chaos Computer Club (CCC)

Global KOS

The Level Seven Crew

LulzSec

TeaMp0isoN

GlobalHell

Masters of Deception

Network Crack Program Hacker Group

Milw0rm

Stuxnet

Flame operators

Cicada 3301

Equation Group

Croatian Revolution Hackers

CyberVor

Cult of the Dead Cow (cDc or cDc Communications)

Darkode

Decocidio#

Digital DawgPound (DDP)

Hackweiser

Derp

Honker Union

L0pht

Goatse Security (GoatSec)

Level Seven

LulzSec

Legion of Doom

Lizard Squad

Mazafaka

P.H.I.R.M

RedHack

NCPH

TeslaTeam

TESO

UGNazi

The Unknowns

Xbox Underground

YIPL/TAP

Hacking Tools

A hacking tool is a software that can be used for hacking purposes. They are available for both ethical and unethical hacking. Most hackers work from a Linux Box, because it gives them the power to work with both Macs and Pcs. Here are 3 commonly used tools:

Packet Sniffers

This tool is useful to analyze a person’s network or packets of information transmitted over the internet and can retrieve raw information from it. Law enforcement agencies have been known to use Packet Sniffers as part of a warrant.

Scanners

The following are different scanner types with various uses.

- Vulnerability Scanners – they look for vulnerabilities in software. They are often used by Black Hat

Hackers who use them to add Trojan horses and worms to the computer of an unsuspecting user. They can also be used to improve system security.

- Web Application Security Scanners - look for potential security vulnerabilities in web applications by

performing attacks to them. They can also work in a layer between the user and the application to see where the vulnerabilities are when the two parties communicate.

- Port Scanners - are specifically designed to check a server or host for open ports. They can be used to verify security policies of networks and can aid in attacks by identifying services running on a server.

Password Crackers

This is a tool that is used to recover passwords by using previously stored or transmitted data that has been processed by a computer system.

Run Windows Programs without Installing Them (Hack)

Whenever you install a new program it goes straight to your memory and overtime affects the performance of your RAM (Random Access Memory) which will reduce your computer’s speed. I cannot stand slow and laggy computers! I want to share how to prevent this. To achieve this, we are going to use a hacking tool. It is a software called Zero Installer for windows and was developed by Bastian Eicher. By using this tool, you will be able to use applications without the need to install them. Everything will go straight to Zero Installer.

To start off you want to make sure to download Zero Installer. You can download this tool by following this link:

Once installed, this is what Zero Installer will look like:

or visiting https://0install.de/downloads/?lang=en Once installed, this is what Zero Installer will look like:

Note: The first time you open it; you will be greeted by a video demonstrating how to use Zero Installer (I recommend watching it).

• On the “Catalog” section, hit “Refresh list” at the bottom to make sure all of the applications available are up to date and current.

• To test Zero Installer before running anything from it, scroll down the catalog list and find “Mozilla Firefox”. Hit “Run” next to it, and wait for it to download onto Zero Installer.

• Once download is completed “Mozilla Firefox” will pop up and you can use it straight from Zero Installer without it ever being downloaded to your computer.

You can download and use any of the applications found in Zero Installer, simply by hitting “Run” (Only need to download them once on Zero Installer) and nothing will actually be downloaded to your computer, every download will go directly to and stay on Zero installer.

Perk/achievement: You can download software to Zero Installer instead of to your memory. You can also transfer your existing software downloads over to Zero Installer and clean up your device to experience a boost of speed and performance.

Chapter 3 – Ethical Vs. Unethical

Ethical Hacking

Ethical hackers mostly use their knowledge to improve system vulnerabilities. They are hired by companies who are looking to avoid potential damage from cyber-attacks. A hired hacker will break into the system and find potential weaknesses someone else could potentially exploit; from there the hacker can help in the process of improving the system. These hackers are highly sought after and paid handsomely by bigger companies, as they can prevent future damages and loss.

Various ethical hacking companies exist. They offer their hacking teams as a service to search for potential weaknesses and offer solutions to fix problems found. Bigger firms such as Trustwave Holdings Inc. are known to work on “Hacking Laboratories” where they attempt to find security issues that may be present in high risk security point-of -sale devices, and Atms.

Certifications are provided by organizations such as RedHat, Sed Solutions and Sec Institute for ethical users of penetration testing techniques. They are awarded after attending an Accredited Training Center and taking the CEH (Certificate of Ethical Hacker) exam or by having done self-study and equaling 2 years of related work experience.

EC- Council (International Council of Electronic Commerce Consultants) is a professional organization that has developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering different aspects of ethical hacking. According to the EC-Council, there has been an increase of careers where CEH certifications are required or preferred.

Unethical Hacking

If a hacker break’s into a company’s security system without consent, that hacker would have committed a cyber-

crime. There have been reports of hackers who break into systems to offer their services of repair to fix the damage they caused; reports of blackmailing also exist. This is of course illegal and participants could face jail time.

A hacker could choose to break into secured networks and destroy data, corrupt the network and steal sensitive

information from members (if any). Personal motives vary from case to case, the most common are for money, revenge and recognition. Hackers may also try to gain access into your computer system to steal credit card numbers, bank account information, emails and passwords and whatever personal information you may have floating around such as documents, file downloads or pictures and videos.

As an example, if you are a business owner such as Jeff Bezos and own your own “amazon” who earns $600,000 the hour in revenue, you would lose $600,000 for every hour that your website is not operational. Being hacked more than once could also cause customers to flee due to concerns of personal safety being compromised. A loss of reputation would also ensue.

Shutdown Timer (Hack)

This next hack can be used as a productivity tool and could save your battery over the long run. This is a shutdown timer for your PC. It is great to experiment and play around with just like the previous hacks.

Note: If you decide to use this hack to play a prank on a friend, please make sure they have all of their data saved and are not currently working on anything important. If you set a shutdown timer for them and they are working on an unsaved document, they could lose that data.

For this hack, you will be needing your “Notepad” again.

1. Open up your “Notepad” If you forgot how to find it, you can simply press your windows button and search for “Notepad”.

shutdown.exe -s -t 60

shutdown.exe -s -t 60 Note: “60” stands for amount of seconds. You can program your computer

Note: “60” stands for amount of seconds. You can program your computer to shut down at different times by replacing “60” for another amount of seconds. For example, to shut down in 2 minutes you would replace “60” with 120 (there are 120 seconds in 2 minutes), to shut down in one hour you would type in 3600 (there are 3600 seconds in one hour), to shut down in two hours you would replace “60” for 7200 (there are 7200 seconds in 2 hours). You can enter any amount of seconds you wish.

3. Save this file to your desktop as “Shutdown.bat”. Save it using “save as” option.

A batch file will now appear on your desktop. Every time you click on this batch file, the timer will commence for a shutdown based on the amount of seconds you have set. To abort the shutdown, you can easily do so by opening Command Prompt and typing in “shutdown/a” and hitting enter.

To access Command Prompt, you can press the Windows button and the “x” key simultaneously this will open up a menu where you can select “Command Prompt”. Alternatively, you can also access it by pressing the Windows button and searching for “Command Prompt”.

This is how your Command Prompt screen will look like when you decide to cancel your shutdown timer:

A pop-up message will also appear confirming cancelation. Try it out. Set your pc for

A pop-up message will also appear confirming cancelation.

Try it out. Set your pc for shutdown and abort it by using Command Prompt a couple of times. It is very simple to perform and easy to get the hang of after your initial tries.

Perk/achievement: This is Beneficial for large files downloads, watching movies after hours (and falling asleep), and never clicking the shutdown button ever again! Repeat: If you decide to use this as a prank on someone do so with caution by making sure all important files are saved.

Shutdown Timer (Hack 2)

To take it to the next level you can use your “Schedule Tasks” program in your computer as a tool to set a recurring shutdown. This can be set at any specific time you choose. To do this, proceed with the following:

1. Hit the “Windows” button and search for “Schedule Tasks”. Open it up, it will look like this:

“Schedule Tasks”. Open it up, it will look like this: 2. On the “Task Scheduler Library”,

2. On the “Task Scheduler Library”, click on “Create Basic Task”. The following window will pop up:

like this: 2. On the “Task Scheduler Library”, click on “Create Basic Task”. The following window

The rest is very straight forward, but let us proceed together.

