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1

1.1 & 1.2 Properties of the Ism—Status

We stated that the ism has 4 properties: status, number gender, and type. We will be discussing status
in this session.

Status is all about what a word is doing in the sentence. There are three kinds of Statuses:

1. Doer Status ( ‫ رفع‬Raf’)

2. Detail Status (‫ نصب‬Nasb)

3. After “of” status (‫ جر‬Jarr)

1. Doer status is given to the Doer of the Fi’l and answers the question, who did the Fi’l? In the
sentence: He ate his lunch. “He” did the eating, and is considered the doer.

2. Detail Status refers to details of the Fi’l and answers additional questions related to the Fi’l like
who, what, where, when, why, and how. For example:

He ate his lunch quickly outside yesterday.

What did he eat? Lunch


When did he eat? Yesterday
Where did he eat? Outside
How did he eat? Quickly

All of these words are considered details of the Fi’l.

3. After “of” status words don’t answer questions related to the Fi’l itself. It’s easy to spot these
words in cases like: Messenger of Allah SWT . Sometimes, the word “of” isn’t as obvious and the
words need to be rearranged so you can spot it. For example: “his lunch” can be rephrased to say:
lunch of his. The word after “of” is now clear.
2

EXERCISES:

A. In the following sentences, circle the doer of the Fi’l ‫فعل‬, underline the details of the Fi’l ‫فعل‬, and box words

that are after “of” status (the words in bold are Fi’l ‫فعل‬, so they don’t get any of these labels).
1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

b. They broke the lamp.

c. Their mother yelled at them.

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

c. The teenagers stole their money.

3. a. His alarm clock rang loudly.

b. He hit the “snooze” button repeatedly.

c. He got stuck in traffic.

B. Now, make questions out of the bold following words that reflect the word’s role in the sentence:

1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

Kids: ____________________________

In the room: ______________________

Bat: ____________________________

b. They broke the lamp.

They: ___________________________

The lamp: ________________________

c. Their mother yelled at them.

Mother: _________________________

At them: ________________________
3

Their: ___________________________

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

Kids: _________________________________

Lemonade stand: _______________________

In the summer: _________________________

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

Grown-ups: ____________________________

Lemonade: _____________________________

c. The teenagers stole their money.

Teenagers: ____________________________

Money: _______________________________

Their: ________________________________

3. a. The alarm clock rang loudly.

Alarm clock: __________________________

Loudly: ______________________________

b. He hit the “snooze” button repeatedly.

He: _________________________________

“Snooze” button: ______________________

Repeatedly: ___________________________

c. He got stuck in traffic.

He: _________________________________

In traffic: _____________________________
4

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

b. They broke the lamp.

c. Their mother yelled at them.

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

c. The teenagers stole their money.

3. His alarm clock rang loudly.

He hit the “snooze” button repeatedly.

He got stuck in traffic.

Section B:

1. Kids: Who played? ; In the room: Where did they play? ; Bat: What did they play with?

They: Who broke the lamp? ; The lamp: What did they break?

Mother: Who yelled? ; At them: Yelled at who? ; Their: Mother of whose?

2. Kids: Who opened a lemonade stand? ; Lemonade stand: What did they open? ; In the summer: When

was it opened?

Grown-ups: Who bought the lemonade? ; Lemonade: What was bought?

Teenagers: Who stole? ; Money: What did the teenagers steal? ; Their: Money of whose?

3. Alarm clock: What rang? ; Loudly: How did it ring?

He: Who hit?; “Snooze” button: What did he hit? ; Repeatedly: How did he hit it?

He: Who got stuck?; In traffic: Where did he get stuck?


1

1.1 & 1.2 Properties of the Ism—Status

Today was our introduction to the ism, beyond the definition. The first thing I gave you was that the ism
has four properties: status, number, gender, and type. I had you write this down, and asked you to
remember them even if you don’t understand them. I’ll be teaching you the properties in this order,
beginning with status:

Status is all about what a word is doing in the sentence. There are three kinds of Statuses:

1. Doer Status ( ‫ رﻓﻊ‬Raf’)


ْ
2. Detail Status (‫ ﻧﺼﺐ‬Nasb)

3. After “of” status (‫ ﺟﺮ‬Jarr)

1. Doer status is given to the Doer of the Fi’l and answers the question, who did the Fi’l? In the
sentence: He ate his lunch. “He” did the eating, so “He” is considered the doer.

2. Detail Status refers to details of the Fi’l and answers additional questions related to the Fi’l like who,
what, where, when, why, and how. For example:

He ate his lunch quickly outside yesterday.

What did he eat? Lunch


When did he eat? Yesterday
Where did he eat? Outside
How did he eat? Quickly

All of these words are considered details of the Fi’l.

3. After “of” status words don’t answer questions related to the Fi’l itself. It’s easy to spot these words
in cases like: Messenger of Allah SWT . Sometimes, the word “of” isn’t as obvious and the words
need to be rearranged so you can spot it. For example: “his lunch” can be rephrased to say: lunch of
his. The word after “of” is now clear.
2

EXERCISES:

A. In the following sentences, circle the doer of the Fi’l ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬, underline the details of the Fi’l ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬, and box

words that are after “of” status (the words in bold are Fi’l ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬, so they don’t get any of these labels).
1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

b. They broke the lamp.

c. Their mother yelled at them.

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

c. The teenagers stole their money.

3. a. His alarm clock rang loudly.

b. He hit the “Snooze” button repeatedly.

c. He got stuck in traffic.

B. Now, make questions out of the bold following words that reflect the word’s role in the sentence:

1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

Kids: ____________________________

In the room: ______________________

Bat: ____________________________

b. They broke the lamp.

They: ___________________________

The lamp: ________________________

c. Their mother yelled at them.

Mother: _________________________

At them: ________________________
3

Their: ___________________________

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

Kids: _________________________________

Lemonade stand: _______________________

In the summer: _________________________

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

Grown-ups: ____________________________

Lemonade: _____________________________

c. The teenagers stole their money.

Teenagers: ____________________________

Money: _______________________________

Their: ________________________________

3. a. The alarm clock rang loudly.

Alarm clock: __________________________

Loudly: ______________________________

b. He hit the “Snooze” button repeatedly.

He: _________________________________

The “Snooze” button: ______________________

Repeatedly: ___________________________

c. He got stuck in traffic.

He: _________________________________

In traffic: _____________________________
4

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

1. a. The kids played in the room with a bat.

b. They broke the lamp.

c. Their mother yelled at them.

2. a. The kids opened a lemonade stand in the summer.

b. The grown-ups bought all the lemonade.

c. The teenagers stole their money.

3. His alarm clock rang loudly.

He hit the “Snooze” button repeatedly.

He got stuck in traffic.

Section B:

1. Kids: Who played? ; In the room: Where did they play? ; Bat: What did they play with?

They: Who broke the lamp? ; The lamp: What did they break?

Mother: Who yelled? ; At them: Yelled at who? ; Their: Mother of whose?

2. Kids: Who opened a lemonade stand? ; Lemonade stand: What did they open? ; In the summer:

When was it opened?

Grown-ups: Who bought the lemonade? ; Lemonade: What was bought?

Teenagers: Who stole? ; Money: What did the teenagers steal? ; Their: Money of whose?

3. Alarm clock: What rang? ; Loudly: How did it ring?

He: Who hit?; The “Snooze” button: What did he hit? ; Repeatedly: How did he hit it?

He: Who got stuck?; In traffic: Where did he get stuck?


1

1.3 Properties of the Ism—Status (Ending Sounds Practice)

In the previous session, we learned that there are three kinds of Status:

1. Doer Status (which we are now calling Raf’ ‫) رفع‬

ْ )
2. Detail Status (which we are now calling Nasb ‫نصب‬

3. After “of” Status (which we are now calling Jarr ‫) جر‬

We noted that English identifies the doer based on the sentence sequence. In other words, if we say,
‘Bob helped Joe,’ then Bob is the doer. If we say, ‘Joe helped Bob,’ then Joe is the doer. In Arabic, on
the other hand, it isn’t the sequence that tells us who the doer is. Rather, it’s the way a word sounds at
the end that determines whether it’s the doer (R), the detail (N), or after ‘of’ (J).

The following are the ending sounds for each of the statuses we’ve learned:

Raf’ : ُ(u) or ُ(un) ending

Nasb: ُ (a) or ُ (an) ending

Jarr: ُ (i) or ُ (in) ending


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪ by looking at the ending sounds:‬جر ‪ْ or Jarr‬‬


‫‪,‬نصب ‪ , Nasb‬رفع’ ‪State whether each of the red words is either Raf‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن عي‬ ‫هل أتاك حديث الغاشية (‪)١‬وجوه ي ْومئذ خاشعة (‪)٢‬عامل ناصبة (‪)٣‬ت ْصل نارا حامية (‪)٤‬ت ْسقى م‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ن ضريع (‪)٦‬ال ي ْسمن وال ي ْغني م ْ‬


‫ن جوع (‪)٧‬وجوه ي ْومئذ ناعمة (‪)٨‬لسعِيا راضية‬ ‫آنية (‪)٥‬ليْس لهْ طعام إال م ْ‬

