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Tension stiffening

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Tension stiffening

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International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012

Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and

Finite Element Analysis

S. Alih and A. Khelil

Abstract—In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as II. INOXYDABLE STEEL IN COMPOSITE CONCRETE BEAM

reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The In reinforced concrete structures, the presence of steel

bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied

necessitates the consideration of bar-concrete interaction. The

and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study

highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in bar-concrete adherence allows the concrete located between

cracks to resist tensile stresses, thereby reducing the average

International Science Index, Civil and Environmental Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012 waset.org/Publication/5549

references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the reinforcement stress level compared to its magnitude at the

structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then crack. This phenomenon results in a gain in rigidity, called

applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their tension stiffening.

correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory A simple way to account for this local phenomenon is to

shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings integrate the bar-concrete interaction in a global dimension by

is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and modifying the stress-strain relationship of the material, either

the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the

the reinforcing bar or the concrete. In this study, the tension

actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the

interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete. stiffening model is integrated with concrete. It is describe and

validated in detail in Reference [1]. Referring to Fig. 1,

Keywords—Inoxydable steel, Finite element modeling, tension stiffening is described as the stress difference ,

Reinforced concrete beam, Tension-stiffening. between the steel stress of the reinforced concrete member

and the stress , of bare steel at a given strain The stress

I. INTRODUCTION increase , can be replaced by an equivalent concrete

stress , which can be determined as [2],

I NOXYDABLE steel is used in construction works for multiple

reasons. Apart from their excellent resistance to corrosion,

its high ductility is advantageous with respect to energy , , (1)

dissipation in the case of cyclic loading. Inoxydable steel from where, , , (2)

austenitic type is studied to determine their behavior as / , (3)

reinforcement bar in composite concrete beam. Focus is made

on the interaction behavior with concrete and the tension is the effective reinforcement ratio, is sectional area

stiffening phenomenon. This study highlighted a simplified of the steel, and , is the effective zone of concrete around

approach to observe this interaction behavior in bending test the re-bars which can be determine according to [3].

instead of direct tension as per reported in many references. The stress-strain curve for reinforced concrete under

Their possibility to observe the tension stiffening behavior in uniaxial tension can be divided in three regions; pre cracking,

composite concrete beam is then determined. FEA is crack development stage, and post cracking [4] as shown in

conducted using ABAQUS software to verify the material Fig. 1(a). Before cracks start to form (pre cracking), concrete

model and laboratory results. Modeling strategies to simulate are able to resist tensile stress. These results in a higher stress

the actual condition of laboratory work is also elaborated. The level in concrete as shown in Fig. 1(b). When cracks start to

constitutive laws, experimental work concept, and the FEA form (crack development stage), concrete slowly looses their

ability to resist tensile stress and so the stress level decreases.

strategies used in this study could benefit future research in

With the increase in formation of cracks (post cracking),

inoxydable steel and composite concrete.

stress in concrete decreases and more stresses will be carried

by the reinforcement bars. Reinforcement stress level

increases evidently after the formation of cracks.

S. Alih is a Doctorate in Civil Engineering in Nancy University, IUT

This tension stiffening phenomenon has been observed

Nancy Brabois, France; on leave from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, experimentally by numbers of researchers through a uniaxial

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai (e-mail: sophiacalih@yahoo.com). tension test. Most of these researches involved the study of

A. Khelil is a Professor in Civil Engineering in Nancy University IJL concrete reinforced with construction steel and fiber-

UMR 7198 CNRS – Equipe 207, IUT Nancy Brabois CS 90137 F54601

Villers Les Nancy, France (phone: +333-83682536; fax: +333- 83682532; e-

reinforced polymer (FRP) material. However, due to the

mail: abdel.khelil@iutnb.uhp-nancy.fr). difficulties of conducting the direct tension test, only limited

and often conflicting results are available. More so, beam

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(2) 2012 147 scholar.waset.org/1999.3/5549

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012

subjected to uniaxial tension is unlikely to exist compared austenitic steel bar in tension zone to record changes in stress

with bending. In this study, the possibility of observing when load is applied. These changes is analyze and observe

tension stiffening phenomenon in a concrete structure closely particularly during the phase before and after

subjected to bending is investigated. A similar concept of cracking. LVDT is placed at the center of the beam to record

sample preparation with study conducted for uniaxial tension the central deflection.

test is applied. A series of strain gauges are attached to the

Post cracking

σc, TSE

development

Pre cracking

σs

f't

Crack

stage

Ptf't

Post Cracking

,

Rtf't

εc = εs

Reinforce concrete

Bare steel εcr Stεcr Ftεcr

,

International Science Index, Civil and Environmental Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012 waset.org/Publication/5549

εs

(a) (b)

Fig. 1 Tension stiffening model derived from uniaxial tension (a), and the equivalent concrete stress-strain relationship (b): [2], [4], [5].