3. Give this “Task” a name and a brief description, then hit “Next”.

4. Now for the “Trigger”, select how often and at what time you would like the Shutdown Timer to activate. You can set it to recur at whatever times you want; every 3 days, every 11 days etc. Once you set the time, you can proceed by clicking “Next”.

5. Leave “Action” at “Start a program”, hit next and browse for the “Shutdown.bat” file on your desktop.

6. On the “Finish” section check out the overview of the task you just set and hit “Finish”.

Your PC will now shut down automatically at the recurring time set. To stop this, you can simply find the file on the library section, right-click and hit delete.

Perk/achievement: You can rest assured your PC will shut down on its own from now on. This is great for building a habit of walking away from your computer as soon as it shuts off (to cut electronic time out, if ever needed). It is also great in case you ever forget to shut down your computer or have to leave unexpectedly.

Chapter 4 – Rewards

Careers in Hacking

The job market for hackers is looking extremely good! Since online security is becoming more and more of a pressing concern it is not uncommon to see $50,000 to $100,000 per year in your first years as a certified ethical hacker (with CEH certification). Pay is based on your IT experience and education as well as the terms you negotiate with your client company. You can find different career opportunities in private and government organizations as well as in banking, finance, and defense sectors. You could command more than $120,000 per year after your first initial years of conducting professional service.

The key for a lucrative position is to specialize in either hardware or software while remaining attuned to the functions of both. To be a success, a hacker should remain in touch with the latest innovations of technology in their field.

Hacking as a Hobby

No matter how lucrative it can be, not everyone is interested in making a career out of it. Seasoned hackers may argue that it cannot be treated lightly as it requires different subjects to master to reach a “proficient” level. Depending on ethics, some hackers might enjoy showing others how it’s done, while others might prefer to perform anonymous attacks on networks.

The 10,000-hour rule states, it takes 10,000 hours to master something. It has also been said that the more you progress on a field the easier and more fun it will become. People who hack on their spare time don’t need any motives beyond wanting to experience it and even though mastery level might not be for everyone it doesn’t stop the fun from implementing functions and learning languages!

Create a Hidden/Invisible Folder (Hack)

This is a hack for folders you would rather keep hidden from plain sight. This works great for important documentations such as secret restaurant recipes, password lists, and private pictures/videos.

1. While on your desktop, create a new folder. You can do this by right-clicking > New > Folder.

2. Right-click on the new folder you just created and select “Properties”. On the new window that pops up select “Customize” and hit “Change Icon”.

pops up select “Customize” and hit “Change Icon”. 3. Scroll to the right until you see

3. Scroll to the right until you see a couple of blank icons (see image below) select the one between the golden lock and the magnifying glass and hit “Okay”. Hit “Okay” once more on the next final window.

4. Your new folder should now be like a chameleon. Now right-click and hit “Rename”.

4. Your new folder should now be like a chameleon. Now right-click and hit “Rename”. Delete all of the text, and while holding ALT Press 0160 and hit “Enter”

Your folder will now be completely invisible and its location only known by you. Everything you store inside this folder will be out of sight from peeping eyes. If holding ALT and pressing 0160 did nothing for you, you can proceed with the following:

1. Hit the windows key on your keyboard and search for “Character Map”

2. On “Character Map” click on the blank space, hit “Select”, then follow up by pressing “Copy”. Exit “Character Map”

Map” click on the blank space, hit “Select”, then follow up by pressing “Copy”. Exit “Character

3.

Go back to your invisible folder and rename the file again, delete the text and paste the invisible character. Your folder should now be completely invisible.

Perk/achievement: You can now further secure your personal documentations by creating invisible folders in any of your drives. The location of these folders will only be known by you, giving you more privacy and advantages on shared accounts.

Chapter 5 – War, State of Hack

Creating a Keylogger (Hack)

A key logger is a type of surveillance software and spyware that is able to remember and record keystrokes on a log file. It can record any information typed from your keyboard such as emails, social media messages, passwords, search engine searches, and so on. Employers use key loggers as a surveillance tool to ensure their employees use computers for work purposes only. Key loggers can also be embedded in spyware which would allow information received from the key-logger to be transmitted to an unknown third party.

The following is a simple yet effective modification you can do to test the functions of a key logger. Let’s get started.

1. In your windows PC, start by opening your Notepad. You can find it by searching “Notepad” on your windows start page.

2. Once opened, copy and paste or type the following exactly as is into your Notepad:

@echo off

color a

title Login

cls

echo Please Enter Your Email Address And Password echo. echo.

cd

“C:\Logs”

set

/p user=Username:

set

/p pass=Password:

echo Username=”%user%” Password=”%pass%” >> Log.txt

start >>Program Here<< exit

This is what your notepad should now look like:

exit This is what your notepad should now look like: Now save this text file to

Now save this text file to your desktop as “Logs.bat”.

3.

The next step in to create a new folder. Right click anywhere on your desktop wallpaper, select “New”, and then “Folder”. Name this new folder: “logs”.

4. Now right click on the “logs” folder you just created and select “Cut”, then open up your “Drive C:/” in your computer.

Drive C:/ will look like this:

C:/” in your computer. Drive C:/ will look like this: Now paste the “logs” folder you

Now paste the “logs” folder you just “Cut” and paste it onto your Drive C:/.

Drive C:/ will look like this: Now paste the “logs” folder you just “Cut” and paste

This will add the “logs” folder with the rest of your system files (see image above).

5. Now go back to the “Logs.bat” text file you originally created.

It will look like so:

text file you originally created. It will look like so: Open “logs.bat” to proceed to the

Open “logs.bat” to proceed to the following screen:

so: Open “logs.bat” to proceed to the following screen: Note: Your screen will not show my

Note: Your screen will not show my name.

To test this out, type whatever information you want to on the username and password fields. It does not matter what you type. After hitting “Enter” a new text file will be created and appear onto your desktop and on your “logs” folder in your Drive C:/.

Now if you followed along this guide you will have noticed how quickly this new

Now if you followed along this guide you will have noticed how quickly this new file appeared. The time it took for

this “login information” to be transmitted onto your desktop is just as quick as if a third party had just received it. Your information would now be in their hands, but this can only happen if a key logger is already installed on your computer. The following section will discuss how to check if any key loggers are present in your computer system

as well as how to avoid, detect, and remove them.

Protecting Against Keyloggers

Having data transferred out of your network through key loggers without your knowledge can lead to several personal issues such as identity theft, credit card fraud, and even social media humiliation. It is important to remove any detectable spyware found as soon as possible to avoid further personal breaches. Here are a couple of things you can apply to your system to defend against key loggers and spyware:

Firewall

A firewall is a software barrier that is designed to protect your private resources and prevent unauthorized network

traffic. They block off ports of access on your computer and require administrative privileges to access resources. It

is recommended as an added security measure to protect against cyber-theft.

Software Updates

Software updates are crucial for maintaining the safety and security of any application. Updating your software as soon as updates are available will lower your risk of potential damages from new vulnerabilities being discovered.

Avoid Public Networks

Keep public network use at a minimum. Spyware can be previously installed on public routers which would grant them access to connected devices. Avoid the use of public networks all together if possible to avoid the risk. Your online security should be the most important aspect while traveling.

Detecting and Removing Keyloggers

What about if your computer has already been key logged or has hidden spyware running? Well, you can easily check by using “Task Manager” and “Control Panel”. Please follow these steps:

1. On your windows start page search for “Task Manager”. Alternatively, you can press Shift+Alt+Delete to

access it.

2. In the top left corner of your “Task Manager” window, select “Processes”.

3. Now scroll down until you come across either “winlogon.exe” or “Windows Logon Application”. If more

than one copy exists, the copy is a key logger.

For example, “Windows Logon Application” or “Winlogon.exe” (depending on your version of windows) should be the only file with that name. If you find another file with the same name and a (1) added to it such as “Windows Logon Application(1)” or “Winlogon(1).exe” it would be a key logger and should be removed immediately.

4.

To eliminate the key logger, you can do so by right clicking the (1) file and selecting “End Task”.

A key logger can sometimes be pre-installed and hidden on programs that are downloaded from unofficial sources. Chances are you may have stumbled upon and have downloaded one yourself during the course of your computer usage. To check for any potential spyware, proceed with the following:

1. Open up your “Control Panel”, you can find it by searching “Control Panel” on your windows start page.

2. Select “Uninstall a program”. It will be under the “Programs” heading. This will take you to a list of currently installed programs on your computer.

