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Methods of Research: Workshop 4

NORTHERN QUEZON COLLEGE, INC.


Infanta, Quezon

GRADUATE SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

Master of Arts in Education Major in Educational Management

Joenecio Bernardino Caadlawon


MAED Student

INDIVIDUAL WORK

Problem Conceptualization

RESEARCH TITLE

UTILIZATION OF VALUES-BASED APPROACH IN TEACHING ARALING-


PANLIPUNAN TOWARDS TIME-TESTED GUIDING PRINCIPLES AT
PATNANUNGAN DISTRICT

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This study aims to measure the UTILIZATION OF VALUES-BASED APPROACH

IN TEACHING ARALING-PANLIPUNAN TOWARDS TIME-TESTED GUIDING

PRINCIPLES AT PATNANUNGAN DISTRICT.

Specifically, the study seeks answers to the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1. Gender;

1.2. Age;

1.3. Teaching position;

1.4. Length of teaching service?

2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents about values-based approach?

3. What are the core and related values integrated by the teachers in teaching Araling

Panlipunan?

4. How effective is values-based approach in teaching Araling Panlipunan?

5. How values-based approach utilized in Patnanungan District?

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019
Methods of Research: Workshop 4

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES


Much has been written about values, how it was developed, and how it was to be
developed among our youth. This part of the research study presents literature and
studies both foreign and local which are highly pertinent to the problem under study.
The researcher found them significant as he had given his insight into what he should
look for in his investigation. They also served as the source of reference for a clearer
discussion and better interpretation of the result of this study.

RELATED LITERATURES
The Nature of Values
When we think of our values, we think of what is important to us in life. Each of us
holds numerous values (e.g. achievement, security, benevolence) with varying degrees
of importance. A particular value may be very important to one person but unimportant
to another. The value theory (Schwartz 1992, 2010) adopts a conception of values that
specifies six main features that are implicit in the writings of many theorists:
(1) Values are beliefs linked inextricably to affect. When values are activated, they
become infused with feeling. People for whom independence is an important
value become aroused if their independence is threatened, despair when they
are helpless to protect it, and are happy when they can enjoy it.
(2) Values refer to the desirable goals that motivate action. People for whom social
order, justice, and helpfulness are important values are motivated to pursue
these goals.
(3) Values transcend specific actions and situations. Obedience and honesty values,
for example, may be relevant in the workplace or school, in business or politics,
with friends or strangers. This feature distinguishes values from norms and
attitudes that usually refer to specific actions, objects or situations.
(4) Values serve as standards or criteria. Values guide the selection or evaluation of
actions, policies, people and events. People decide what is good or bad, justified
or illegitimate, worth doing or avoiding, based on possible consequences for their
cherished values. But the impact of values in everyday decisions is rarely
conscious. Values enter awareness when the actions or judgments one is
considering have conflicting implications for different values one cherishes.
(5) Values are ordered by importance relative to one another. People’s values form
an ordered system of priorities that characterize them as individuals. Do they
attribute more importance to achievement or justice, to novelty or traditions? This
hierarchical feature also distinguishes values from norms and attitudes.

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019
Methods of Research: Workshop 4