‫(‪)٩‬ف جنة عالية (‪)١١‬ال ت ْسمع فِيا الغية (‪)١١‬‬

‫ْشكون (‪)١‬ينزل الْمالئكة بالروح م ْ‬


‫ن أ ْمره عل م ْ‬
‫ن يشاء م ْ‬
‫ن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أت أ ْمر الل فال ت ْستعجلوه س ْبحانه وتعال عما ي‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫عباده أ ْن أ ْنذروا أنه ال إل إال أنا فاتقون (‪)٢‬خلق السماوات و ْ‬
‫األرض بالحق تعال عما يْشكون (‪)٣‬خلق‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ن نطفة فإذا هو خصي مبي (‪)٤‬واألنعام خلقها لك ْم فِيا دفء ومنافع ومْنا تأكلون (‪)٥‬ولك ْم‬‫اإلنسان م‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫فِيا َجال حي تريحون وحي تْسحون (‪)٦‬وتحمل أثقالك ْم إل بل ل ْم تكونوا بالغيه إال بشق األنفس إن‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ربك ْم لرءوف رحي (‪)٧‬والخ ْيل والبغال والحمي لَتكبوها وزينة ويخلق ما ال تعلمون (‪)٨‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أل ْم تر ك ْيف فعل ربك بأ ْصحاب الفيل (‪)١‬أل ْم يجعل ك ْيدهْ ف تضليل (‪)٢‬وأ ْرسل عل ِْي ْم طيا أبابيل (‪)٣‬ت ْرمِي ْم‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن سجيل (‪)٤‬فجعله كع ْصف مأكول (‪)٥‬‬
‫بحجارة م ْ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن عي‬ ‫هل أتاك حديث الغاشية (‪)١‬وجوه ي ْومئذ خاشعة (‪)٢‬عامل ناصبة (‪)٣‬ت ْصل نارا حامية (‪)٤‬ت ْسقى م‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ن ضريع (‪)٦‬ال ي ْسمن وال ي ْغني م ْ‬


‫ن جوع (‪)٧‬وجوه ي ْومئذ ناعمة (‪)٨‬لسعِيا راضية‬ ‫آنية (‪)٥‬ليْس لهْ طعام إال م ْ‬
‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫(‪)٩‬ف جنة عالية (‪)١١‬ال ت ْسمع فِيا الغية (‪)١١‬‬


‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫ْشكون (‪)١‬ينزل الْمالئكة بالروح م ْ‬


‫ن أ ْمره عل م ْ‬
‫ن يشاء م ْ‬
‫ن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أت أ ْمر الل فال ت ْستعجلوه س ْبحانه وتعال عما ي‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫عباده أ ْن أ ْنذروا أنه ال إل إال أنا فاتقون (‪)٢‬خلق السماوات و ْ‬
‫األرض بالحق تعال عما يْشكون (‪)٣‬خلق‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ن نطفة فإذا هو خصي مبي (‪)٤‬واألنعام خلقها لك ْم فِيا دفء ومنافع ومْنا تأكلون (‪)٥‬ولك ْم‬‫اإلنسان م‬
‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫فِيا َجال حي تريحون وحي تْسحون (‪)٦‬وتحمل أثقالك ْم إل بل ل ْم تكونوا بالغيه إال بشق األنفس إن‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ربك ْم لرءوف رحي (‪)٧‬والخ ْيل والبغال والحمي لَتكبوها وزينة ويخلق ما ال تعلمون (‪)٨‬‬
‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬ ‫’‪Raf‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أل ْم تر ك ْيف فعل ربك بأ ْصحاب الفيل (‪)١‬أل ْم يجعل ك ْيدهْ ف تضليل (‪)٢‬وأ ْرسل عل ِْي ْم طيا أبابيل (‪)٣‬ت ْرمِي ْم‬
‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Nasb‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ن سجيل (‪)٤‬فجعله كع ْصف مأكول (‪)٥‬‬
‫بحجارة م ْ‬
‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬ ‫‪Jarr‬‬
1

1.5 Properties of the Ism—Status (Pair Combinations)

We’ve learned how to tell the status of a word using ending sounds (U/UN for Raf’, A/AN for Nasb, and I/IN for
ٌ
Jarr). So if we looked at the word ‫ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬, we would say that ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ ً
is Raf’, ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬ is Nasb, and ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ is Jarr.

Now, if we wanted to talk about two Muslims, we would add some letters at the end of the word and wouldn’t
use the U/UN, A/AN, and I/IN sounds we learned before. Look at the column at the left to see what I mean:

(2R) ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ٌ ‫ﻣ‬


‫ﺴﻠﻢ‬ Raf’

ْ
(2N) ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ً
‫ﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬‫ ﻣ‬Nasb

ْ
(2J) ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ ‫ﻣ‬ Jarr

ْ ْ
When you add one of these endings, ‫ ان‬,‫ ﻳﻦ‬, ‫ ﻳﻦ‬, it means ‘two Muslims’. When you add ‫ان‬, it’s ‘two Muslims’

ْ ْ
in Raf’ form (or 2R), when you add ‫ﻳﻦ‬, it’s ‘two Muslims’ in Nasb form (2N), and when you add ‫ﻳﻦ‬, it’s ‘two

ْ
Muslims’ in Jarr form (2J). You may have noticed that 2N and 2J look the same and end with ‫ﻳﻦ‬. So how do you

know when the word is Nasb and when it’s Jarr? After learning some more Arabic, you’ll be able to tell the
difference between the two. For now, go through the exercises below to become more familiar with these new
ending combinations.
2

EXERCISES:

A. How would you say the underlined words in Arabic? Think of the job each word is playing to figure out
its status.

1. Pen (‫)ﻗﻠﻢ‬ 2. Student (‫)ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬

a. The pen broke. ________________ a. The two students studied. ________________

b. I found a pen. ________________ b. I met two students. ________________

c. The two pens write well. ________________ c. The book of the student ________________

d. She gave him two pens. ________________ d. The student passed. ________________

e. The two pens’ erasers are new.________________ e. Two students’ grades ________________

3. Messenger (‫)رﺳﻮل‬ 4. Muslim (‫)ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬

a. Two messengers came. ________________ a. A Muslim travelled. ________________

b. They followed a messenger. ________________ b. I met a Muslim. ________________

c. The messenger taught. ________________ c. Two Muslims travelled. ________________

d. The call of the messenger ________________ d. I met two Muslims. ________________

e. The call of two messengers ________________ e. The religion of a Muslim is Islam.

________________

B. What is the Status of the following words? Circle all that may apply.

ْ ْ
ٌ‫ﺎء‬ ً
‫ﺷﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬#‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻗ ْﺮﻧﲔ‬ ‫وا( ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬
R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J R N J
3

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

ٌ
1. a) doer status; ‫ﻗﻠﻢ‬ ً
b) detail status; ‫ﻗﻠﻤﺎ‬ c) doer status (pair); ‫ﻗﻠﻤﺎن‬
ْ ْ
d) detail status (pair); ‫ﻗﻠﻤﲔ‬ e) after ‘of’ status (pair); ‫ﻗﻠﻤﲔ‬
ْ
2. a) doer status (pair); ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎن‬ b) detail status (pair); ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﲔ‬ c) after ‘of’ status; ‫ﺎﻟﺐ‬
ٍ ‫ﻃ‬ َ
ٌ ْ
d) doer status; ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺐ‬ e) after ‘of’ status (pair); ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﲔ‬
ً ٌ
3. a) doer status (pair); ‫رﺳﻮﻻن‬ b) detail status; ‫رﺳﻮﻻ‬ c) doer status; ‫رﺳﻮل‬
ْ
d) after ‘of’ status; ‫رﺳﻮل‬
ٍ e) after ‘of’ status (pair); ‫رﺳﻮﻟﲔ‬

ٌ ً
4. a) doer status; ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ b) detail status; ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬ c) doer status (pair); ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬
ْ
d) detail status (pair); ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ e) after ‘of’ status; ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ

Section B:

ْ ْ
ٌ‫ﺎء‬
َ
ً
‫ﺷﺠﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬#‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫َﻗ ْﺮ َﻧﲔ‬ ‫وا( ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺒﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬
َ َ َ َ َ
R N N / J R N / J N / J R N
1

1.6 Properties of the Ism—Status (People Plural Combinations)

In the past, we learned that if we add a single harakah, or one sound, to the end of a singular word, we
can determine if it’s Raf’, Nasb, or Jarr status. These are known as ending sounds. If we add a few letters
to the end of the word (as we did to make words pair in the previous session), that’s called an ending
combination. Today, we will learn another set of ending combinations: the people plural combinations.

‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ٌ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ْ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ً
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬
ٍ

When an ‫ اﺳﻢ‬ism ends with an ‫ ون‬or and ‫ﻳﻦ‬, it’s talking about a group of people. This combination is
never used for anything that doesn’t have a brain. In the Quran, you will see this set of combinations
used for angels and jinn, as well.

Note: Whenever you are trying to determine the status of an ‫ اﺳﻢ‬ism, you have to ask yourself, ‘Is this
an ending sound or an ending combination?’ You should ALWAYS check for ending combinations first.
Once you’ve decided that it’s an ending combination, you can’t judge it as an ending sound. If you can’t
find a combination, then look for ending sounds.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪In the following list below, see if you can tell the status of each of the red words. Make sure to check for‬‬
‫‪combinations first.‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻓﺌﺘﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻣﻦ ﻧﻔ ٍﺲ واﺣﺪ ٍة‬

‫‪ .3‬إذا ﺟﺎءك اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﻘﻮن‬

‫اﻟﺼﺎدﻗﲔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧﺘﲔ واﻟﻤﻨﻔﻘﲔ‬


‫‪ .4‬و *‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .5‬واﻟﺮاﺳﺨﻮن ﰲ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫*‬
‫ْ ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬ﻓﻮق اﺛﻨﺘﲔ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺎﻓﺮة‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬إ *ن ﰲ ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﱪ ًة ﻷو‪ 8‬اﻷ ْﺑﺼﺎر‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺂر‬
‫‪ .9‬ﻏﲑ ﻣﻀ *ٍ‬
‫‪ .10‬واﻟ *‬
‫=ان‬

‫ﲑ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻋﺬاب ﻳﻮ ٍم ﻛﺒ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن اﺧﺘﺼﻤﻮا ﰲ ر *‪ْ E‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬و‪ F‬ﻣ‪H‬ﺿﻮن‬