3. Take a careful look at this list, scroll from top to bottom and bottom to top. If you find an unrecognizable program and do not recall installing it, the best option is to right click and select “Uninstall”.

By following this advice, you will have removed any detectable spyware that may have been previously installed on your computer.

Further Safety Tips

Being proactive and taking precautions with your security, it is the best way to stay safe online. Here are a few tips you could implement to increase your online security:

Computer Safety

You should make sure your external usb hard drive has more space than your computer does, preferably twice as much space, this will enable you to store more than one backup along with any future computer updates. As soon as you plug in your device (usb external hard drive), windows will automatically ask if you would like to use it as a backup device. Alternatively, you can search for “Backup” on your windows start page and select “Backup and Restore” while having your device connected. You will now be able to restore your files if the unexpected happens.

2. Avoid unsecured websites. People may try to gather your information or attack your computer from an infected site. Here are 3 quick tips to avoid potentially unsafe websites:

• Don’t open or click on attachment links inside an unknown email sent to you. Type it in to your web browser instead. If you do however choose to follow email links from an unrecognized source, you can safely do so by first checking the destination of it by checking the “Properties” before navigating through it. You can do this by right-clicking on it and selecting “Properties”.

• Carefully read the URL of the website you are trying to access. Fake websites with similar names are waiting on typos to occur to phish unsuspecting people in. These websites will often be disguised to look like the real deal. Take a look at the image below of a website pretending to be Facebook asking for your login details. Filling out your log in details here would give away all information associated with your account.

for your login details. Filling out your log in details here would give away all information

• If a website has offers that look too good to be true, it could be a fraud. Search for reviews from previous members and check for any scams associated with that website. A quick google search will help you out tremendously.

A secured website will always start with http”s” (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secured) . The “s” in http”s” stands for secure and is using an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) connection. This means your information will be encrypted before it is sent out to a server. Not to be mistaken for http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) without an “s”. When you are navigating through a secured website an image of a lock will appear on your web browser. The location of the lock will depend on what web browser you are currently using. The following image is from Google’s web browser Google Chrome:

image is from Google’s web browser Google Chrome: By hovering over this lock you will be

By hovering over this lock you will be able to view more information about the website you are on. You can also set up your web browser’s settings to filter out unsecured websites.

3. Routinely change your passwords. Use strong passwords and don’t use the same password on all of your accounts. This will decrease the chances of identity theft happening to you and add more security onto all your personal accounts. A good option is to use a software called LastPass they offer a free membership where you can safely store all of your passwords which are then saved to the cloud. Though nothing is 100% secure, LastPass is the best option available to store passwords online. Alternatively, you can manually keep your passwords on a piece of paper that is only accessible to you. I personally feel safer storing my passwords on LastPass, it takes away the hassle of entering passwords all the time and at worst case scenario they are held responsible for any damages that may happen.

Network Safety

1. Make sure your Wi-Fi network is encrypted. The password should be difficult to guess. The strongest router security is WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2). If you are using WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) or WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) you might want to consider and upgrade as part of an improved encryption. WPA2 provides government grade security and it is for both personal and enterprise use. WPA2 is also backwards compatible with WPA.

2.

Change the name of your SSID (Service Set Identifier). This will increase the difficulty of a hacker trying to break into your network. Do not use your name or your family’s name to avoid being identified as the owner of the network. Many manufacturers originally have their name listed as your SSID as default, which makes it easier for somebody to gain unauthorized access simply by knowing the name of where it came from.

3. Keep your router’s firmware up to date. Install new updates as soon as they are available. It may be wise to visit the manufactures website for release dates and information.

4. Place your router in a way that will not leak out internet access outside of your home (it is usually the center of your home).

5. Turn off your internet modem when you are expecting to be out of your home network for an extended period of time.

Mobile Safety

Take the same precautions on your mobile device as you do on your computer.

1. Set a strong password for your home screen. Whether a pattern or a pin it will make it a lot harder for somebody trying to access your content. It will also protect your information if your phone is ever lost or stolen.

2. Only shop on secured websites that begin with https, “s”. This applies to any website while navigating on any device. https means a website took more protective measures to be secure.

3. App’s settings often change after updates. Check your app’s settings periodically to make sure your private content is not being accessed when you would rather not have it be.

4.

Update your software. Software updates are mainly released to address security vulnerabilities on a system. They will also often contain bug fixes and program enhancements.

5. Anti- virus software is not as important on smartphones as it is on computers as long as you download apps only from the approved app marketplaces that are run by Apple (IOS devices), Google (Android devices), or Microsoft (Window devices).

6. Don’t store anything on your phone or tablet that you don’t want others to see. This will reduce the amount of damage someone can do if they were to somehow access the content inside your phone. A good tip is to use a vault app. Although the best ones require a paid subscription, they do a great job with their sophisticated privacy tools at storing private information such as apps and pictures you may not want others to know about.

Chapter 6 – Exploring Beyond

Did you know Mark Zuckerberg got his start as a hacker before starting Facebook? Hacking can lead to real change, especially if kept moral and ethical. If you wish to explore further, consider the following.

Programming Languages

A programming language is a constructed language (conlang) designed to allow us humans to communicate instructions to a computer machine. Programs can be created through the use of programming languages to control and express computer behaviors and algorithms. Traits that determine a programming language are: Function and Target, Abstractions, and Expressive Power. The best thing to do is to learn the languages that work with the kind of hacking you want to do. For example, if you are interested in the fast growing mobile industry, you would need to learn about app programming, which is largely done with IOS (Apple) and Android (Google) programming. Apple products may be wildly popular, but more people actually own Android devices. If you want to pick a single mobile focus, Android devices are geared more towards beginners. Apple devices are more complex.

https://www.codecademy.com/ is a free interactive website that you can use to learn the basics to a fairly large number of programs. The programming languages that will provide the most value starting off are:

• HTML & CSS – You can learn how to design and build websites from scratch through HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) & CSS (Cascading Style Sheet). HTML is the skeleton of a website, while CSS keeps information in proper display format. By using HTML & CSS you can style and structure your websites.

• JavaScript – Commonly referred to as JS, is a programming language that allows interaction in webpages and was created specifically for web use. Knowledge in HTML & CSS would be best before attempting to learn Java script, as java script cannot run independently and must always be included with HTML files.

• Python – Python is considered a high level programming language; it is one of the most powerful programming languages out there. Python programmers are sometimes referred to as Pythonistas. Many users choose to use python for its ability to run programs immediately, its software quality and its developer productivity options. Some websites that are written in Python include Google, Yahoo Maps, YouTube, and Shopzilla.

• PHP – PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a programming language that can be used for web development and is most commonly used for building web based software applications. It allows interaction with databases to take place as well as the sending and receiving of cookies. It is used on more than 250 million websites.

Command Line

Command line is a text based program which allows you to pass commands over to your operating system (OS). It is an important programming tool you can use to run programs, write scripts and combine commands to handle difficult tasks. Finding your command line depends on what operating system you are using. Why should you care about command line? Well writing tools for interaction on command line is usually much quicker than any GUI (Graphic User Interface) equivalent and command line experience is great to possess if you plan on getting started with programming or plan to work in the IT field. However, with Windows PowerShell starting to take over, Windows command prompt is slowly phasing out.

Command Prompt On Windows PC

Command Prompt (cmd.exe or just cmd) is Windows command line and it is sometimes referred to as DOS. Command prompt gives you raw access to your Windows tools such as exploring files, creating files in directories, copying files etc.

How to Find Your Command Prompt

1.

Press the Windows key and X at the same time. This will open a menu over your Windows start button. Find and click on “Command Prompt”.

2. A second way to access Command Prompt is to press Shift + Right click while on your desktop or inside any folder and select "Open Command Window Here".

3. A third option is to simply search for it on your Windows start page. You can search for any of the following: cmd, command prompt, or command line.

Continuous Learning

Continuous learning is one of the greatest things you can apply to your life to help you achieve your overall objective. Through constant learning and implementation of new information you will experience growth that will affect the way you think and act. Remove “I already know that” from your vocabulary and be curious if you are not already. Learning about computers through a continuous learning mindset will allow you to see results come in more quickly as opposed to dabbling with information here and there. Though a great mindset to have, at this level, learning requires time and effort, it has to be a decision to want to learn. One of the greatest aspects of possessing a continuous learning mindset is the experience of sensing your behavior and perception change as new ways of thinking, new skills, and new knowledge start to develop.