A. Preparation and Testing of Beam Sample the quantity has to be limited to minimize surface

interferences. Therefore an effective number of strain gauges

Fig. 2 shows the dimension of the reinforced concrete

and the right position to place it have to be estimated prior.

beam sample used in this study.

For this, a moment distribution diagram of the simply

Two austenitic steel 20mm in diameter is used as the

supported beam is used to predict the internal stress

reinforcing bars in tension zone, and two carbon steel 8mm in

distribution as shown in Fig. 3(a). It can be observed that the

diameter is used in compression zone. For this test, only

stress distribution will increase between point A-B and will be

austenitic-hot is use. 10 shear links formed from 6mm mild

identical with D-C. A total of six strain gauges were used and

steel bars were provided at 70mm and 120mm from each ends

placed along the reinforcement bar at the position as shown in

for shear reinforcement in the shear spans. The beam were

Fig. 3(a). It is marked as J1, J2, J3, J4, J5, and J6.

tested on simply supported condition with a clear span of

Fig. 3(b) shows the detail arrangement made on the strain

2.9m and loaded symmetrically and monotically.

gauges position. It is alternately positioned between the two

bars to minimize the surface interferences and at the same

time permit the changes in strain to be recorded in a close

distances along the bar. Strain gauges marked as J2, J4, and J6

were placed along Bar 1, while J1, J3, and J5 were placed

along Bar 2. When observed on the side view of the beam;

these alternately positioned strain gauges will develop a series

of strain gauges closely distance with each other along the

beam member. The strain pattern can then be observed at

150 different distance and load history.

2 HA 8ø B. Tension Stiffening Phenomenon

Shear links

280

Tension stiffening phenomenon is observed with the

ø6

increase of strain recorded along the reinforcement bars when

2 Aust-Hot

20ø

load is applied. Tension stiffening can be viewed as an

35 3x70 7x120

increase in stress on reinforcement bar when cracks start to

Cover=25

form due to the inability of concrete to resist tensile stress.

Fig. 2 Dimension of the RC beam as per constructed and tested in Analyzing the readings of strain gauges attached to the bars,

laboratory

the stress curve is plotted for the applied load; Fig. 4(a). Stress

is determine by multiplying the strain values with elastic

Crushing test on the concrete sample in accordance with

modulus of the austenitic steel; 177,305 MPa (based on tensile

Reference [3] were conducted to identify the compressive

test conducted on the steel sample), assuming the steel is still

strength of the concrete; fc = 50 MPa, and the Young’s

in its limit of elasticity when 80 kN load is applied. For all six

Modulus of the concrete is 37,565 MPa.

strain gauges, an increase of readings is recorded between 27

As for the settings to study the tension stiffening behavior,

and 44 kN applied load. These increment can be view in two

a series of strain gauges are attached along the austenitic steel

phases as shown in the figure. Taking J4 as example, a linear

bars. Since the strain gauges were attached on the bar surface,

increase is recorded between 0 kN to 27 kN, followed by a

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(2) 2012 148 scholar.waset.org/1999.3/5549

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012

higher increase of stress between 27 kN to 80 kN. This sudden theoretical assumption and shows the tension stiffening

increase in strain and therefore the stress, shows the tension behavior for the beam sample.

stiffening phenomenon as could be observed in direct tension Fig. 4(b) shows the strain pattern plotted along the

test. All strain gauges shows the same increment pattern for reinforcement bar to investigate the strain distribution for the

the same range of load. This is when cracks is forming in the simply supported beam when load is applied. It can be

concrete beam. observed that strain increases identically from both ends and

J4 shows the highest reading (370 MPa) followed by J3 maximum values are recorded in the center of the beam.

(320 MPa) for 80 kN applied load. This is due to their When 30 kN load is applied, increase in strain is higher.

position in the center of the beam when deflection is Formation of cracks and deflection at the center gives higher

maximum and crack formation is earlier. This is followed by values in the strain. This observation is similar when

J2 and J5, in which both reading shows close resemblance. J6 compared to the findings from direct tension test conducted in

and J1 shows the lowest reading and close resemblance Reference [4]. When strain pattern is plotted along the

between each other as well. This proves the assumption that reinforcement bar, higher strain increase is observed at the

internal stress distribution will be identical for the two gauges crack position.

if their position is identical from each end as shown in Fig.