‫ﲔ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬ﻣﻦ ﻃ ٍ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .15‬أﺟ ًﻼ و أﺟﻞ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﻃﺎ‪M‬ﻔﺘﲔ‬

‫‪ .17‬ﺑﺎﻟﺤ *ﻖ‬

‫‪ .18‬ﺑﺬﻧﻮ‪ْ E‬ﻢ‬

‫‪ .19‬اﻟﻤﻜ *ﺬﺑﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬اﻟﻤﻠ‪Q‬ﲔ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr


2. Ending Sounds: Jarr (first word), Jarr (second word)
3. Ending Combination: People Plural, Raf’
4. Ending Combination: People Plural, Nasb or Jarr
5. Ending Combination: People Plural, Raf’
6. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr
7. Ending Sound: Raf’
8. Ending Sound: Nasb
9. Ending Sound: Nasb (first word), Jarr (second word)
10. Ending Combination: Pair, Raf’
11. Ending Sound: Nasb (first word), Jarr (second word), Jarr (third word)
12. Ending Combination: Pair, Raf’
13. Ending Combination: People Plural, Raf’
14. Ending Sound: Jarr
15. Ending Sound: Raf’
16. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr
17. Ending Sound: Jarr
18. Ending Sound: Jarr
19. Ending Combination: People Plural, Nasb or Jarr
20. Ending Combination: Pair, Nasb or Jarr
1

1.8 Properties of the Ism—Status (Feminine Plural Combinations)

So far, we have learned three ways of telling Status:

ٌ
1. Ending Sounds:ِ َ ُ ٍ ً ◌
ْ ْ
2. Pair Combinations (AANI AYNI AYNI as in ‫)ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎن ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

3. People Plural Combinations (OONA EENA EENA as in ‫)ﻣﺴﻠﻤﻮن ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬

The last set of combinations we learned today is the feminine plural combination. Here’s an example we
covered in class:
ٌ ٌ
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬ (Raf’)
ْ ً
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬ (Nasb)
ْ
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬ (Jarr)

Here, you haven’t learned anything new (it’s


ْ
just putting on ending sounds or ‫ ان‬and ‫)ﻳﻦ‬

ٌ
The last column has the new combination: the addition of the ‫ ات‬and ‫ات‬
ٍ . You may have noticed that the Nasb
and Jarr versions for all the combinations look the same, and that’s also true here with the feminine plural
combination.

Just a note of caution, though:

ٌ These endings look like ending sounds! A common mistake is to not recognize the ‫ ات‬ending
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬
as a combination and label the status of these words as you would an ending sound. If you
‫ت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
made this mistake, you would say that ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬
ٍ is Jarr although, in reality, it could be Nasb
‫ت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
or Jarr from the feminine plural chart.

If you see ‫ ال‬at the beginning of a word, you will not see any tanween at the end. When you see

something like ‫ اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬or ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬, you still have the ‫ ات‬combination going on, so don’t mistaken it
as an ending sound when you’re trying to determine the status.
2

EXERCISES:

A. See if you can tell the status of every red word in the following Quranic passage. Be sure to check for
combinations first.

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
ً ‫(ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻐﲑات ﺻ ْﺒ‬٢) ‫ﺣﺎ‬
ً‫ْﻌﺎ‬4 ‫(ﻓﻮﺳﻄﻦ ﺑﻪ‬٤) ‫(ﻓﺄﺛ ْﺮن ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘ ًﻌﺎ‬٣) ‫ﺤﺎ‬ ً ‫واﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺎت ﺿ ْﺒ‬
ً ‫(ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻮرﻳﺎت ﻗﺪ‬١) ‫ﺤﺎ‬

ْ ٌ ْ ْ
‫(أﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ إذا‬٨) ‫ﺐ اﻟﺨﲑ ﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ٧
ٌ
‫ﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻬ‬‫ﺸ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ذ‬ = ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ٦ ٌ ‫ْﺴﺎن ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﻟ;ﻨ‬8‫(إن اﻹ‬٥)
‫ﻮد‬
6 6 ( ) 6 ( ) 6 6

ٌ ْ ْ
(١١) ‫ ٍﺬ ﻟﺨﺒﲑ‬S‫ ْﻢ ﻳ ْﻮﻣ‬Q ‫ ْﻢ‬Q6 ‫ن ر‬6 ‫(إ‬١٠) ‫اﻟﺼﺪور‬
6 ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﺼ‬
6 ‫ﺣ‬ ‫و‬ ( ٩) ‫ﻮر‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﰲ اﻟ‬

ٌ
B. Read the ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬ chart on page 6 in the 201 Handout Packet. The first two charts cover all the combinations
we have learned in class. Try to see if you can run through both charts using the following words. The
answer key is attached to this handout.

ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺆﻣ‬ ٌ ْ
‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ر ٌس‬6 ‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪Section A:‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺣﺎ )‪(٢‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻐﲑات ﺻ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ )‪(٣‬ﻓﺄﺛ ْﺮن ﺑﻪ ﻧﻘ ًﻌﺎ )‪(٤‬ﻓﻮﺳﻄﻦ ﺑﻪ ‪ً ْ4‬ﻌﺎ )‪(٥‬إ ‪6‬ن‬ ‫واﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺎت ﺿ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ )‪(١‬ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻮرﻳﺎت ﻗﺪ ً‬

‫اﻹ‪ْ8‬ﺴﺎن ﻟﺮﺑﻪ ﻟ;ﻨ ٌ‬


‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N/J‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N/J‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬ ‫‪N/J‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﺐ اﻟﺨﲑ ﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ )‪(٨‬أﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ إذا ﺑﻌﺜﺮ ﻣﺎ ﰲ‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﺤ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬‫‪6‬‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬‫(‬ ‫‪٧‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻴﺪ‬‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﺸ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻟ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫=‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫ﻧ‬‫‪6‬‬ ‫إ‬ ‫و‬ ‫(‬‫‪٦‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻮد‬ ‫‪6‬‬
‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪N‬‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﺼﺪور )‪(١٠‬إ ‪6‬ن ر‪ْ Q‬ﻢ ‪ْ Q‬ﻢ ﻳ ْﻮﻣ‪ٍ S‬ﺬ ﻟﺨﺒﲑ )‪(١١‬‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ﺼ‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫و‬ ‫‪٩‬‬ ‫ﻮر‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻘ‬ ‫اﻟ‬
‫‪6‬‬
‫(‬ ‫)‬
‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬
‫‪Section B:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬ر ٌس‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬ر ًﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮً ا‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬ر ٍس‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٍﺮ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬


‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮات‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ًﺔ‬ ‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ًة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪ ‪6‬رﺳ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍة‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺆﻣ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬


‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪون‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪان‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨًﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑ ًﺪا‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑ ٍﺪ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬


‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪات‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ًﺔ‬ ‫ات‬
‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ًة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ات‬
‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺑﺪ ٍة‬
1

1.9 Properties of the Ism—Comprehensive Notes and Introduction to Light & Heavy

Here is what your notes should look like regarding everything we’ve covered so far:

An ‫ اﺳﻢ‬has 4 properties (Status, Number, Gender, and Type)

1. Status
A. Forms of Status
ٌ ْ ْ
(after ‘of’) ‫ﺟﺮ‬ ٌ ‫ﻧﺼ‬
(detail) ‫ﺐ‬ (doer) ‫رﻓ ٌﻊ‬

B. How to tell Status

a. By Ending Sounds:

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬


U / UN = R
A / AN = N
ْ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ًﻤﺎ‬
I / IN = J
b. By Ending Combinations
ْ
i. Pair Combinations ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٍﻢ‬
AANI = 2R

ٌ ٌ
AYNI = 2N
AYNI = 2J ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
ْ
ْ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬
ii. People Plural
Combinations ‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴ ﻠ ﻤ‬
ْ ْ
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴ ﻠ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬
OONA = Pl.R
EENA = Pl.N
EENa = Pl.J
iii. Feminine Plural Combinations
AATUN = Pl.F.R
AATIN = Pl.F.N
AATIN = Pl.F.J

C. Pronouns are weird (leave this in your notes for now. We’ll come back to this later.)
2

All the words in the chart above (pg.6 of the 201 Handout) are considered FAT or HEAVY. When you say the
chart out loud, you’ll notice that all of the words end in an ‘n’ sound, even if they don’t have a ‫ ن‬at the end.

To make a word light, and not HEAVY, the extra ‘n’ sound is taken off. If you see a double accent on words such
ْ ‫ ﻣ‬or ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬, you can lighten them by reducing them to single accents like ‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬and ‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮ‬. Another way
as ‫ﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ٍ َ َ
ْ ‫ ﻣ‬and
you can lighten a word is by removing the extra ‫ ن‬from its ending combination. In cases like ‫ﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬
َ
ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻣ" َﻗﲔ‬, the light versions would be ‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮ‬and ‫ ﻣ" َﻗ ْﻲ‬, respectively.
َ َ

Here is light version of the chart on pg.6:

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬


َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬
َ َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬
َ

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬


َ َ َ َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ َﺔ‬
َ َ َ َ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘ ْﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
َ َ َ َ

For the feminine plural column, I didn’t take the ‫ ت‬off. I’m only concerned about removing the extra ‘n’ sound,

not ‫ت‬.
3

EXERCISES:

A. Try the following exercises to see if you can recognize which words in red are LIGHT and HEAVY. If the
word is HEAVY, how would you make it light?