Further FREE Resources

Codeacademy.com - http://bit.ly/1nv8Zto

Hacking on Study.com - http://bit.ly/1PhkWwY

Cybrary.it - http://bit.ly/1K7koWf

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Conclusion

The information that was provided in this book is meant to help people better understand the way hackers operate and to dispel the myth that hacking is only an illegal activity. Hacking can be used in helpful ways, and we want to highlight the many different ways people can apply hacking to improve different aspects of their lives. We hope you choose to use the knowledge in this book ethically. This book is meant to be both educational and entertaining. Please use it responsibly and for the betterment of humanity. Every attempt has been made to provide accurate, up to date, and reliable and complete information. The act of learning to hack can be an extremely rewarding experience and we urge readers to do so if they find an area that has peaked their interest. If you find that you love the programming aspect of hacking, you could become a developer and do something completely unrelated to hacking. Creating video games is both inventive and creative. Or coming up with a new app based on what you saw as a hacker can really earn you a nice monthly paycheck without having to work for anybody. We wish you the best of luck, until next time.

– Gary Mitnick

TOR:

Access Deep Web Activity FAST! Quick Guide to deep web, Hiding I.P address, blocking NSA spying and more!

Gary Mitnick

© 2016

© Copyright 2016. All rights reserved.

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without prior written permission from the author or copyright holder except in the case of brief quotations embodied in reviews.

Although the author has exhaustively researched all sources to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the information contained in this book, we assume no responsibility for errors, inaccuracies, omissions, or any inconsistency herein. Any slights of people or organizations are unintentional. Reader should use their own judgment and/or consult a programming expert for specific applications to their individual needs.

Published by Waxed Publishing

Table of Contents

Introduction Chapter 1:

What is Deep Web? What is Tor? Tor Browser Basics Tor Legal FAQs Is Tor safe in 2016? Safety Tips for browsing Tor Chapter 2: TOR and VPNS What is a Virtual Private Network? What is the difference between TOR and VPNs? Other protocols that can access the Deep Web #1: I2P #2: Freenet Chapter 3: Setup for Tor browser Setting up Tor on Windows OS How to setup Tor on Linux How to setup Tor browser on Debian/Ubuntu platforms How to setup Tor on Redhat/Fedora platforms How to setup Tor on Mac OS X Chapter 4: Further Resources Conclusion

Introduction

Let’s face it—we’re living in an era that’s defined by free-flowing information, thanks to the fast-paced, ever- evolving internet. Today’s internet users can access any information they want within the flash of a second. While the internet has significantly expanded the capabilities of users to share knowledge, it has also made privacy to be more problematic with regard to issues of personal data privacy and other activities while online.

As a matter of fact, there are always unseen “online eyes” everywhere. From government agencies (that can track your online movements) to big corporations that may want to target you with their ads, privacy has become a buzzword in internet security.

In this atmosphere of internet security and privacy concerns, deep web technologies are becoming a topic of discourse and notoriety. Over the past few years, we’ve witnessed significant shifts—both positive and negative— in how technologies used in the deep web have evolved. The technologies that have continued to define this industry are Tor, I2P, and Freenet.

However, when it comes to adoption of deep web technology for browsing, one thing’s for sure: Tor has always led the way. Just like many underground technologies on the internet both the Deep Web and Tor technologies continue to be shrouded in mystery. Truth Be told—there’s still a lot of misinformation about Tor and Deep Web activities.

So, why should you learn how to use the Tor browser?

It’s simple.

To bring to light about what activities are conducted on the Deep Web and how the Tor browser can help you remain safe while online. In a nutshell, this primer will resolve all the misinformation and mysteries that you’ve heard about the Deep Web and Tor browsing.

The internet security is evolving very fast—really fast! If you’re an internet user who isn’t bothered about your privacy, then you’ll be left in the dust. Learning how to use TOR will help you remain anonymous while online so that your privacy is guaranteed. Let’s get started.

Chapter 1: Fundamentals

Welcome to the world of Deep Web and Tor!

This chapter introduces you to the ins and outs of Deep Web and Tor. By the end of the chapter, you should have a bigger picture view of all that’s required to promote anonymity and privacy with your online communications.

Are you ready?

Let’s begin with the most important question of them all—what is Deep Web?

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What is Deep Web?

I know the term Deep Web—sometimes called Dark Web—may sound ominous if you’re coming across it for the first time. Well, don’t get scared. Let me explain what it means.

What we usually refer to as the internet (or the web for that matter)—and which can be accessed by search engines—is just a tip of the iceberg. Beneath it is a vast and unexplored “ocean” of data we call the Deep Web. Whenever you surf the internet, you’re just floating at the surface of this ocean of information.

However, when you dive deeper and below the web, you’ll find tons of information—immeasurable number—that majority of internet users have never accessed! The information you get from Deep Web may include anything—from the lackluster statistics to confidential government records.

The reason why the Deep Web content can’t be accessed on most search engines is that they aren’t indexed. But here’s a fact— the vast majority of the Deep Web Has valuable information. For instance, among the world’s largest databases—such as the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the NASA—can’t be found on normal search engines such as Google, Yahoo or Bing.

However, such information can be accessed on Deep Web. Put simply, deep web is the content of databases that for one reason or the other can’t be indexed by normal search engines such as Google, Yahoo or Bing.

I know you’re now thinking, “How can I access such content?”

Good question.

That’s where the Tor browser comes in.

What is Tor?

Tor—the Onion Router—is a free open source software that allows internet users to improve their privacy and security while online by masking their IP addresses. Developed as a browser by the Tor Project—a non-profit making organization which campaigns for promotion of anonymity and privacy on the internet—Tor uses a technology that’s commonly called the onion routing to obscure online information about an internet user.

Tor has been accepted in the United States government—from which it receives the bulk of its funding— which views it as a tool that fosters democracy in authoritarian states such as North Korea. The system helps to hide your online identity by moving your traffic across the different Tor servers through encryption that can’t be traced back to you.

Ideally, anyone who attempts to see traffic coming from your computer will see the random nodes on the Tor network rather than your computer. In other words, the Tor browser allows you to route your internet traffic through several computers in the Tor system so that the receiving end of the connection doesn’t trace the traffic back to you. That’s how it promotes your privacy and anonymity.

Tor Browser Basics

I know you’re thinking, “How does the Tor Browser work to promote privacy and anonymity?”

Before we dive deeper into how Tor browser routes information on the internet, it’s important to learn a few basics about the normal internet operates.

The web or the internet—in its most fundamental description— is simply series of connections that are created between computers across the globe. When there was no internet, computers were isolated, therefore; they couldn’t communicate with each other. Advances in technology have enabled networks to link billions of computers worldwide.

Some of the computers that are connected to the internet stores data such as Google, Bing or Yahoo. These computers are commonly known as “servers.”Any connected device—such as a desktop computer, laptop, or smartphone— that uses transmission channels to access data stored on the servers is called a “client.” The transmission channel can either be guided—such as copper wires or fiber optic cables— or wireless signals. Whether guided or wireless transmissions—they are connections.

Now, even though the clients initiate the connections to get data stored on the servers, the flow of information goes both ways. In other words, the server can initiate the communication to the clients to trace the traffic of information. It’s also instructive to note that data is exchanged between the clients and servers in the form of packets which contains both the client and server information.

This makes the internet insecure. Why?

Certain internet users and organizations can use the packets being transmitted between the client and server to “spy” on certain things that you’re accessing from the web. But it’s just not that alone. These days, traffic analysis is a booming business. Many firms—both private and government—are analyzing online traffic to either track online movements or promote their ads online.

The Tor browser flips this model of the internet on its head.

The Tor network contains “volunteer” computers that act as nodes. Just like normal internet uses nodes to route packets across the internet, the Tor network uses the “volunteer” nodes to route packets instead of normal nodes. Whenever a Tor internet user accesses a website, his/her packets don’t simply route to the server. Instead, the Tor

network creates a dedicated path—what’s commonly called circuit-based switching—through the randomly assigned volunteer nodes for the packets to use to reach the server.

Another significant difference between the normal internet and the Tor network is how the packets are presented. In the normal internet, the packet contains both the client and the server’s IP addresses. However, when using the Tor network the internet packets are encapsulated into successive layers of the packets, much like a nesting doll.