3(a). Readings from the strain gauges interact well with

International Science Index, Civil and Environmental Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012 waset.org/Publication/5549

F/2 F/2

B C

A D

J1 J2 J3/J4 J5 J6

Fig. 3 Strain gauges position: (a) Determination based on moment distribution of the simply supported beam, (b) detail position along the bars

400 2000

Strain along re-bar (micro-strain)

350 J1 1800

(Crack development stage) 0 kN

Stress on re-bars (MPa)

300 J2 1600

1400 10 kN

J4

250

J6 1200 20 kN

200 1000

J5 30 kN

150 J3 800

40 kN

100 600

50 kN

400

50

200 60 kN

0 0 70 kN

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 80 kN

(a) Force (kN) (b) Length along re-bar (mm)

Fig. 4 Laboratory results: (a) Stress in each strain gauges for the applied force, (b) Strain pattern along the reinforcement bar recorded during

laboratory test

III. NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Three-dimensional finite element analysis is conducted to

A general purpose finite element code, Abaqus/Standard examine the behavior of composite concrete structural

(STD), is utilized in this study. The traditional Newton- elements internally reinforced with inoxydable steel. Concrete

Raphson method (Static General) is applied together with the is modeled using 8-node 3-D solid elements while the internal

variety of routines for material models (concrete and steel), reinforcement bars are modeled using 2-node embedded bar

boundary conditions, interaction properties, and bond formulation in the concrete elements. By this approach, the

behavior. reinforcing bars are treated as integral parts of the concrete

element to determine the total internal resisting forces that are

directly added to those of concrete.

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(2) 2012 149 scholar.waset.org/1999.3/5549

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012

Beam is modeled as simply supported with two point loads in tension zone, two carbon steel 8mm in diameter in

in the middle of the span. The loads are distributed evenly in a compression zone, and 10 shear links formed from 6mm mild

constraint area to avoid localized damage in one point. steel bars were provided at 70mm and 120mm from each ends

Loading’s arrangement and dimension of the beam model is for shear reinforcement in the shear spans. Austenitic-hot is

as shown in Fig. 2. Position of each strain gauges; J1, J2, J3, used as per laboratory work. Tensile test results are applied in

J4, J5, and J6 are marked precisely along the main the material properties for the reinforcement bar so their

reinforcement bar base on their actual position in beam nonlinear plastic response could be accurately simulated in the

sample of laboratory work; Fig. 5(a). History output results numerical model. The reinforcement bars are modeled as

are generated on each position of the strain gauges to compare embedded element in the concrete as shown in Fig. 5(b).

the values with the one recorded during experimental works. These elements are superposed on the mesh of plain concrete

The model is then meshed vertically into small elements so elements. This modeling approach allows the concrete

that each of the concrete elements contains re-bar. Little or no behavior to be considered independently of the rebar [6]. The

reinforcement in elements often introduces mesh sensitivity in smeared crack model provided in Abaqus/STD for plain

the analysis results in the sense that the finite element concrete is applied to the FEA model. Tension stiffening is

prediction do not converge to a unique solution. The used to model the effects associated with the rebar/concrete

interaction between the re-bars and the concrete tends to interface.

reduce the mesh sensitivity.For the reinforcement bars, the

model is develop with two austenitic steel 20mm in diameter

International Science Index, Civil and Environmental Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012 waset.org/Publication/5549

(a) (b)

J6

J5

J3

J4

J1 J2

Fig. 5 Position of each strain gauges marked along the re-bar model (a), reinforcement bars modeled as embedded in concrete element (b).

Tensile stress, σt

The effect from rebar/concrete interface is approximated by

introducing the tension stiffening, which simulates load 4.07

transfer through the rebar across cracks. Tension stiffening 3.256

effect is applied in the simulation by changing the material

properties in concrete model rather than the reinforcement Tensile

1.8315 strain, εt

bars. Tension stiffening model develop by [5] as shown in

Fig. 1(b) is used. These model involved four parameters; Pt,

Rt, St, Ft together with the character of concrete; f’t and 0.000108 0.000432 0.00108

where

Fig. 6 Tension stiffening model applied to the finite element model

′ Based on the history output results generated for each

(5)

strain gauges; J1, J2, J3, J4, J5, and J6, a stress-strain curve

for each strain gauges is plotted and compared to the results

These concrete character is determine based on a obtained from laboratory test. These results are verified by

compression test conducted on the concrete used to develop extracting the reinforcement bars frame from the composite

the concrete beam discussed in previous section, = 50 model as shown in Fig. 5(a). Stress values for the identical