‫ اﻟﻨَﺎس‬.1
Note: You don’t ask if a word is LIGHT or HEAVY if the
word has an ‫ ال‬on it.
ْ
‫ ﻓﺌﺘﲔ‬.2

‫ اﻟﺼﺎدﻗﲔ‬.3

‫ﲔ‬
ٍ ‫ ﻃ‬.4
‫ آﺧﺮﻳﻦ‬.5

‫ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬.6

‫ ﻣﻘﻴﻤﻲ اﻟﺼﻼة‬.7

‫ اﻟﻤﻜﺬﺑﲔ‬.8
ٌ
‫ آﻳﺎت‬.9

‫ ﻋﻤ ٍﺪ‬.10

‫ان‬9‫ اﻟﻮا‬.11
ْ
‫ اﻟﺤﻤﺪ‬.12

‫ﻳﻦ‬9‫ ﻳ ْﻮم ا‬.13

‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ ﺻﺎﻟﺤ‬.14

‫ رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬.15

‫ اﻟﺴﺪس‬.16

‫ﻳﻦ‬9‫ ﺧﺎ‬.17
ْ
‫ اﻟﻤ"ق‬. 18
ْ
‫ ﻧﻔ ٍﺲ‬.19

‫ واﺣﺪة‬.20
4

ANSWER KEY:

(H = HEAVY ; L = light; if the light/HEAVY question isn’t asked of this word = NA)

1. NA

2. H (L = ‫ﺘ ْﻲ‬C‫) ﻓ‬

3. NA

4. H (L = ‫)ﻃﲔ‬

5. H (L = ‫)آﺧﺮي‬

6. L

7. L

8. NA

9. H (L = ‫)آﻳﺎت‬

10. H (L = ‫)ﻋﻤﺪ‬

11. NA

12. NA

13. L

14. H (L = ‫)ﺻﺎﻟﺤﺎت‬

15. L

16. NA

17. H (L = ‫ي‬9‫)ﺧﺎ‬

18. NA
ْ
19. H (L = ‫) ﻧﻔﺲ‬

20. L
1

1.11 Properties of the Ism—Light and Heavy (Notes and Practice)

Here are a few notes we made in class about light and heavy status that we can refer back to later once we learn
more Arabic:

• ْ ‫ون ﻳﻦ‬, etc).


Normally, a word should have HEAVY status (with ٍ ً ٌ◌, ‫ﻳﻦ ان‬,
• Light isms are suspicious…if a word is light, it needs to have a reason to be so. There are four reasons
that a word can be light:

1. ________________
2. ________________
3. ________________
4. ________________

Although we didn’t mention them in class, a word must have one of these four reasons in order to be light. We’ll
learn what these four reasons are later.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪Are the red words light or heavy‬‬

‫ﻮم )‪ْ ((٢٠‬ﺸﻬﺪه اﻟْﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢١‬إن ْ‬


‫اﻷﺑﺮار ﻟﻔﻲ ﻧﻌ ٍ‪(٢٢) 1‬ﻋ‪ 4‬اﻷرا‪6‬ﻚ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ أ ْدراك ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻮن )‪(١٩‬ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺎب ﻣ ْﺮﻗ ٌ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻀﺮة اﻟﻨﻌ‪ْ ((٢٤) 1‬ﺴﻘ ْﻮن ﻣ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮم )‪(٢٥‬ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻪ ﻣ ْﺴﻚ وﰲ ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻴﻖ ﻣﺨﺘ ٍ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ﺣ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮون )‪(٢٣‬ﺗ;ف ﰲ وﺟﻮﻫ@ ﻧ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻓ ْﻠﻴﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ اﻟْﻤﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮن )‪(٢٦‬وﻣﺰاﺟﻪ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ‪ْ P‬ﺴﻨ ٍ‪(٢٧) 1‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨًﺎ (‪R‬ب ‪S‬ﺎ اﻟﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢٨‬إن ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ أﺟﺮﻣﻮا ﻛﺎﻧﻮا‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ آﻣﻨﻮا ﻳﻀﺤﻜﻮن )‪(٢٩‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﺳﺘ ْﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟْ ْ‬
‫;وة‬ ‫ﻛﺮاه ﰲ ا‪Z‬ﻳﻦ ﻗ ْﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ اﻟﺮ ْﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟْﻐﻲ ﻓﻤ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﻜﻔ ْﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮت وﻳ ْﺆﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻻإ‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎم ‪h‬ﺎ واﷲ ‪ٌ j‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ‪(٢٥٦) ٌ1‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺛﻘﻰ ﻻ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ﻮم )‪ْ ((٢٠‬ﺸﻬﺪه اﻟْﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢١‬إن ْ‬


‫اﻷﺑﺮار ﻟﻔﻲ ﻧﻌ ٍ‪(٢٢) 1‬ﻋ‪ 4‬اﻷرا‪6‬ﻚ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ أ ْدراك ﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻮن )‪(١٩‬ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺎب ﻣ ْﺮﻗ ٌ‬
‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻮم )‪(٢٥‬ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻪ ﻣ ْﺴﻚ وﰲ ذﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻴﻖ ﻣﺨﺘ ٍ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮون )‪(٢٣‬ﺗ;ف ﰲ وﺟﻮﻫ@ ﻧﻀﺮة اﻟﻨﻌ‪((٢٤) 1‬ﺴﻘﻮن ﻣﻦ رﺣ ٍ‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻓ ْﻠﻴﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ اﻟْﻤﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻮن )‪(٢٦‬وﻣﺰاﺟﻪ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ‪ْ P‬ﺴﻨ ٍ‪(٢٧) 1‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨًﺎ (‪R‬ب ‪S‬ﺎ اﻟﻤﻘﺮﺑﻮن )‪(٢٨‬إن ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ أﺟﺮﻣﻮا ﻛﺎﻧﻮا‬
‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬
‫‪H‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ا‪U‬ﻳﻦ آﻣﻨﻮا ﻳﻀﺤﻜﻮن )‪(٢٩‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻛﺮاه ﰲ ا‪Z‬ﻳﻦ ﻗ ْﺪ ﺗﺒﲔ اﻟﺮ ْﺷﺪ ﻣﻦ اﻟْﻐﻲ ﻓﻤ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻏﻮت وﻳﺆﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻓﻘﺪ اﺳﺘﻤﺴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟ;وة‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻻإ‬
‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎم ‪h‬ﺎ واﷲ ‪ٌ j‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ‪(٢٥٦) ٌ1‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺛﻘﻰ ﻻ‬
‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪H‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪NA‬‬
1

1.12 Properties of the Ism—Flexibility

Overview of Status:

1. Forms (R, N, J)
2. How to Tell Status (Ending Sounds, Ending Combinations)
3. Light or Heavy (normally, a word is heavy and must have a reason to be light)
4. Flexibility

In class today, we covered our last lesson on status, the flexibility of a word, and took the following
notes:

Flexibility:

1. Flexible (most words)


2. Non-Flexible (few words)
3. Partly Flexible (special words)

1. Flexible words: Most words in Arabic are like play dough—you can bend them however you want.
You can take a word like ٌ‫ م ْس ِلم‬and bend it to be ٌ‫م ْس ِل ًما‬, or bend it again and turn it into ٌ‫م ْس ِلم‬. We
ُ ُ ُ
can bend them however we want, in terms of status. All words on pg.6, and any word consistent
with the endings on pg.6, are flexible words.
2. Non-flexible words: There are a few words in Arabic that sound the same whether you say them in
Raf, Nasb, or Jarr status, and will not change at all. Words that sound like they end in an alif behave
ْ ْ
this way, such as: ‫ك ِريٌا‬
َ ‫ه َدى ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌحسنىٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ َهذا ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌيحيىٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌ ٌز‬
ُ
َ َ َ َ ُ
3. Partly Flexible words: While fully flexible words look different in their Raf’, Nasb, or Jarr status, and
Non-flexible words look the same regardless of their status, partly flexible words have a slightly
different way of showing their status. I’ve listed the Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr versions of a fully-flexible
word (‫هود‬
ُ ( and a partly flexible word (‫)يوسف‬:

ٌ ‫ود‬
ٌ ‫ه‬ُ ٌ ٌ‫هودًا‬
ُ ٌ‫هود‬
ُ

ٌ ٌ‫ف‬
َ ‫وس‬
ٌ ‫ٌي‬ ٌ‫ف‬
ٌ َ ‫وس‬
ٌ ‫ي‬ ٌ‫ف‬
ُ ‫وس‬
ٌ ‫ي‬
ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ ُ
2

Do you notice the differences? ‫ يوسف‬isn’t heavy in any status, and Its Jarr version looks just like its

Nasb version. This is because a partly flexible must always be light, and cannot take an ‘i’ or ‫كرسة‬
sound. Remember than lightness means that a word cannot have double accents like ‘un,’ ‘an,’ or
‘in,’ nor can its combination end with a ‫ن‬.

In class, we limited our discussion to two kinds of partly flexibles: names of places and non-Arab
names. There are four Arab Prophets: ٌ‫محمدٌص‬,‫شع ْيب‬ ٌ ٌ, ‫هود‬
ُ , and ‫صالِح‬.
َُ َ
These names will not be
considered partly-flexible because they are Arabs. All other names of prophets, therefore, will be
considered non-Arab. This eliminates the guessing game for you. Otherwise, you would have been
left in the dark wondering which are Arab in the Quran and which aren’t.
3

EXERCISES:

A. Use the following as a guide to make the Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr versions of each of the following words.
The answer key is attached.