Whenever you send packets using the Tor browser, the topmost layer directs it to the initial router—volunteer node—which is the first stop of the connection. While in the initial router, the first layer is taken off from the packet. The next layer informs the initial router to send the packet to the second router. However, the initial router doesn’t know anything about the ultimate destination of the packet.

It only knows that the packet was routed to the second router. The second router will peel off the next layer of the packet and the process continues (the same way the onion is peeled) until the message is delivered to its final destination.

What’s important to know is that at each stop, the router only knows the available packet—the last location the packet was, and its next destination. There’s no node in the Tor network that will know the complete path to the destination. This means that no one can observe the data that’s being sent from the client to server. And that’s how the Tor network conceals your online privacy and anonymity.

But that’s not the only function of the Tor browser. Besides protecting your online privacy and enhancing your anonymity statues while browsing, the Tor network also helps you to access massive portion of the internet that we’ve defined earlier as the Deep Web. Remember, the data contained in the Deep Web isn’t indexed; therefore popular search engines can’t access it.

How can I use the Tor Network to access the Deep Web?

Keep reading.

The Tor network allows the clients to conceal their status by configuring the server to link up with the Tor workstations using the Tor relay. The server doesn’t need to provide its IP address and so does the client. Instead, the Tor network uses the onion address—a 16 character code that a client has to enter instead of the conventional URL. Now, the concealed pages on the Tor network contain one of the most famous Deep Web data that’s only accessed through the Tor protocols.

Are there any drawbacks of using Tor?

Of course, yes!

While your information is encrypted with strong cryptographic algorithms along each of the relay Tor servers, the final link point—the last server—can be compromised if your site isn’t using SSL or HTTPS. This means that

malicious internet users can still get hold of data that you are transmitting on the network. Again, the Tor protocol has been known to slow down the browsing process. This is because of the numerous hops that the data in transit is relayed through in the Tor network.

But one fact remains elusive despite the positives of the Tor protocol. Many internet users have continued to misuse it. Let me elaborate.

This protocol was developed by the Tor project with the assistance of the US Navy. Therefore, it is still considered by many democratic governments—the US included—as an avenue to open up democratic space in authoritarian states. However, many internet users such as political dissidents, criminals, and even journalists have been using the Tor network to perform criminal activities. Therefore, if you’re a Tor user, you may be earmarked as a criminal where your online activities will be always monitored.

Below are the Tor legal FAQs:

Tor Legal FAQs

#1: How is Tor network different from other proxy servers?

A conventional proxy provider creates a server within one of the nodes in the network to route your traffic. The

server that’s created provides a simple architecture that’s easy to maintain. All the internet users will enter and leave

at the same proxy server. In fact, you don’t have to install any software. All you need is to point your browser to the

proxy server. In turn, you may be charged for using the proxy server.

On the other hand, the Tor network bypasses your online traffic through at least 3 different servers before routing it on to the final destination. Since there’s a distinct layer of encryption in each transmission, no internet user can read

or even modify your data on the Tor network. Your traffic will always be encrypted whenever it’s accessed somewhere on a volunteer node.

Good question.

#2: Who owns Tor?

Initial research on onion routing was sponsored by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory way back in the 1990’s. The TOR network was developed by the Navy and other independent researchers in 2002. The TOR protocol has continued to be improved and updated under the Tor project—an independent and non-profit making organization in the US. Today, the Tor Protocol is an open source— any internet user can access the source code and integrate it into their software.

Of course, yes!

#3: Can I redistribute Tor?

The Tor browser is open source software, therefore; you have all the rights to redistribute the software in either unmodified or modified versions. Still, you’re expected to adhere to its license agreements. Ideally, what this means is that you should include the Tor’s initial license file with any Tor version that you’d like to redistribute.

#4: Is the Tor network secure?

It’s a fact that security and anonymity while online are both sides of the same coin. The Tor network was originally intended to provide anonymity and security. However, since confidential documents were leaked by Edward Snowden—a former NSA contractor—nearly all autonomous encryption systems have become suspicious, including the Tor network.

But just like all networks are vulnerable to attacks, the Tor Protocol isn’t an exception. But here’s a fact—the probability of breaking the Tor protocol or performing traffic analysis is almost zero. In fact, the Tor browser is still ranked as one of the most secure browsers in 2016. As a result of this achievement, it has become the catchphrase for a majority of anti-surveillance systems.

#5: Can I install the Tor browser on my mobile phone?

You can download and install the Tor browser (It’s called Orbot) on Android smartphones. It’s developed and maintained by the Guardian Project. There are still no supported versions of the Tor browser on an iOS device. But, the good news is that the Guardian Project is working on this. So, you’ll be able to download and install Tor browser on iOS devices in future.

#6: How can I download the Tor browser if the Tor’s website is blocked in my country?

Good question!

Some governments (especially authoritarian ones) and corporate institutions may block connections to the Tor’s website. If this is the case, then you have 3 options. First, you can get it from a friend who has already downloaded on a USB flash disc or any secondary storage device. Second, you can use the Google cache—what Google uses to judge whether a web page is a good match for a search query or not—for the Tor mirror servers to check if any of the downloaded versions works for you.

Third and finally, you can download the Tor browser using your e-mail account. Just login to your email account and send an email togetTor@Torproject.org. However, you should specify which Operating system you’re using in the body of the email message. Once you send the message, you’ll receive a reply with links to cloud

services—Dropbox—and download the version of your Tor browser. Whenever you’re downloading the Tor browser, always ensure to check the signature of the URL address, particularly if the URL is different from the official Tor’s website.

#7: Is using the TOR browser illegal?

Well, just accessing the internet while using the Tor browser isn’t illegitimate. Remember, the Tor browser is free and open source—meaning you can download and install on your computer. Using the Tor browser to hide your IP address and the browsing history is also not illegal. However, using the Tor browser to remain anonymous and do illegal activities constitutes unlawful use of the Tor browser.

#8: Can I contact Tor developers in case I have to ask?

No.

The Tor developers are always available to answer technical questions. However, since most of them are not lawyers, they may not provide sound legal advice with regard to the use of the Tor browser. They may also not prevent illegal activities of malicious internet users who’d like to use the Tor browser. If you have any legal question to ask, you can contact info@eff.org to seek for clarifications on any legal issue concerning the use of Tor browser.

#9: Will I get in trouble for running a Tor relay in my country?

No.

Truth be told—all the new technologies that have been developed have created disruptions and other uncertainties. Therefore, Tor isn’t an exception. Unless you’re using Tor for illegal activities on the internet, you shouldn’t be worried about running Tor relay in your country.

#10: Can I snoop on plaintext data that’s exits from my Tor relay?

No.

The fact that you can technically modify the Tor source code or even install additional software on your computer shouldn’t give you the authority to snoop on the plaintext files that are passing through your computer. You shouldn’t tap into other users’ communications because this may constitute a criminal activity.

Is Tor safe in 2016?

The debate as to whether the Tor network is still safe has been trending for quite some time. It’s a fact that some of the Tor specialized servers have been compromised in recent times by government law enforcement institutions as a

result of the takedown of the first Silk Road—an online black market that used the Tor network to sell illegal drugs in the US.

In fact, several websites that were operating on the Tor networks have been closed down through joint operations of the US Department of Justice and other European law enforcement agencies. To a majority of internet users, the fact that websites operating on the Tor network can be closed by government means that the Tor network isn’t safe in

2016.

Actually, proponents of this school of thought believe that since the Tor protocol is “centralized”, it can easily be compromised since all the attackers need to do is to extract the unexpired signing keys on the Tor network. Some of the limitations and risks that have been raised with regard to the Tor network are:

#1: The exit servers can still be sniffed!

As we have mentioned earlier, packets that are routed through the Tor network goes through randomly assigned servers before they exit from the network. What the Tor network provides while routing these packets is to make it impossible for nodes between the client and the destination server to know the contents of the packets being transmitted.

But here’s the fact— majority of the Tor Traffic will ultimately emerge from the Tor protocol. Take the case of connecting to Google, for instance. When you want to connect to Google through the Tor network, your packets will go through several Tor relays. But at the end of the connection, the packets must leave the Tor network, where you actually connect to Google. The last Tor server where the packets leave the Tor network to enter the normal internet can be modified, therefore; compromising the security of the communication.

