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# 1st Semester, A.Y.

2018 – 2019 closed, will the room that contains the refrigerator be cooler
or warmer than the other room? Why?
ME 452 – Heat Transfer
8. An ideal gas is heated from 50℃ to 80℃ (a) at constant
Lecture 01 – Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer volume and (b) at constant pressure. For which case do you
think the energy required will be greater? Why?
9. How are heat, internal energy, and thermal energy related
Notes and Instructions. This document is divided into parts to each other?
containing of conceptual and analytical problems. Conceptual 10. What are the mechanisms of energy transfer to a closed
applications will be discussed during the lecture hours wherein system? How is heat transfer distinguished from the other
students will be randomly selected to explain their answers. While forms of energy transfer?
the latter part will be submitted on August 17 until 3 p.m., and 11. Consider a house with a floor space of 200 m2 and an
solutions must be presented in an A4-sized paper (1 problem per average height of 3 m at sea level, where the standard
page). No specific format is required, just present the solutions atmospheric pressure is 101.3 kPa. Initially the house is at
neatly. a uniform temperature of 10℃. Now the electric heater is
turned on, and the heater runs until the air temperature in
1. How does the science of heat transfer differ from the science the house rises to an average value of 22℃. Determine how
of thermodynamics? much heat is absorbed by the air assuming some air
2. What is the driving force for (a) heat transfer, (b) electric escapes through the cracks as the heated air in the house
current flow, and (c) fluid flow? expands at constant pressure. Also, determine the cost of
3. How do rating problems in heat transfer differ from the this heat if the unit cost of electricity in that area is
sizing problems? \$0.075/kWh.
4. What is the difference between the analytical and 12. Liquid ethanol is a flammable fluid and can release vapors
experimental approach to heat transfer? Discuss the that form explosive mixtures at temperatures above its
advantages and disadvantages of each approach. flashpoint at 16.6℃. In a chemical plant, liquid ethanol (cp
5. How do differential equations in the study of a physical = 2.44 kJ/kg-K, 𝜌 = 789 kg/m3) is being transported in a
problem arise? pipe with an inside diameter of 5 cm. The pipe is in a hot
6. On a hot summer day, a student turns his fan on when he area with the presence of ignition source, where an
leaves his room in the morning. When he returns in the estimated 20 kW of heat is added to the ethanol. Your task,
evening, will his room be warmer or cooler than the as an engineer, is to design a pumping system to transport
neighboring rooms? Why? Assume all the doors and the ethanol safely and to prevent fire hazard. If the inlet
windows are kept closed. temperature of the ethanol is 10℃, determine the volume
7. Consider two identical rooms, one with a refrigerator in it flow rate that is necessary to keep the temperature of the
and the other without one. If all the doors and windows are ethanol in the pipe below its flashpoint.
13. In many manufacturing plants, individuals are often reach an average temperature of 25℃, find (a) the power
working around high temperature surfaces. Exposed hot rating of the electric heater and (b) the temperature rise that
surfaces that are potential for thermal burns on human the air experiences each time it passes through the heater.
skin tissue are hazards in the workplace. Metallic surface 15. A hair dryer is basically a duct in which a few layers of
of temperature above 70℃ is considered extremely high electric resistors are placed. A small fan pulls the air in and
temperature in the context of thermal burn, where skin forces it to flow over the resistors where it is heated. Air
tissue damage can occur instantaneously upon contact enters a 900-W hair dryer at 100 kPa and 25℃, and leaves
with the hot surface. Consider an AISI 1010 carbon steel at 50℃. The cross-sectional area of the hair dryer at the exit
strip (𝜌 = 7832 kg/m3) of 2 mm thick and 3 cm wide that is is 60 cm2. Neglecting the power consumed by the fan and
conveyed into a chamber to be cooled at a constant speed the heat losses through the walls of the hair dryer,
of 1 m/s. The steel strip enters the cooling chamber at determine (a) the volume flow rate of air at the inlet and (b)
597℃. Determine the amount of heat rate that needed to be the velocity of the air at the exit.
removed so that the steel strip exits the chamber at 47℃ to
avoid instantaneous thermal burn upon accidental contact
with skin tissue. Discuss how the conveyance speed can
affect the heat rate needed to be removed from the steel
strip in the cooling chamber.

## 14. A 5-m × 6-m × 8-m room is to be heated by an electrical

resistance heater placed in a short duct in the room.
Initially, the room is at 15℃, and the local atmospheric
pressure is 98 kPa. The room is losing heat steadily to the
outside at a rate of 200 kJ/min. A 300-W fan circulates the
air steadily through the duct and the electric heater at an
average mass flow rate of 50 kg/min. The duct can be
assumed to be adiabatic, and there is no air leaking in or
out of the room. If it takes 18 minutes for the room air to