ٌ‫حا ٌصالِح‬ً ‫صالحٌصال‬


َ ِ َ ِ َ
(fully flexible)

ْ ْ ْ
ٌ ‫( يع ُقوبٌيع ُقوبٌيع ُق‬partly flexible because he’s not Arab)
‫وب‬
َ َ َ َ ُ َ

ْ ْ
‫يونُس‬ ‫ائيل‬
ِ ‫ِإس َر‬ ‫ِإ ْسحاق‬ ‫اعيل‬
ِ ‫ْس‬
َ ‫ِإ‬ ‫مح َمد‬
ُ َ َ ُ
‫فِ ْرع ْون‬ ‫موىس‬ ‫َهارون‬ ‫شع ْيب‬ ‫هود‬
َ ُ ُ َُ ُ

B. Using the translation as a clue, tell whether the words in red are partly flexible:

ٌ ٌ‫اهي‬ ْ
ِ ‫ ِم َّلٌَ ِإبر‬.1
The nation of Ibraheem
َ َ
‫الص ََل ٌِة‬
َ ٌَ‫ مُ ِقي‬.2
The establisher of prayer

ْ ‫ أ‬.3
َ‫ي‬
ٌ ‫جرٌالعا ِم ِل‬
َ ُ َ
The reward of the workers

ٌ ٌ‫الكتاب‬
ُ َ ِ
The book
.4
ْ
ٌ ‫ َتقوى‬.5
Taqwa
َ
ٌ‫اسخُون‬
ِ ‫الر‬
The well-grounded ones
َ َ
.6

ٌ ‫ داو‬.7
‫ود‬
Dawood
ُُ َ
ْ ْ
ٌ ‫ب‬
ٌ ‫ أَه َلٌيث ِر‬.8
The people of Yathrib
َ َ
ٌ ٌ‫ات‬
ِ ‫الش َهو‬ٌ‫ حب‬.9
The love of desires
َ َ ُ ُ
ْ
ٌ ‫اس‬
ٌ ‫ ِإلي‬.10
Ilyaas
َ َ
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪Section A:‬‬

‫مح َمدٌمح َم ًداٌمح َمدٌ‬


‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اع َ ٌ‬
‫يل‬ ‫ْس ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ٌإ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫يل‬
‫َ‬ ‫اع‬‫ِ‬ ‫ْس‬
‫َ‬ ‫إ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫يل‬
‫ُ‬ ‫اع‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ْس‬
‫ِإ َ‬

‫اقٌ‬
‫ح َ‬ ‫إ ْسحاقٌإ ْسحاقٌإ ْس‬
‫ِ َ ُِ َ َ ِ َ‬
‫يلٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ائ َ‬
‫يلٌ ِإسر ِ‬
‫ائ َ‬
‫يل ٌِإسر ِ‬
‫ائ ُ‬
‫ِإسر ِ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫يونُسٌيونُسٌيونُسٌ‬
‫ُ ُ ُ َ ُ َ‬
‫ٌهودٌ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ٌهودا ُ‬
‫هود ُ‬
‫ُ‬

‫ٌشع ْيبٌ‬ ‫ٌشع ْي ًبا‬ ‫شع ْيب‬


‫َُ‬ ‫َُ‬ ‫َُ‬
‫ٌهارونٌ‬ ‫هارونٌهارون‬
‫َ ُ ُ َ ُ َ َ ُ َ‬
‫موىسٌموىسٌموىسٌ‬
‫ُ َ ُ َ ُ َ‬
‫فِ ْرع ْونٌفِ ْرع ْونٌفِ ْرع ْونٌ‬
‫َ ُ َ َ َ َ‬

‫‪Section B:‬‬ ‫)‪(FF = Fully Flexible; NF = Non-Flexible; PF = Partly Flexible‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪5.‬‬ ‫‪NF‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪7.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
‫‪9.‬‬ ‫‪FF‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬ ‫‪PF‬‬
1

2.1 Properties of the Ism—Introduction to Number

There is a lot of overlap between the study of status and number, so you will have to do very little work
in understanding this lesson. Just as Isms in Arabic have status, they also have number which tells you if
the word is singular, pair or plural. The ending sounds and ending combinations we learned in status can
also help you distinguish between words that are singular and words that are not. The following list
outlines the notes we took on number and how to tell if a word belongs to that number category:

Number:

1. Singular (ES)
2. Pair (EC)
3. People Plural (EC)
4. Feminine Plural (EC)
5. Human Broken Plurals (ES)
6. Non-human Broken Plurals (ES)

Words that end in ending combinations may be pair or plural (depending on the combination). You may
have noticed that ending sounds may be used to tell if a word is singular or a broken plural. This creates
a problem: how do you know if you’re looking at a singular word or a broken plural? That’s where
vocabulary comes in—you need to know what the word means, and that will be the deciding factor.

What is a broken plural, anyway? Broken plurals exist in English, as well. Normally, to make a word
plural in English, you can add an ‘s’ at the end (‘book’ becomes ‘books,’ ‘car’ becomes ‘cars, ‘house’
becomes ‘houses,’ etc). Any plural that doesn’t simply take an ‘s’ to become a plural is considered a
broken plural. Geese, teeth, and mice are examples of broken plurals in English because they aren’t
predictable and need to be learned on a case-by-case basis. Arabic broken plurals are simply defined as
any plurals that don’t end with a plural combination: pair (aani, ayni), people plural (oona, eena) or
feminine plural (aatun, aatin). Common examples of Arabic broken plurals you may have heard are
‫( ﻛﻔﺎر‬the plural of ‫)ﻛﺎﻓﺮ‬, ‫( رﺳﻞ‬the plural of ‫)رﺳﻮل‬, and ‫( ﻛﺘﺐ‬the plural of ‫)ﻛﺘﺎب‬.
2

EXERCISES:

What is the number of each of the red words below? How can you tell?

‫ﲔ‬ ْ
ٍ ‫ ﻣﻦ ﻃ‬.1
From clay

‫ ﻣ َﻼﻗﻮن‬.2
Those who will meet
َ
ْ
‫ﻃﺎ َﻔﺘﲔ‬
Two groups
َ َ
.3
ْ
‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﺿ‬ ‫ ﻣ‬.4
The ones who ignore
َ
‫ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻖ‬.5
The truth
َ
Drink ٌ‫ ﺷﺮاب‬.6
َ َ
ْ
‫اﷲ‬
َ ‫ َوﻋﺪ‬.7
The promise of Allah

‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ﻜ ﺬﺑ‬
َ ‫ اﻟﻤ‬.8
The ones who deliberately ignore

ْ
‫ﲔ‬- َ ‫اﻟﻤ َﻠ‬
The two angels
َ
.9

‫ آﻳﺎت‬.10
Miraculous signs
َ
ٌ ْ
‫ ﻣﺆﻣﻨَﺎت‬.11
Believing women

‫ ﺟﻨَﺘﺎن‬.12
Two gardens
َ َ
‫ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬
Two arguers
َ َ
.13

‫ﲔ‬ ْ ‫ أ‬.14
َ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠ‬ ‫ﺟﺮ‬ َ
The reward of the workers
َ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﻧﺘ‬
The subservient ones
َ .15
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. Sing, ES
2. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
3. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
4. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
5. Sing, ES
6. Sing, ES
7. Sing, ES
8. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
9. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
10. Plrl, EC (Fem Plrl Comb)
11. Plrl, EC (Fem Plrl Comb)
12. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
13. Pair, EC (Pair Comb)
14. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
15. Plrl, EC (People Plrl Comb)
1

2.2 Properties of the Ism—Number cont’d.

We’re almost done with our study of number. So far, your notes should look like this:

Number:

1. Singular (ES)
2. Pair (EC)
3. People Plural (EC)
4. Feminine Plural (EC)
5. Human Broken Plurals (ES)
6. Non-human Broken Plurals (ES)

There’s only one crazy rule in Arabic that we’ll have to get used to: Arabs treat non-human broken
plurals like a ‘she.’

This is weird on two levels: the broken plural you’re talking about may have nothing to do with a girl and
the word is plural in meaning, but the Arabs treat it as a ‘she’ (singular and feminine), anyway. For
example, an Arab would say:

Fatimah bought four books. She read each of her quickly. After finishing, she returned all of her
to the store, even though she liked her very much.

In English, it would have been:

Fatimah bought four books. She read each of them quickly. After finishing, she returned all of
them to the store, even though she liked them very much.

You’ll get used to this rule as you practice identifying non-human broken plurals.
2

EXERCISES:

Broken Plurals: Tell the Number and Gender of the word

‫ ﻗﻠﻮ ْﻢ‬.1
Their hearts

ْ ْ
‫ﻌ‬
Their hearing
.2
Their eyes ْ ‫ أ ْﺑﺼﺎر‬.3
Punishment ٌ ‫ ﻋﺬ‬.4
‫اب‬

‫ اﻟﺴﻔﻬﺎء‬.5
The fools

‫ﺎت‬ٍ ‫ ﻇﻠﻤ‬.6
Darknesses

ٌ
# .7
Deaf people

ْ
‫ ٌﻢ‬$‫ ﺑ‬.8
Mute people

Blind people ٌ ‫ ﻋ ْﻤ‬.9


‫ﻲ‬
ْ
‫ أﺻﺎﺑﻌ‬.10
Their fingers

‫ ﺷﻬﺪاءﻛ ْﻢ‬.11
Your witnesses

‫ اﻟﺤﺠﺎرة‬.12
The rocks

‫ اﻟﻨﺎس‬.13
The people

ٌ
‫ ﺟﻨﺎت‬.14
Gardens

Spouses ٌ ‫ أ ْزو‬.15
‫اج‬
ْ
‫ اﻷ ﺎء‬.16
The names

‫ اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬.17
The skies

‫ أﺑﺎرﻳﻖ‬.18
Goblets

Backs ٌ ‫ ﻇﻬ‬.19
‫ﻮر‬
Heads ٌ ‫ رؤ‬.20
‫وس‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. S, F
2. S, M
3. S, F
4. S, M
5. S, F or PL,M (human broken plural)
6. PL, F
7. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
8. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
9. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
10. S, F
11. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
12. S, F
13. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
14. PL, F
15. S, F or PL, M (human broken plural)
16. S, F
17. S, F
18. S, F
19. S, F
20. S, F
1

3.1 Properties of the Ism—Gender (Fake Feminine)

In English, we say that something is a ‘he,’ ‘she,’ or ‘it.’ ‘It’ does not exist in Arabic. In Arabic, everything
has a gender, a masculine or feminine gender. Something we would call an ‘it’ in English is given a fake
gender in Arabic. How do you know what the gender of a word is? Here’s a good rule of thumb:

Pretend that all words are masculine unless you find certain clues to make the word feminine.