(6) The relative importance of multiple values guides action. Any attitude or behavior
typically has implications for more than one value. For example, attending church
might express and promote tradition and conformity values at the expense of
hedonism and stimulation values. The trade off among relevant, competing
values guides attitudes and behaviors (Schwartz, 1992, 1996). Values influence
action when they are relevant in the context (hence likely to be activated) and
important to the actor.
The above are features of all values. What distinguishes one from another is a type of
goal or motivation that it expresses. The values theory defines ten broad values
according to the motivation that underlies each of them. These values are likely to be
universal because they are grounded in one or more of three universal requirements of
human existence with which they help to cope. Values are the socially desirable
concepts used to represent these goals mentally and the vocabulary used to express
them in social interaction. I next define each of the ten values in terms of the broad goal
it expresses, note its grounding in universal requirements, and refer to related value
concepts. To make the meaning of each value more concrete and explicit, I list in
parentheses the set of value items included in the first survey instrument to measure
each value. Some important value items (e.g. self-respect) have multiple meanings;
they express the motivational goals of more than one value.
Aside from Dr. Neil Hawkes (2009) the school expressed these values in the
form of twenty-two value words, such as respect, friendship and honesty. The value
words have both moral and spiritual dimensions: moral in the sense that the values
help pupils to determine what appropriate or inappropriate behavior is; spiritual in the
sense that the values are considered in the context of the person’s inner world of
thoughts, feelings, personal identity, experiences and emotions. Accordingly, he stated
that a key aspect of values-based school appears to be a greater emphasis on the
development of good quality relationships between staff and parents. The teachers
recognize the vital importance of the role of families in educating children. They
emphasize the importance of developing open, sensitive, active, positive teacher-parent
relationships. The development of Values Education is shared with parents through
newsletters and parents’ evenings. This ensures a positive partnership between home
and school.
He also stated that teachers believed that the pupils will learn from their positive
example. It is therefore important for all who work with children to pay attention to look
after themselves physically, mentally, and spiritually. He also indicates that the most
effective teachers of values are those who work to be more self-aware and take time to
reflect on the deeper meaning of the values being emphasized in the school.

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019
Methods of Research: Workshop 4

According to Geetha (2010), the other corresponding function of values is that it


should also contribute to the welfare of the larger social unit such as the family, the
community, and the nations of which an individual is constituent. He also stated that
values are guiding principles of life that contribute to the all-round development of an
individual.
According to Lovat & Toomey (20011), the underlying aim of values education is
for students not only to understand the values but also to reflect them in their attitudes
and behavior, and contribute to society through good citizenship and ethical practice.
A recent study by Marvul (2012) reported how character education and moral
education were combined to teach students values such as respect, responsibility, and
truthfulness in order to improve students’ attitude to school.
According to International Journal of Education and Management Studies
(2014) Value emphasizes the development of social, moral, character values such as
creativity, sense of duty, dependability, self-control, honesty, truthfulness, self-discipline,
democratic participation in decision making and understanding cultural differences, spirit
of caring and tolerance and obligation to environment protection.
According to International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research
(2015), the teacher who teaches the value education must first acquire and be master of
the subject matter, master of the knowledge and value education. So, in order to impart
value education to students the instruction should first learn it and keep a moral
character in his whole life.

RELATED STUDIES
Kanwar Jasminder Pal Singh, (2009) conducted a comparative study on Values
and Attitudes of school and college teachers towards teaching profession. The
objectives of the study were to know whether the Values and attitudes towards teaching
profession of teachers are correlated with each other, to compare the Values of college
teachers with the Values of school teachers and the attitude of college teachers towards
teaching profession with that of school teachers and to find out whether Values of Male
and Female teachers differ and whether the attitude towards teaching profession is
Gender biased and whether the Locality (Urban/Rural) of the teachers affects their
Values. Descriptive method of research had been suitably employed for the study. The
sample of 480 teachers had been systematically drawn using multistage Randomization
Technique. Suitable statistical techniques namely, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard
Deviation, Skewness and Kurtosis were applied to examine the nature of distribution of
scores of the sample. Cochran test was employed to test the homogeneity of variance
in the groups. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), 2x2x2 Factorial Design was employed to
study the main effects and interaction effects of these variables. To further explore the

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019
Methods of Research: Workshop 4