#2: JavaScript and other installed plug-ins can leak your IP address

Whenever you install the Tor browser on your computer, the Tor will be pre-configured with its most secure settings—the JavaScript and other plug-ins will be disabled by default. In fact, the browser will warn you if you try to download files and open them in other applications.

While JavaScript isn’t much of a security risk in most systems, trying to hide your IP address using the Tor network may expose your IP address to third-party nodes on the Tor network. As a matter of fact, all these applications—whether JavaScript, Adobe Flash or external apps such as Video Player—can leak your IP address to websites that attempt to access it. As a mitigating measure, you should always leave the Tor browser’s secure settings intact. If you use the Tor with other browsers, some websites can get access to your IP address.

What about the security pros of the TOR network?

It’s no secret that the probability of breaking the Tor protocol or performing traffic analysis is almost zero. That’s why the Tor browser is still ranked as one of the most secure browsers in 2016. As a result of this achievement, it has become the catchphrase for a majority of anti-surveillance systems. The fact that there’s no node in the Tor network that will know the complete path to the destination means that the communication will always be secure.

Safety Tips for browsing Tor

The fact that the Tor network can secretly help you route your packets on several nodes while masking your IP address isn’t in doubt. However, the Tor itself can’t provide foolproof privacy and security if you don’t know how to browse securely with the Tor browser. It’s just like carrying the umbrella. For you to protect yourself from rain, you have to know how to open it and hold it correctly.

For you to continue keeping your privacy and security in control with the Tor network, you have to learn the safety tips. So, what are the safety tips for browsing Tor?

Let’s dive in.

#1: Always update your system

The Tor client is software that runs on top of your OS. Therefore, the Tor protocol is only safe and secure if you regularly update the OS and other secured Tor applications such as the browser and email clients. If your OS isn’t updated, then there are high chances that attackers will get hold of it. If such attackers can get hold of the OS on your PC, then even the Tor network will be compromised. Therefore, ensure that your OS and the Tor browser are updated on a daily basis.

#2: Don’t use the HTTP websites on Tor network

The Tor network is only a traffic router. As a matter of fact, it isn’t an encryption tool. It can only anonymize the source of the communication by encrypting everything that’s inside the Tor network. However, it doesn’t encrypt the internet traffic that’s outside your network. Therefore, the exit nodes on the Tor protocol can be seriously compromised as we mentioned earlier.

That’s why it’s vital to use SSL or TLS (HTTPS) when accessing sensitive and confidential online communications. You should also consider installing add-ons that automatically use HTTPS while browsing.

#3: Do encrypt the data storage

Again, the Tor network can only anonymize your web traffic’s origin location. However, it can’t secure your local data that’s stored on your computer. Besides using the Tor network to route your internet traffic, you should encrypt your local data to achieve maximum security.

#4: Always disable the JavaScript, the Flash and Java on your browser

Whenever you install the Tor browser on your computer, the Tor will be pre-configured with its most secure settings—the JavaScript and other plug-ins will be disabled by default. In fact, the browser will warn you if you try to download files and open them in other applications.

While JavaScript isn’t much of a security risk in most systems, trying to hide your IP address using the Tor network may expose your IP address to third-party nodes on the Tor network. As a matter of fact, all these applications—whether JavaScript, Adobe Flash or external apps such as Video Player—can leak your IP address to websites that attempt to access it. As a mitigating measure, you should always leave the Tor browser’s secure settings intact. If you use the Tor with other browsers, some websites can get access to your IP address.

#5: Don’t use P2P

The P2P is unnecessary protocol in the Tor network. This is because it is not built for the peer-to-peer file sharing networks. The exit nodes of the Tor Network are always set to block file sharing traffic. Therefore, you’ll be abusing the Tor network if you download the Torrents with P2P systems. In fact, using the Tor protocol with the BitTorrent is a threat to your privacy and online anonymity.

#6: Always erase the cookies on your system

The Tor network routes your internet traffic through other servers in order to protect you from government and traffic corporate traffic analysis. But websites can use other approaches such as the cookies and the local data storage to monitor your online activities so that they detect your real identity. That’s why it is a must that you erase any cookies or local data that’s stored on your computer to protect your privacy. You may also ponder installing add-ons such as the Self-Destructing Cookies to automatically delete the cookies on your system.

#7: Don’t use the Google search engine

Don’t use Google to search the Internet if you want to remain anonymous and improve your privacy. Truth be told—Google has been collecting information on the user's’ browsing history and the search data to enhance the growth of its ads sales. Therefore, you’ll be compromising your anonymity status and privacy if you use Google for searching.

So, what’s the alternative?

Consider using alternatives such as the Startpage and the DuckDuckGo. These services will provide you with search capabilities without logging your IP address. Besides, they won’t store cookies on your local computer, therefore promoting your anonymity and privacy while using the Tor network.

#8: Always stay on the Deep Web

As I mentioned earlier, the exit nodes in Tor network can be compromised especially if your website isn’t using SSL or HTTPS. Therefore, the simplest way to stay out of this challenge is to use the hidden internet services that are

provided by the Tor network itself. When you stick to the Deep Web that is accessed through the Tor network, you’ll be guaranteed that communication is encrypted and your anonymity is guaranteed.

However, there’s a caveat—this approach can only work when it’s possible. If the Deep Web has all the services that you’d want from the web, then it’s fine to use stay on the Darknet of Tor. The Deep web may contain only a tiny fraction of the information that you want to access. Therefore, you should always be careful on what you’d like to access the internet.

#9: Shun using Personal Information

Never more than before, the majority of internet users have had their personal information stolen and used for all manner of ads on the internet. Even if you’ve installed Tor on your computer, you should always avoid sharing personal information—unless it’s absolutely necessary. It’s the safest way of ensuring that your personal data—whether in chatting, email and other social media sites—isn’t being spied on by a government agency of a private corporate.

Going a little further, the safest way to avoid having personal information spied on is to avoid transmitting any to start with. Using Tor for research is fine, but avoiding uploading information to the greatest extent possible. Avoid chat, email, and forums whenever possible.

#10: Avoid Logins

As a rule of thumb, always shun those websites that require logging in. Some of them are very risky. Don’t give your attacker an easier option to get hold of your private data through your browsing behavior, postings and commenting on social media sites. Whenever you’re using sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Google +, always be careful about your login data.

I know you’re now asking, “Why can’t I trust Tor to provide anonymity and privacy?”

The fact that you’re using Tor doesn’t give you the green light to remain complacency. The Tor protocol isn’t a magic and therefore it can’t guarantee your privacy if you continue using your login data on several websites. Your anonymity and privacy start with how well you manage your login data on websites.

Chapter 2: TOR and VPNS

Should you use Tor or a VPN (Virtual Private Network)? What’s the difference between these two terms, which are sometimes used interchangeably? In this chapter, we explain the differences between the two terms, the merits and demerits of each technology and other examples of technologies that rival Tor. Let’s get started.

What is a Virtual Private Network?

Before we explore what VPNs are, let’s establish the link between the internet and security.

Most public networks such as the Wi-Fi that you’re using in your office are susceptible to traffic analysis. There are always unseen “online” eyes everywhere if you are using these networks. Traffic analysis may emanate from government agencies such as FBI or CIA—that may interested in monitoring your online movements—or private corporations that want to target you with their “boring” products or services.

But that’s not all.

The majority of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) may also be monitoring your internet activities to promote their services. This means that at the very least, you should protect your data such as credit card details, usernames, and passwords particularly if you’re using a public network. The Tor and VPN can help you protect your private data as you remain anonymous while accessing the internet.

So, what is a VPN?

A VPN is a network connection that is established to provide a secure link to another location (usually a remote location). A VPN creates the illusion that you are connecting from a different place, therefore, malicious internet users may not know what’s being transmitted across the internet. Ideally, your computer will create an encrypted virtual tunnel that connects to the VPN server from where the entire internet traffic is channeled.

Once the private connection has been linked to the VPN server, all the communication that takes place on the network will appear as though coming from the VPN server, but in the real sense, it’s coming from your computer. This keeps your data from being exposed to eavesdroppers that may be interested in tapping the data in transit.

Why may you want to use a VPN instead of the public networks?