By this logic, it would only make sense to study the feminine since everything else will be considered
masculine.

There are two kinds of feminine in Arabic:

1. Real Feminine
2. Fake Feminine

1. Real Feminine is just another word for female. Real feminine words will be considered feminine
ٌ ٌ ْ
whether the word is in Arabic or not. ‫( أم‬mom), ‫( ا ْﻣﺮأة‬woman/wife), ‫( أﺧﺖ‬sister), ‫( ﺧﺎل‬maternal

ٌ
aunt), ‫( ﻋﻤﺔ‬paternal aunt), ‫ ﺣ ْﺴﻨﻰ‬Husna, ‫ ﻋﺎ ﺸﺔ‬Ayesha, etc are examples of real feminine.

2. Fake Feminine: There are 3 kinds of fake feminine. We only covered one of them in class today:

a. If a word ends with ‫ ة‬, ‫ ٰى‬, or ‫ آء‬, chances are that the word is feminine.

ْ ٌ ْ ٌ ٌ ْ
‫( ر ﺔ‬mercy), ‫( ﻣﻐﻔﺮة‬forgiveness), ‫( ﺻﻼة‬prayer), ‫( ﻗﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬resurrection), ‫( ('ى‬good news),

ْ ْ
‫( ﻛﱪى‬greater/greatest), ‫( ﺑ ْﻴﻀﺂء‬white), ‫( ز ْرﻗﺂء‬blue), ‫( ﺧﻀﺮآء‬green), etc are all considered

fake feminine.

ْ ْ
However, ‫ﻋﺒ ْﻴﺪة‬, ‫ﻃﻠﺤﺔ‬, 4‫ ﻣﻮ‬, and ‫ ﻳﺤﻴﻰ‬are men’s names even though they end with ‫ ة‬or ‫ى‬
ٰ .

Since they already have a real gender, they’re not considered fake feminine.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Tell the Status, Number, and Gender:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻟ ْﻴ‪ً9‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻃﺎ ﻔﺘﲔ‬

‫‪ .3‬وﺑﻨﺎﺗ? ْﻢ‬

‫‪ .4‬اﻟ?ﺘﺎب‬

‫‪ .5‬آﻳﺎت‬

‫‪ .6‬ﺟﻨ ًﺔ‬

‫‪ .7‬اﻟﻤﺘﻘﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﺼ‪D‬ى‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9‬ﻣﻔﻠﺤﻮن‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻋﺬ ٌ‬
‫اب‬

‫ﺎت‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻇﻠﻤ ٍ‬

‫‪ .12‬اﻟﺤﺠﺎرة‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨﲔ‬

‫‪ .14‬اﻟﻮا‪K‬ان‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬اﻷﻗﺮﺑﻮن‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. N, S, F
2. N/J, PAIR, F
3. R, PL, F
4. R, S, M
5. R, PL, F
6. N, S, F
7. N/J, PL, M
8. R/N/J, S, F
9. R, PL, M
10. R, S, M
11. N/J, PL, F
12. R, S, F
13. N/J, PAIR, F
14. R, PAIR, M
15. R, PL, M
1

3.1.1 Fi’l Past Passive

We’ve finished the basics of grammar and started learning the meanings of the first ayaat of Surah Kahf.
We’re going to be starting Unit 3, Sarf, really soon. Before we do, though, we’re going to learn a few
things about passives. There are two kinds of passives: past passive and present passive. Passives are a
fi’l thing—not an ism or harf thing. Right now, we’ll focus on the past passives. Look at the fi’l below:

‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫درس‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬


He wrote He fought He killed He taught He helped

In English, if I were to say, “He helped,” who’s the doer? “He” is. If I said, “The teacher helped,” who
helped? “The teacher” did. Now, if I said, “He was helped,” who helped? We don’t know. Likewise, if I
said, “The teacher was helped,” I don’t know who the doer is. I know the teacher was helped, but I don’t
know who did the helping. In cases like this, when the fi’l is mentioned, but you don’t know who the
doer is, you call that fi’l passive. The doer is a mystery. When you do know who the doer is like in “he
helped,” you’d say the fi’l is active.

You can make a word passive in English by adding words like “was,” “is being,” etc, for example, “He
sees” (active) becomes “He is being seen” (passive, because we don’t know who is doing the act of
seeing). Take a look at the second line to see how I’m going to make the first row passive:

‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫درس‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬

‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫درس‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬

Notice when I wrote the second line, the ending always stayed ‘a.’ I didn’t mess with the ending at all. I
did, however, change the first couple sounds, and I made the same change to every word. I made the
word sound like there was an ‘u’ and then an ‘e.’ When you’ve got a past tense fi’l invaded by an ‘u’ and
‘e’ sound (remember, the last letter is off-limits), the fi’l becomes passive.

‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫در س‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬


He wrote He fought He killed He taught He helped

‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺗﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬ ‫در س‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬


It was written (“he He was fought He was killed He was taught He was helped
was written” is
doesn’t make
sense)
2

EXERCISES:

A. Which of the following words are passive?

ْ ْ ْ ْ
(٨) ‫ وإذا اﻟﻤ ْﻮءودة ﺳ ﻠﺖ‬.8 (١) ‫ إذا اﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻛﻮرت‬.1
ْ ْ ْ ْ
(٩) ‫ﺐ ﻗﺘﻠﺖ‬
ٍ ‫ ﺑﺄي ذﻧ‬.9 (٢) ‫ وإذا اﻟﻨﺠﻮم اﻧﻜﺪرت‬.2
ْ ْ ْ
(١٠) ‫ت‬34 ‫ وإذا اﻟﺼﺤﻒ‬.10 (٣) ‫ وإذا اﻟﺠﺒﺎل ﺳﲑت‬.3
ْ ْ ْ
(١١) ‫ وإذا اﻟﺴﻤﺎء ﻛﺸﻄﺖ‬.11 (٤) ‫ وإذا اﻟﻌﺸﺎر ﻋﻄﻠﺖ‬.4
ْ ْ ْ ْ
(١٢) ‫ وإذا اﻟﺠﺤ? ﺳ@ت‬.12 (٥) ‫ت‬3‫ وإذا اﻟﻮﺣﻮش ﺣ‬.5
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
(١٣) ‫ وإذا اﻟﺠﻨﺔ أزﻟﻔﺖ‬.13 (٦) ‫ وإذا اﻟﺒﺤﺎر ﺳﺠﺮت‬.6
ْ ْ ‫ﺖ ﻧ ْﻔ ٌﺲ ﻣﺎ أ‬
ْ ْ
(١٤) ‫ﺣﻀﺮت‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﻤ‬.14 (٧) ‫ وإذا اﻟﻨﻔﻮس زوﺟﺖ‬.7

B. Try to make each of the following words passive. Remember that you want and ‘u’ and ‘e’ sound
take over the fi’l if you want to make it a passive past tense. (Hint: You can use multiple u’s and
at least one ‘e’ when you want to make a passive past tense. This will come in handy when you
see a fi’l with lots of letters in it!)

‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫أ ْرﺳﻞ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﺄل‬

‫ﺗﺬ ﻛ ﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎون‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬


ْ
‫ﻊ‬S ‫أﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺪ ل‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬
ْ
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬ ‫ﻗﺮأ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬

C. Take the following fi’l, make them passive, and run through them through the entire past tense
chart.

‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬


‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪A.‬‬ ‫‪ .8‬وإذا اﻟﻤ ْﻮءودة ﺳ ﻠﺖ )‪passive (٨‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬إذا اﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻛﻮرت )‪passive (١‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺐ ﻗﺘﻠﺖ )‪passive (٩‬‬ ‫‪ .9‬ﺑﺄي ذﻧ ٍ‬ ‫‪ .2‬وإذا اﻟﻨﺠﻮم اﻧﻜﺪرت )‪(٢‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .10‬وإذا اﻟﺼﺤﻒ ‪34‬ت )‪passive (١٠‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬وإذا اﻟﺠﺒﺎل ﺳﲑت )‪passive (٣‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .12‬وإذا اﻟﺠﺤ? ﺳ@ت )‪passive (١٢‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬وإذا اﻟﻮﺣﻮش ﺣ‪3‬ت )‪passive (٥‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬وإذا اﻟﺠﻨﺔ أزﻟﻔﺖ )‪passive (١٣‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬وإذا اﻟﺒﺤﺎر ﺳﺠﺮت )‪passive (٦‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﺖ ﻧ ْﻔ ٌﺲ ﻣﺎ أ ْ‬‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺮت )‪(١٤‬‬ ‫‪ .14‬ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ‫‪ .7‬وإذا اﻟﻨﻔﻮس زوﺟﺖ )‪passive (٧‬‬

‫‪B.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫أ ْرﺳﻞ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻮون‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻞ‬


‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬ ‫ﻗﺮئ‬ ‫أﻣ ﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬

‫‪C.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮوا‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮا‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮت‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮ ْ‬
‫[‬ ‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮت‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠ ْﻤ\ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮت‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺘﻦ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺼ ْﺮت‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫ﻛﺘﺒﻮا‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻛﺘﱭ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬
‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒ\ْ‬ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﺖ‬

‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﺖ‬

‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘ ْﺒﺖ‬


1

3.1.2 Fi’l Present Passive

We’re continuing our discussion on passives—just like there are past passive fi’l, there are present
passive fi’l, too. We know that the two sounds that take over a passive past tense are ‘u’ and ‘e’. Now, if
ْ
you want to make present tense fi’l like ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬, ‘He writes’ passive, two other sounds take over: ‘u’ and
‘a.’ We’re going to leave the last letter of the present tense alone—that’s off-limits. So:
ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬
taken over by ‘u’
and ‘a’ sound

ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬, ‘He writes,’ was made passive when it was taken over by an ‘u’ and ‘a’ sound, turning into ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬,

‘It was written.’ If I look at ‫ﻳﺪرس‬, for example, it already has an ‘u’ in it. so I just need to make one

change to make it passive, ‫ﻳﺪرس‬:

‫ﻳﺪرس‬ ‫ﻳﺪرس‬

So, the two sounds that take over a past tense are ‘u’ and ‘e.’ In a past tense, sometimes you have
multiple letters. So what do you do to all the other letters? The idea is to leave the last letter alone. All
you have to do is make sure that the second-last letter is ‘e,’ and the rest should all be ‘u.’ You can have
as many ‘u’s as you need, but you need one ‘e.