MPa, and E = 37,565 MPa. Therefore, the material model is positioned gauges resemble closely; J3 and J4, J2 and J5, J1

based on the actual properties of the concrete beam. Values of and J6. The internal stress distribution as shown in Fig. 7 can

the four parameters Pt, Rt, St, Ft are taken as 0.8, 0.45, 4, and be better observed in these results. J3 and J4 shows the

10 respectively. Fig. 6 shows the tension stiffening model highest values of stress throughout the loading process;

applied to the simulation. 400MPa for 80kN load. This is due to their position at the

center of the beam where maximum deflection occurred

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(2) 2012 150 scholar.waset.org/1999.3/5549

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012

which leads to earlier formation of cracks. This is followed by bar. J4 and J3 are compared together in Fig. 7(b), comparison

J2 and J5 with 300MPa for the maximum load. J1 and J6 of J2 and J5 in Fig. 7(c), while J1 and J6 is compared in Fig.

shows the lowest stress; 150MPa for 80kN of applied load. 7(d). Stress values from FEA for J3 and J4 are 50MPa higher

Results from this numerical FEA are then compared with than the experimental works when maximum load is applied.

readings on strain gauges recorded in the experimental works For J2 and J5, 25MPa difference in stress is observed for the

as shown in Fig. 7 (b)-(d). In general, the result shows a good 80kN load. J1 and J6 show a closer resemblance values in

correlation between the FEA and experimental results. Values stress recorded through experimental and FEA. For all sets of

from numerical analysis are slightly higher than the one gauges, increase in stress recorded in FEA is earlier than

obtained from laboratory works. Comparison with the laboratory; 22kN where cracks starts to form.

experimental works is made based on the set of strain gauges

that provide similar readings due to their position along the

(a) (b)

International Science Index, Civil and Environmental Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012 waset.org/Publication/5549

(c) (d)

Fig. 7 Stress in each strain gauges for the applied force (a); comparison between laboratory results and numerical FEA (b) J3 and J4, (c) J2 and

J5, and (d) J1 and J6

The strain distribution patterns observed in the FEA are For the maximum load of 80kN, both ends of the re-bar

similar with the experimental results. By comparing Fig. 8 have strain around 0.0006. This is where the J1 and J6

and Fig. 4(b) it can be observed that strain distribution at each located. For the location of J2 and J6, strain recorded in the

end of the bar shows close resemblance between FEA and experimental works is around 0.0014 as compare to FEA;

experimental. 0.0016. The strain pattern in the center of the beam for FEA is

higher than laboratory results; 0.0025 as compare to 0.0018.

0,003

J3/J4

IV. CONCLUSIONS

0,0025 0 kN

From the study conducted on inoxydable steel bar, it can be

Strain along re-bar

10 kN

0,002

J2 J5 20 kN conclude that the experimental concept for the bending test on

0,0015 30 kN

simply supported beam is able to observe and record the

tension stiffening phenomenon in concrete composite.

0,001 40 kN

Tension stiffening parameters used is acceptable and the

J1 J6 50 kN

0,0005 modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent

60 Kn

the actual condition.

0 70 kN

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 80 kN REFERENCES

Length along re-bar (mm) [1] Ali Nour, Bruno Massicotte, Emre Yildiz, and Viacheslav Koval, Finite

element modeling of concrete structures reinforced with internal and

Fig. 8 Strain pattern along the re-bar: FEA

external fibre-reinforced polymers, Can. J. Civ. Eng. 2007; 34: 340-354.

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 6(2) 2012 151 scholar.waset.org/1999.3/5549

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering Vol:6, No:2, 2012

model for concrete to the analysis of a precast segmental tunnel lining,

Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth Geomech. 2004; 28: 797-819.

[3] EN 1992-1-1. Eurocode 2 - Design of concrete structures, Part 1.1,

General rules and rules for buildings. CEN; 2003.

[4] H. Sooriyaarachchi, K. Pilakoutas, and E. Byars, Tension stiffening

behavior of GFRP-reinforced concrete, 7th International Symposium on

Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete

Structures (FRPRCS-7), November 6-10, 2005, Kansas City, Missouri.

[5] Rim Nayal and Hayder A. Rasheed, Tension stiffening model for

concrete beams reinforced with steel and FRP bars, Journal of Materials

in Civil Engineering 2006; 18(6): 831-841.

[6] Abaqus Analysis User’s Manual, Version 6.4. U.S.A: ABAQUS, Inc.,

2003.

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