First, you can use a VPN to connect securely to any remote network through the web. If you have employees who want to access some files, applications and other resources such as printers, then installing a VPN will be helpful if you don’t want to compromise on security.in fact, you can set up a VPN to access your home network if you’re ever traveling.

Second, VPNs can help to connect several networks together in a secure manner. In fact, you can use a VPN to share servers and other networked resources such as printers that may be located in different places. If you’re an organization, then VPN’s can help you connect multiple intranets for the promotion of your bottom line.

Third, VPNs can help you improve your online privacy and anonymity. If you’re connected to a public network such as Wi-Fi, then the communication may be untrusted. A VPN can help you secure such communication because it encrypts the internet traffic, therefore, helping you to maintain your privacy while you remain anonymous while online.

Lastly, a VPN can help to circumvent regional internet restrictions—what’s commonly known as geo blocking—on some sites. Some authoritarian governments or even private corporations may place restrictions on some sites. VPN’s can help you to bypass such restrictions. In fact, several journalists have used VPNs to sidestep state- sponsored website censorship in the majority of authoritarian states.

What is the difference between TOR and VPNs?

The differences between Tor and VPNs are multifold.

First, Tor networks contain several volunteer nodes that transmit data from the entry computer (source) to the exit node which is the destination computer. It allows the client computers to conceal their status through configurations of the volunteer nodes (Tor servers) which links up with the Tor workstations. The Tor Server doesn’t need to provide its IP address and so does the client. Instead, the network uses the onion address—a 16 character code that a client has to enter instead of the conventional URL.

On the other hand, VPN networks don’t use volunteer nodes to relay data between the client and the server. It’s basically an into-the-tunnel and out-of-the-tunnel network that encrypts whatever communication is taking place. In other words, if you trust the VPN provider for data privacy and anonymity, then it is.

Second, Tor networks tend to be slow compared to VPNs. This is because the information that is sent from one computer to another must be encrypted every time it passes a volunteer Tor node. This slows down the communication process. Although encryption is also handled in VPNs, the encryption process doesn’t occur at every node.

Third,Tor networks will always guarantee privacy and anonymity. This is because of the manner they operate. For instance, the Tor server doesn’t need to provide its IP address and so does the client. Instead, the network uses the onion address—a 16 character code that a client has to enter instead of the conventional URL. This will guarantee your privacy and anonymity.

On the other hand, the type of VPN provider you choose for your services dictates the quality of the services. Therefore, it’s vital that you select a quality VPN provider that doesn’t store communication logs. This is because the communication logs can still be accessed therefore exposing the communication between the client and the server.

Finally, Tor networks can help you to access the Deep Web. The Torprotocolenables the clients to hide their status (IP addresses) by configuring the server to link up with the Tor workstations using the Tor relay. The server doesn’t need to provide its IP address and so does the client. Instead, the Tor network uses the onion address that a client has to enter instead of the conventional URL. Since these networks have several famous Deep Web data, clients can access them through the Tor relay. Conversely, VPNs can’t access any Deep Web or Darknet.

Other protocols that can access the Deep Web

Now that you’ve learned how Tor works and the differences between Tor and VPNs, let’s dig deeper to find out which other protocols can be used to access Deep Web. Below are other protocols that can enhance privacy and anonymity while online while also allowing users to access Deep Web:

#1: I2P

I2P, which is an acronym for Invisible Internet Project, is a protocol that was started way back in in 2003, to promote anonymity of internet users. All I2P networks aren’t accessible from any regular computer unless special software is installed on such computers. When you install I2P software on your computer, you’ll begin to route internet traffic through the I2P system just like a Tor relay.

The I2P system encrypts the communication by creating a distributed, decentralized and dynamic network that enables secure communication between the client and server. You can also use the I2P network to circumvent state- sponsored website censorship in the majority of authoritarian states.

Is I2P network different from Tor?

Yes.

I2P networks route web traffic differently compared to Tor. At the heart of I2P is packet-based routing system as opposed to the Tor’s circuit-based routing. This means that there’s no dedicated route between the client and the server as we saw in Tor relays where the Tor servers establish a dedicated path through which the traffic is routed.

Because of packet-based routing, the traffic can be routed dynamically in a distributive manner as opposed to the Tor relay. This offers a higher level of reliability to the network. In addition, the I2P network doesn’t rely on the trusted directory service to obtain its route information. Instead, the network routes are created dynamically and updated regularly.

#2: Freenet

Freenet is a fully peer-to-peer, distributed, anonymity publishing network that offers secure means to store data. Besides providing anonymity, Freenet allows internet users to create applications that ride on its platform to develop more generic and anonymous communications. Such applications include static websites and online message boards.

Contrasted with to I2P, Freenet provides some substantial benefits. Besides, its distributed data store, it allows users to get the content that’s published by others even if the publisher isn’t connected to the internet. While there’s an overlap of users who simply want to share data with each other anonymously in Freenet, I2P systems don’t offer such services to their users.

Chapter 3: Setup for Tor browser

Are you ready to learn how to setup Tor on your computer? Fantastic. In this chapter, we’ll explain to you all the basics that you require to set up Tor on your computer and get you started.

Let’s dive in.

Setting up Tor on Windows OS

Even before you begin thinking about downloading and installing Tor browser on your computer, you should ensure your computer meets the minimum requirements. Besides a strong internet connection, your computer must meet the following minimum requirements:

● A computer that’s running Windows 7 or higher versions

● Firefox 41.0.2 and higher versions

● Internet Explorer 11 and higher versions

Here are steps that you’ll be required to follow before you can begin using Tor on Windows OS:

Step 1: Get the TOR browser

To get the Tor browser, open your browser (it could be the Mozilla Firefox, the Google Chrome, the Microsoft Internet Explorer, or the Microsoft Edge). Go the URL address and type the address: https://www.Torproject.org/ projects/Torbrowser.html.en” and press enter. If you’re using a search engine to locate for the Tor browser, ensure that the URL address is: https://www.Torproject.org/projects/Torbrowser.html.en

Step 2: Download the Tor browser Select the desired language and the appropriate version of

Step 2: Download the Tor browser

Select the desired language and the appropriate version of your Windows OS and click on the large Download button (Windows 32/64-bit).

language and the appropriate version of your Windows OS and click on the large Download button

Some browsers will prompt you to verify whether you want to download the file. Confirm by clicking on the save button before proceeding with the process.

Step 3: Installing the browser

● Once the download process has completed, locate the folder where the file has been saved. In

Windows OS, the default folder is Downloads. Open the Downloads folder and double-click in the name of Tor browser’s file that you have downloaded.

the name of Tor browser’s file that you have downloaded. ● A dialog window will appear

● A dialog window will appear warning you about the origin of the software. Since you trust the origin of the Tor browser, proceed and click on the “Run” command. You should see a display screen similar to the one below:

the Tor browser, proceed and click on the “ Run ” command. You should see a

● Select your preferred language from the window that appears and click the “OK” button. You should see a display screen similar to the one below:

You should see a display screen similar to the one below: ● Select the location where

● Select the location where you’d like your Tor browser to be installed. In Windows, the default location is Desktop. However, you can change the location. You should see a display screen similar to the one below:

You should see a display screen similar to the one below: ● Wait for the installation

● Wait for the installation process to complete. Once it’s complete, you’ll see a window similar to the one below:

Congratulations! You’ve successfully installed Tor browser on your Windows OS computer. It’s now time to

Congratulations! You’ve successfully installed Tor browser on your Windows OS computer. It’s now time to begin using Tor browser. But before you begin to use this browser, here are tips on how best you can set it up for first use.

● Open the Tor browser by double-clicking on the shortcut icon on your Desktop or going to All

Applications>Tor Browser. Now the first time you launch the browser, you’ll see a display screen similar to

the one below:

you’ll see a display screen similar to the one below: ● Click on the “Connect” command

● Click on the “Connect” command to connect directly to the TOR network.

● You’ll be taken to a new screen that with a green progress bar that shows the Tor Browser connecting to Tor network.

bar that shows the Tor Browser connecting to Tor network. ● Just like other applications, the

● Just like other applications, the first time the Tor browser starts will be longer than usual. Just be patient for the browser to launch. Once the process is complete, you’ll see a window similar to the one below.

is complete, you’ll see a window similar to the one below. ● Locate the Tor (Onion

● Locate the Tor (Onion logo) that appears in the upper left of the Tor Browser and click on it. Look for Privacy and Security Settings and click on it so that you modify the security settings.