On the other hand, if there are multiple letters in the present tense fi’l, you just need one ‘u’, and can
have as many ‘a’s as you need. I’m writing it out here for you so it’s easier to see where I’m going with
this:

ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬

‫ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮون‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮون‬ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮوا‬ ‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮوا‬


ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
2

EXERCISES:

A. Make the following fi’l passive. Make sure you pay attention to whether or not the fi’l is past or
present tense so you know which two sounds are important!

ْ
‫ أﻧﺬر‬.1
ْ
‫ !ﻛﻮن‬.2
ْ
‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬.3
ْ
‫ ﺳﺒﺤﺖ‬.4
ْ
‫ ْﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬.5

‫ أﻣﺮوا‬.6
ْ
‫ ا ْﺳﺘﻤﻌﻦ‬.7

‫ ﻛﱪا‬.8
ْ
‫ ﻳﺄﻣﺮون‬.9

‫ ﻋﺬب‬.10

‫ ﻳﻘﺪر‬.11
ْ ْ ‫ ا‬.12
‫ﺪت‬1‫ﺟ‬
ْ
‫ﺪ‬1‫ ﺗﺠ‬.13

‫ أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬.14

‫ ﻏﻔﺮ‬.15

‫ وﺟﺪ‬.16

B. Take the following verbs, make them passive, and run through the past tense chart (if the fi’l
listed past tense) or the present tense chart (if the fi’l listed is present tense):

ْ
!5 7‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪A.‬‬ ‫أﻧﺬر ‪1.‬‬ ‫!ﻛﻮن ‪2.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌ َﻠﻢ ‪3.‬‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺳﺒﺤﺖ ‪4.‬‬ ‫ْﺴﺘﺨ َﺪم ‪5.‬‬ ‫أﻣﺮوا ‪6.‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا ْﺳﺘﻤﻌﻦ ‪7.‬‬ ‫ﻛﱪا ‪8.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺆﻣﺮون ‪9.‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْ‬
‫ﻋﺬب ‪10.‬‬ ‫ﻳ َﻘ َﺪر ‪11.‬‬ ‫ﺟ‪َ 1‬ﺪت ‪12.‬‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺗﺠ َ‪1‬ﺪ ‪13.‬‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ ‪14.‬‬ ‫ﻏﻔﺮ ‪15.‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫وﺟ َﺪ ‪16.‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻓﻬﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‪َ 7‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌ َﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻳﻌ َﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻌ َﻠﻢ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪B.‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ ﻬ ﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﻌ َﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻢ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ﻓﻬ ْﻤ;ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻓ ﻬ ﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻤﻮن‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻤﺎن‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻢ‬
‫ْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻤﺘ َ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ ﻬ ﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌ َﻠﻤﲔَ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻤﻨَﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ ﻬ ﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻌ َﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻋﻠَﻢ‬

‫‪!5‬وا‬ ‫‪!5‬ا‬ ‫‪!5‬‬


‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪ْ 5‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫!ن‬ ‫‪َ !5‬ﺗﺎ‬ ‫‪!5‬ت‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫! ْ‬
‫>‬ ‫‪ْ 5‬‬ ‫!ﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪ْ 5‬‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫‪َ !5‬‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫‪ْ 5‬‬ ‫‪ْ 5‬‬
‫‪!5‬ﺗ َ‬ ‫!ﺗﻤﺎ‬
‫َ‬
‫!ت‬

‫‪َ !5‬ﻧﺎ‬ ‫‪ْ 5‬‬


‫!ت‬
1

3.2 Properties of the Ism—Gender (Feminine because the Arabs said so)

There are 3 kinds of Fake Feminine:

1. Words that end with ‫ ة‬, ‫ى‬


ٰ , or ‫آء‬

2. Broken Plurals
3. Feminine because the Arabs said so

1. Words that end with ‫ ة‬, ‫ى‬


ٰ , or ‫ آء‬: We discussed this category in the previous session. You can look at

the last video if you need a review.


2. Broken Plurals: Human broken plurals are sometimes considered feminine, while non-human broken
plurals are always considered fake feminine. When the Arabs want to say something like ‘I bought a
lot of books. I read each of them quickly,’ the Arab would say, ‘I bought a lot of books. I read each of
her quickly.’
3. Feminine because the Arabs said so: The words on pg.12 of the 201 Handout are considered fake
feminine. The story on that page will help you remember all of them. In addition to these words,
body parts that come in two’s are also considered fake feminine. I’m listing a few of them below:

ٌ ٌ ْ ٌ ٌ ْ
‫( ﻳﺪ‬hand), ‫ﺟﻞ‬ ‫( ر‬foot), ‫( ﺷﻔﺔ‬lip), ‫( أذ ٌن‬ear), ‫( ﻋﲔ‬eye)

You will be able to recognize fake feminine words more easily as you go through some practice
exercises.
2

EXERCISES:

Tell the Status, Number, and Gender:

‫ ﺣﺠﻮر‬.1
Protections

‫ أ َ ْﻳﻤﺎن‬.2
Oaths
َ
ْ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ ﻣﺤﺼﻨ‬.3
The ones that are married

‫ﻴ َﺌﺎﺗ' ْﻢ‬# ‫ ﺳ‬.4


Your mistakes
َ
ْ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ ﻣ)ﺿ‬.5
Those who ignore

‫ ﻟﻠﺮﺟﺎل‬.6
Men
َ #
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ ﻣ َﺴﺎﻓﺤ‬.7
Fornicators

‫ﻳﻀﺔ‬
َ ‫اﻟﻔﺮ‬
The obligation
َ .8
‫ ﻋﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬.9
Outcome
َ َ
‫ﲔ‬
َ ‫ َﻗﺎﻧﺘ‬.10
The subservient ones

ْ
‫'ﲔ‬ َ ‫اﻟﻤ َﻠ‬
The two angels
َ
.11

‫ ﺗﺠﺎر ًة‬.12
Trade
َ َ
ْ
‫ ﻣ َﺌﺘﲔ‬.13
Two hundred
َ
ً
‫ﻃ ْﻮﻻ‬
Means
َ .14
ْ
‫ﺴﺎن‬9‫ اﻹ‬.15
The person
َ
‫ ﺳﻨَﻦ‬.16
Legacies
َ
َ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟَﻤﲔ‬
The people of many worlds
َ
.17
ٌ
‫ﺧ ْﻮف‬
Fear
َ .18
‫ اﻟﺠﻮع‬.19
The hunger

‫ﻀﺂء‬ ْ
َ ‫ َﺑﻴ‬.20
White

‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬ ‫ ﺧﻠﻖ‬.21
He created the skies
َ َ َ# َ َ َ
3

‫ﻜﺔ‬F‫ اﻟﻤﻼ‬.22
The angels

‫ آﻳ ًﺔ‬.23
A miraculous sign

ْ ْ
‫ اﺛﻨﺘﲔ‬.24
Two

‫ﺴﺎء‬#I‫ اﻟ‬.25
The women

‫ اﻟﻴﺘﺎﻣﻰ‬.26
The orphans

K# ‫ ﺟﻬ‬.27
Jahannam (Hell Fire)

‫ ْﻢ‬M‫ ﻗﻠﻮ‬.28
Their hearts

‫ ﺷﻬﺪاءﻛ ْﻢ‬.29
Your witnesses

‫ اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‬.30
The wind
#
4

ANSWER KEY:

1. J, S, F
2. R, S, F
3. N/J, PL, M
4. N/J, PL, F
5. N/J, PL, M
6. J, PL, M or J, S, F
7. N/J, PL, M
8. J, S, F
9. R, S, F
10. N/J, PL, M
11. N/J, pair, M
12. N, S, F
13. N/J, pair, F
14. N, S, M
15. R, S, M
16. N, S, F
17. N/J, PL, M
18. R, S, M
19. J, S, M
20. R, S, F
21. N/J, S, F
22. J, PL, M or J, S, F (human broken plural)
23. N, S, F
24. N/J, pair, F
25. R, PL, F or R, S, F (human broken plural)
26. R/N/J, PL, M or R/N/J, S, F (human broken plural)
27. R, S, F
28. J, S, F
29. N, PL, M or N, S, F (human broken plural)
30. R, S, F
1

3.2.1 Af’ala Family

Today, we started a really important subject: Sarf. It requires quite a bit of memorization, but once you
learn it, it really helps you build vocabulary. I want you to imagine that there’s a machine that the Arabs
invented thousands of years ago. When you put a word inside this machine, and you turn it on, it can
take that one word and turn it into a 100 words. So instead of you having to learn 100 words, you just
have to learn how to use this machine, and you can make 100 words yourself. That machine is called
‘Sarf.’

