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1.

A+B
[1]

2. (a) [1] for each appropriate and valid point eg


thermal energy is the KE of the component particles of an object;
thus measured in joules;
the temperature of an object is a measure how hot something is
(it can be used to work out the direction of the natural flow of thermal
energy between two objects in thermal contact) / measure of the average
KE of molecules;
it is measured on a defined scale (Celsius, Kelvin etc); 4 max

(b) (i) correct substitution: energy = power × time;


= 1200 W × (30 × 60) s;
6
= 2.2 × 10 J 2 max

(ii) use of E = m c Dq;


6
to get Dq = 2.2 × 10 / (4200 × 70) K;
= 7.5 K; 3 max

(c) [1] naming each process up to [3 max].


convection;
conduction;
radiation;
[1] for an appropriate (matching) piece of information / outline
for each process up to [3 max].
eg convection is the transfer of thermal energy via bulk movement of a gas
due to a change of density;
conduction is transfer of thermal energy via intermolecular collisions;
radiation is the transfer of thermal energy via electromagnetic waves
(IR part of the electromagnetic spectrum in this situation) / OWTTE; 6 max

(d) (i) [1] for each valid and relevant point eg


in evaporation the faster moving molecules escape;
this means the average KE of the sample left has fallen;
a fall in average KE is the same as a fall in temperature; 3 max

6
(ii) energy lost by evaporation = 50% × 2.2 × 10 J;
6
= 1.1 × 10 J;
correct substitution into E = m l
6 6 –1
to give mass lost = 1.1 × 10 J / 2.26 × 10 J kg
= 0.487 kg
= 487 g; 3 max

1
(iii) [1] for any valid and relevant factors [2 max] eg
area of skin exposed;
presence or absence of wind;
temperature of air;
humidity of air etc;
[1] for appropriate and matching explanations [2 max] eg
increased area means greater total evaporation rate;
presence of wind means greater total evaporation rate;
evaporation rate depends on temperature difference;
increased humidity decreases total evaporation rate etc; 4 max
[25]

3. D
[1]

4. D
[1]

5. B
[1]

6. C
[1]

7. (a) component X, battery, ammeter all in series and including means of


varying current; with voltmeter in parallel across component X; 2

(b) (i) 4.0 A; 1


V
(ii) use of R = I , and not gradient of graph;
resistance = 1.5Ω; 2

(c) (i) straight-line through origin, quadrants 1 or 3 or both;


correct gradient, ie passes through V = 4.0 V, I = 2.0 A; 2

2
(ii) pd’s across X and across R will be 3.7 V (±0.1V ) and 6.0 V;
Award [0] if only one pd is correct.
total pd = 9.7 V; 2

(d) (i) large change in resistance with temperature change;


unique value of R at any temperature;
not dissipate thermal energy;
small physical size / small thermal capacity; 2 max

(ii) measure resistance at two “known” temperatures;


divide scale into equally sized units;
any further detail
( Rt  R 0 )
eg t / ° = ( R100  R0 ) × 100 or scale is empirical (for this
thermometer only) or fixed point specified; 3
[14]

8. C
[1]

9. B
[1]

3
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M53;CM55;CM7;CM54;CM56;CM57;CM10;CM58;CM14;CM15;CM19;CM
26;CM59;CM29;CM24;CM32;CM34;CM60;CM39;CM61;CM49;CM3;CM1
2;CM16;CM17;CM28;CM31;CM33;CM36;CM37;right;graph;accept
Char;table;10. changes in internal energy depend on mass, specific heat capacity and
temperature
rise;
specific heat capacity and temperature rise are unchanged;
mass changes so statement incorrect;
[3]

11. Temperature and thermal energy


(a) property measured at two known temperatures (and at unknown
temperature);
(temperature calculated) assuming linear change of property with
temperature; 2
Award [1] for descriptions of constructing a thermometer.

(b) thermometer absorbs (thermal) energy / heat from the body / has a thermal
capacity; so changes temperature of body;
or
time taken for (thermal) energy / heat to be conducted into thermometer;
so may not be able to follow changing temperature; 2

(c) (i) quantity of (thermal) energy / heat required to raise temperature of


unit mass;
by one degree;
or
DQ
c ;
mDθ
with DQ, m and Dq explained; 2
(ii) m ´ 330;
+m ´ 4.2 ´ 8;
= 0.45 ´ 4.2 ´ 16;
m = 0.083kg; 4
Award [2 max] for an answer m = 0.092 kg  ignoring ice-water.

(d) (i) (both are change from liquid ® vapour phase)

4
evaporation:
occurs at surface of liquid;
occurs at all temperatures;
boiling:
occurs in the body of the liquid;
occurs at one temperature / boiling point; 2
(ii) separation of molecules increases in the change from liquid to vapour
phase;
this involves an increase in potential energy;
but temperature observed to change only when kinetic energy changes; 3
[15]

5
12. A
[1]