● Some of the features of the normal web browser will make you susceptible to

● Some of the features of the normal web browser will make you susceptible to eavesdropping attacks.

Turning the security slider to point to a higher setting will disable the normal web browser features. This

will make you secure from eavesdropping attacks but your website may be unusable. As a rule of thumb, always use the default features.

How to setup Tor on Linux

The Tor browser has packages for Debian, Redhat, and Gentoo Linux platforms. These packages can be downloaded from the official website: www.Torproject.org and installed manually. We explore how you can set up your Tor browser on each of these platforms. Let’s jump in.

How to setup Tor browser on Debian/Ubuntu platforms

Before you begin the process of installing Tor on your computer, ensure you’re connected to the internet. Here are steps that you should follow to successfully install and use Tor on Debian Linux platforms such as Ubuntu:

Step 1: Installing Tor browser

● Launch the terminal

● Ensure you’ve logged into your terminal as root by typing the following command at the command prompt of your terminal:

su

Type in your root password

Type the following command at the command prompt:

apt-get install Tor

● Wait for the installation process to complete.

● Ensure you update your system by typing the following command at the command prompt:

apt-get update

Step 2: Setting up Tor for use

You may wish to use applications such as instant messaging, jabber and IRC directly without the inconvenience of the Tor browser. If this is the case, then you should point each of these applications the Tor port. The ports can be set up for localhost at 9050 or the Tor browser at 9150.

If you have personal firewall limitations that are restricting your computer to connect to it, then ensure you allow these connections by enabling connections from the local apps to point to the Tor localhost port at 9050. If the firewall is blocking the outgoing connections, then you can use either port 80 or 443.

Step 3: Consider running the Tor browser as a relay

As we had mentioned earlier, the Tor browser relies on volunteer nodes in the network that routes information from the client to the server. If more internet users volunteer to run the relay, then the speed of the Tor browser is enhanced. You can be part of the team that volunteers to use your computer as a relay.

In fact, if you have at least 2 MBPs for both download and upload, you can configure your Tor to be a relay. To configure your Tor browser to act as a relay, simply locate the Tor Browser's configuration file named “Torrc.”

Open the Torrc file using a text editor such as gedit and add the following lines:

ORPort 443

Exitpolicy reject *:*

Nickname ididntedittheconfig

ContactInfo your-emailaddress@xxx.com

How to setup Tor on Redhat/Fedora platforms

Ensure you’re connected to the internet before you begin the installation process. Below are the steps to follow for successful installation and setup of Tor browser on Fedora Linux:

Step 1: Installing Tor browser

● Launch the terminal

● Ensure you’ve logged into your terminal as root by typing the following command at the command prompt of your terminal:

su

● Type in your root password

● Type the following command at the command prompt:

yum install Tor

● Wait for the installation process to complete.

● Ensure you update your system by typing the following command at the command prompt:

yum update

Step 2: Setting up Tor for use

You may wish to use applications such as instant messaging, jabber and IRC directly without the inconvenience of the Tor browser. If this is the case, then you should point each of these applications the Tor port. The ports can be set up for localhost at 9050 or the Tor browser at 9150.

If you have personal firewall limitations that are restricting your computer to connect to it, then ensure you allow these connections by enabling connections from the local apps to point to the Tor localhost port at 9050. If the firewall is blocking the outgoing connections, then you can use either port 80 or 443.

Step 3: Consider running the Tor browser as a relay

If you wish your Tor browser to volunteer as a Tor relay, then here are steps to follow:

● Locate the Tor browser’s configuration file named “Torrc.”

● Open the Torrc file using a text editor such as gedit and add the following lines:

OR Port 443 Exit policy reject *:* Nickname ididntedittheconfig ContactInfo your-emailaddress@xxx.com

How to setup Tor on Mac OS X

Here are steps that you’ll be required to follow before you can begin using TOR on Mac OS:

Step 1: Install the Mac Ports

I know you’re now thinking, “What are Mac Ports?”

Well, a MacPorts is simply a package management system in Mac OS X that streamlines the process of installing applications. It is open source platform software that allows users who’re using Mac OS X to install and uninstall applications in an efficient and simplified manner. Since Tor browser is open source software, the MacPorts can be used to compile, install and manage it.

So, before you install Tor browser, you’ll be required to install the MacPorts first. Simply download the MacPorts for the current version of your Mac OS X and process to install it.

Step 2: Installing Tor browser

Here are steps to follow when installing the Tor browser on a Mac OS X:

● Open the terminal window in Mac OS X.

● Type the following command at the command prompt and press the enter key:

sudo port install Tor

● Wait for the installation process to complete. Once the installation process is complete, you’ll find

a sample of the Tor configuration file at the location: “/opt/local/etc/Tor/Torrc.sample.” ensure you edit

the file by removing the” .sample” extension so that it is effective.

Step 3: Setting up Tor for use on a Mac OS X

You may wish to use applications such as instant messaging, jabber and IRC directly without the inconvenience of the Tor browser. If this is the case, then you should point each of these applications the Tor port. The ports can be set up for localhost at 9050 or the Tor browser at 9150.

If you have personal firewall limitations that are restricting your computer to connect to it, then ensure you allow these connections by enabling connections from the local apps to point to the Tor localhost port at 9050. If the firewall is blocking the outgoing connections, then you can use either port 80 or 443.

Step 4: Configuring the Tor as a relay

If you wish your Tor browser to volunteer as a Tor relay, then here are steps to follow:

● Locate the Tor browser’s configuration file named “Torrc.”

● Open the Torrc file using a text editor such as gedit and add the following lines:

OR Port 443 Exit policy reject *:* Nickname ididntedittheconfig ContactInfo your-emailaddress@xxx.com

How to uninstall Tor on Mac OS X

To uninstall Tor browser on a Mac OS X, follow the steps below:

● Open the terminal.

● Type the following command at the command prompt and press enter key:

sudo port uninstall Tor

● Wait for the uninstallation process to complete.

● Restart your computer for changes to take effect.

Chapter 4: Further Resources

The following URLs provide further information about Tor browser:

https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-deep-web-and-how-do-you-access-it. Get to learn the basics of Deep Web and how they are different from the conventional packet-based switched internet.

https://www.Torproject.org/index.html.en. Learn more about the Tor project’s philosophy and its contribution to freedom of access to information.

https://www.Torproject.org/docs/documentation.html.en. Explore the documentation aspects of the Tor

browser if you’re a developer who is interested in contributing to the improvement of the Tor browser.

https://blog.Torproject.org/blog/. Get the latest news and updates concerning data privacy and anonymity concerning the Tor browser.

https://www.Torproject.org/eff/Tor-legal-faq.html.en. Get to know some of the most frequently asked legal questions concerning the Tor browser.

https://geti2p.net/en/. Get to know more about I2P—a similar program that promotes data privacy and anonymity.

https://freenetproject.org/about.html. Learn more about the Freenet protocol—a system that promotes freedom of speech and data privacy.

Learn the basics of how to use the Tor network traffic on Mac OS X platforms.

Learn the merits and demerits of using VPNs and Tor browser on network systems that would like to achieve data privacy and anonymity while online.

Conclusion

We’re living in an age that’s defined by free-flowing information, thanks to the fast-paced, ever-evolving internet. While the internet has significantly expanded the capabilities of users to share knowledge, it has also made privacy to be more problematic with regard to issues of personal data and other activities while online.

Because of the unseen “online” eyes everywhere that range from government agencies to big corporations, you may not be safe after all. With the growth of the internet and personal privacy concerns, using a Tor browser can help you improve your personal privacy and promote your anonymity as you surf on your computer.

But that’s not all.

The deep web has become a topic of discourse and notoriety due to the growth of the big data industry. Fortunately, when it comes to adoption of deep web technology for browsing, one thing’s for sure: Tor has always led the way. That’s why it’s vital that you adopt the Tor browser as your default browser for surfing the internet.

Now that you understand what the Deep Web and Tor browser is, what is it that you’re doing that isn’t moving the needle with regard to data privacy and deep web browsing? Or worse, what is it that you’re doing that’s compromising your online security and anonymity. In a nutshell, understanding how to use the Tor browser will help you to remain safe while online.

I hope this guidebook has been helpful with regard to understanding the Deep Web and Tor browser. Feel free to get in touch with us in case you have queries concerning the Deep Web and Tor browser.