interaction effects of variables; t-test was employed wherever F-ratio was found
significant. Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation was used to study the relationship
between attitude towards teaching profession and different types of Values. The main
findings of the study were there is a positive and significant correlation between
economic value, Aesthetic value, Religious value, Social value and attitude towards
teaching profession. The school teachers and rural teachers have been found higher in
the theoretical value than the college teachers and urban teachers.
Sirazul Islam (2009) in his study on Value pattern of college students in relation to
some selected Socio-Educational Variables included the following objectives to examine
the influence of Sex, Religion, Language and Local differences on the Values of college
students and some select socio-educational variables on the Values of college students:
to compare the Values of college students having varying courses of studies, that is,
Art, Science and Commerce, to find out the effect of college education to develop
modern Values among the students by computing fresher and outgoing college
students, to examine the opinions of college students on some important Social Issues
namely, Coeducation, Status of Women, Family Planning, Choice of Mate and Religious
Belief etc. The sample consisted of eight deficit colleges and 610 students from these
colleges were selected for the study. He used Value Orientation Scale, Questionnaire,
SES Index, Index for Media Exposure and Index for Library as the tools for the study.
The Statistics Techniques such as Mean, SD, and percentages were used. The
comparison of the sub-groups was done by applying t-test and chi-square. The major
Findings were the college students have been found to bear modern outlook in their
Values. Difference in the value patterns of the college students in terms of Gender,
Religion, Mother Tongue, Locale, Stream, SES, Period of stay in the college, media
exposure and library use have been found. College students have been found different
in their attitudes towards Social Issues of Co-education, Status of Women, Family
Planning, Choice of Mate and Religious Belief etc.
Surabala Sahoo (2010) studied the Self-Esteem, Educational Decision Making,
Adjustment and Academic attainment of secondary school students in relation to parent
involvement. The objectives of the study were to find out the difference between the
Self-Esteem of students belonging to High Parent Involvement group and Low Parent-
Involvement Group, to find out the difference between the Educational Decision-Making
of students belonging to High Parent Involvement group and Low Parent-Involvement
Group, to find out the difference between the Adjustments of students belongs to High
Parent-Involvement group and Low Parent-Involvement Group and to find out the
difference between the Academic Attainment of students belonging to High Parent-
Involvement group and Low Parent-Involvement Group. The major findings of the study
were positive and significant relationship was found between self-esteem of students

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019
Methods of Research: Workshop 4

and parent-involvement. Significant difference was found between the self-esteem of


students belonging to High Parent-Involvement and Low Parent-Involvement groups.
Positive and significant relationship was found between Educational decision making of
students and parent-involvement. Significant difference was found between the
Educational decision-making of students belonging to High Parent-Involvement and Low
Parent-Involvement groups. Positive and significant relationship was found between
emotional Adjustment of students and parent-involvement.
Malti (2011) conducted a study on comparative study of Values, Intelligence and
Academic Achievement of students of UP, CBSE, and ICSE Board Schools. The main
objectives of the study had been well enunciated as follows: to compare the value
patterns of students, the value patterns of Male and Female students, the intelligence of
students, the intelligence of Male and Female students, the Academic achievement of
students and the Academic achievement of Male and Female students of UP Board,
CBSE Board and ICSE Board. The achievement of Female students of CBSE Board
has been found significantly higher than that of the Female students of UP Board. No
significant difference has been found in the achievement of CBSE School Female
students and that of ICSE Board school Female students. The achievement of Female
students of ICSE Board has been found significantly higher than that of the Female
students of UP Board.
Dr. Patil (2013) conducted a study on role of value-based education in the society.
She concluded that success should be based on values. And for that, value-based
education must be imparted in today’s institutions so that the students may emerge as
good leaders in their chosen fields. Incorporating Value-based Education in society will
result in growth of character, growth in virtues like self-control, tolerance, selfless
service, practice of prayer, harmony to love people, to help them in need of respect and
etc. So, it should aim at a full harmonious development of the body and in the intellect
and tune it to the spirit within. In other words, value-based education should help build
up an integrated personality, a perfect character.

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019
Methods of Research: Workshop 4

Question:

What important notes did you consider in the selection of your sources for

inclusion in the review?

It is important that we-- researchers should be aware of choosing the best

sources that we must include in the review of related literatures and studies. After the

discussion I learned that it is important to choose valid references in order for me to

come up with well-presented research paper. Some of the key aspects that I have

considered in selecting the best sources are the following:

 I choose sources that is important and confirm if they are reliable and the

content presented by the authors are authentic.

 I choose sources that are not older than ten years.

 I evaluate the resources to make sure that they contain information which is

valuable and pertinent.

 I consider the APA (American Psychological Association) format in citing one or

more authors.

 I use the primary sources like books, magazines, articles and published

research paper before considering the secondary sources.

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Northern Quezon College Incorporated Dr. Ruben A. Sanchez May 4, 2019