Before, if I gave you a past tense verb, you wouldn’t know what its present tense was unless I told you,
and vice versa. I’m going to teach you a way, for some words, that when you see the past tense, you can
correctly guess what the present tense will be, and vice versa. That’s what we’re going to start to do
today.

We started looking at our first family of words: ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ ْﺴﻠﻢ إ ْﺳﻼ ًﻣﺎ‬

Cousins of ‫ أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬will have a past tense that looks and sounds just like it. The same for its present tense
and masdar. A masdar was something new that I introduced in class. It’s an ism. Remember that an ism
is the name of a person, place, thing, idea, adjective, adverb and more? Well, the masdar is the Arabic
word for idea. And it’s typically translated as “to ____” , has an “ing,” or a “ion” at the end. For example,
‫ إ ْﺳﻼ ًﻣﺎ‬, the masdar of ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬, means “to submit,” “submitting,” or “submission.” All of these translations
talk about the idea of submitting.

Look at the examples listed below. If you read them aloud, you can hear how they sound similar to each
other. And their spellings are similar, too. So if you see a past tense the looks like this, you can predict
what its present tense and masdar will be. That’s what sarf allows you to do. Listen for the pattern:

ً
‫إ ْﺳﻼﻣﺎ‬ ‫ْﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬

ً ‫إ ْﻧﺰاﻻ‬ ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺰل‬
ً ‫إ ْﺑﻌﺎدا‬ ‫ﻳ ْﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫أ ْﺑﻌﺪ‬
ً ْ ْ ْ
‫إﻧﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﺾ‬ ‫أﻧﻘﺾ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫ً‬
‫‪ is. The first line has all the harakaat on it.‬أ ْﺳﻠﻢ ْﺴﻠﻢ إ ْﺳﻼﻣﺎ ‪A. Each of the following is to be read as‬‬
‫‪See if you can recite each of the words below following the pattern you noticed in this family:‬‬

‫ً‬
‫إ ْﺳﻼﻣﺎ‬ ‫ْﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬

‫اﺿﺎ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﻳ"ض‬ ‫ض‬ ‫أ‬

‫إﻓﺴﺎدا‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪ‬

‫إﻓﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬

‫إﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺒﺖ‬

‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬

‫إﻧﺰاﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬

‫إ‪-‬ﺸﺎءا‬ ‫ﻳ‪/‬ﺸﺄ‬ ‫أ‪-‬ﺸﺄ‬

‫إﻧﻌﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻌﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﻌﻢ‬

‫إﻧﻔﺎﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻖ‬

‫إﻧﻜﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻜﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﻜﺮ‬

‫إﻫﻼﻛﺎ‬ ‫‪7‬ﻠﻚ‬ ‫أﻫﻠﻚ‬

‫إﺑﺼﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺼﺮ‬ ‫أﺑﺼﺮ‬

‫?‪ family‬أ ْﺳﻠﻢ ‪B. Which of the following words are part of the‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬أ ْم ﺣﺴ ْﺒﺖ أ ‪A‬ن أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟ<ﻬﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻼة‬
‫‪ .1‬وﻳﻘﻴﻤﻮن ‪A‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9‬ﻻ أﻗﺴﻢ ‪I‬ﺬا اﻟﺒ‪H‬‬ ‫‪A .2‬ا‪K‬ﻳﻦ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮن ﺑﺎﻟﻐ ْﻴﺐ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .10‬أ ْو إﻃﻌ ٌ‬
‫ﺎم ﰲ ﻳ ْﻮ ٍم ذي ﻣ ْﺴﻐﺒ ٍﺔ‬ ‫‪ .3‬أﻧﺰل ﻋ‪ Y‬ﻋ ْﺒﺪه اﻟ<ﺘﺎب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻓﺄ‪Z‬ﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﺠﻮرﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ .4‬و ﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ^ ﻋﻮﺟﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻛ_ﺎ‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻗﺪ أﻓﻠﺢ ﻣﻦ ز ‪A‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﻗ ‪A‬ﻴ ًﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺬر ﺑﺄﺳﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻓﺄﻧﺬ ْرﺗ< ْﻢ ﻧﺎرا ًﺗﻠﻈ‪A‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻦ أﻓﻮاﻫ‪e‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﻛﻠﻤ ًﺔ ﺗﺨﺮج ﻣ‬

‫‪A .14‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ا‪K‬ي ﻛ ‪A‬ﺬب و ﺗﻮ ‪fA‬‬ ‫‪ .7‬إن ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮن إ ‪A‬ﻻ ﻛﺬﺑﺎ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪A. Oral exercise‬‬


‫‪B. “yes” = part of family‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪.8‬أ ْم ﺣﺴ ْﺒﺖ أ ‪A‬ن أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟ<ﻬﻒ‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻼة‬
‫‪ .1‬وﻳﻘﻴﻤﻮن ‪A‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪ .9‬ﻻ أﻗﺴﻢ ‪I‬ﺬا اﻟﺒ‪H‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪A .2‬ا‪K‬ﻳﻦ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮن ﺑﺎﻟﻐ ْﻴﺐ‬

‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪ .10‬أ ْو إ ْﻃﻌ ٌ‬


‫ﺎم ﰲ ﻳ ْﻮ ٍم ذي ﻣ ْﺴﻐﺒ ٍﺔ‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬أﻧﺰل ﻋ‪ Y‬ﻋ ْﺒﺪه اﻟ<ﺘﺎب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪ .11‬ﻓﺄ‪Z‬ﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﺠﻮرﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ .4‬و ﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ^ ﻋﻮﺟﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪yes‬‬ ‫ﻛ_ﺎ‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻗﺪ أﻓﻠﺢ ﻣﻦ ز ‪A‬‬ ‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﻗ ‪A‬ﻴ ًﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺬر ﺑﺄﺳﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪yes‬‬ ‫‪ .13‬ﻓﺄﻧﺬ ْرﺗ< ْﻢ ﻧﺎرا ًﺗﻠﻈ‪A‬ﻰ‬ ‫ﻦ أﻓﻮاﻫ‪e‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﻛﻠﻤ ًﺔ ﺗﺨﺮج ﻣ‬

‫‪A .14‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ا‪K‬ي ﻛ ‪A‬ﺬب و ﺗﻮ ‪fA‬‬ ‫‪ .7‬إن ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮن إ ‪A‬ﻻ ﻛﺬﺑﺎ‬
1

3.2.2 Akhbara Family (Part 2)

We started learning about the members of the ‫ أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬family. So far we know:

ً
‫إ ْﺳﻼﻣﺎ‬ ‫ْﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬
To submit / Submission He submits He submitted

ْ ْ
The first word ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬, is past tense, or ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬. ‫ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬is the present tense, or ‫اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬. The last
ْ
one, ‫إ ْﺳﻼ ًﻣﺎ‬, is the ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬, the idea.

We learned one more member of this family today: the Ism Faa’il ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬. The Ism Faa’il is the word for
an ‘er,’ like a teacher, farmer, succeeder. The guy that does something is the Ism Faa’il. You make an Ism
Fail by looking at the present tense and replace the ‘yu’ with a ‘mu.’

ً
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫إ ْﺳﻼﻣﺎ‬ ‫ْﺴﻠﻢ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬

Now, we’ve got four words now ( ‫ ﻓﻬﻮ‬doesn’t count. It’s just there to make it flow). ‫( أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬he submitted),

‫( ْﺴﻠﻢ‬he submits), ‫( إ ْﺳﻼ ًﻣﺎ‬submission/ to submit), ‫( ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬then he is a submitter. A ‘Muslim’ is the guy

that submits). Once you’ve made it, you can make it heavy and go through the ‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬chart on page 6,
like this:

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬


ْ ً
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٍﻢ‬

ٌ ٌ
‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
ْ
‫ﺎت‬ ْ
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬
ْ ْ
‫ﺎت‬
ٍ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬
2

EXERCISES:

A. Practice putting the following words through the ‫ أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬family (say all four words):

ْ ْ ‫ أ‬.10 ْ ْ ْ
‫ أدرك‬.13 ‫ﺣﺴﻦ‬ ‫ أﻧﻘﺾ‬.7 ‫ أﻓﻠﺢ‬.4 ‫ أﺷﺮك‬.1
ْ ْ ‫ أ‬.11 ْ ْ ْ
‫ أﻧﺬر‬.14 ‫ﺟﺮج‬ ‫ أﻓﺴﺪ‬.8 ‫ أﻧﺒﺖ‬.5 ‫ أﻧﺠﺢ‬.2
ْ ْ ْ .9 ْ ْ
9‫ أﻟ‬.15 ‫ أﻧﻌﻢ‬.12 ‫أرﺳﻞ‬ ‫ أﻧﺰل‬.6 ‫ أ=ق‬.3

B. Take the Ism Faa’il of each of the following fi’l and put it through page 6:

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ‫أ‬
‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻦ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪A.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ>ك‬ ‫إﺷﺮاﻛﺎ‬ ‫>ك‬ ‫‪ .1‬أﺷﺮك‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨْﺠ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺢ‬ ‫إﻧﺠﺎﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫‪ .2‬أﻧﺠﺢ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‪B‬ق‬ ‫إ=اﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳ‪B‬ق‬ ‫‪ .3‬أ=ق‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻔﻠ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺢ‬ ‫إﻓﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻠﺢ‬ ‫‪ .4‬أﻓﻠﺢ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺒﺖ‬ ‫إﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﺖ‬ ‫‪ .5‬أﻧﺒﺖ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺰل‬ ‫إﻧﺰاﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫‪ .6‬أﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻘﺾ‬ ‫إﻧﻘﺎﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﺾ‬ ‫‪ .7‬أﻧﻘﺾ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫إﻓﺴﺎدا‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫‪ .8‬أﻓﺴﺪ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫إ ْرﺳﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻳ ْﺮﺳﻞ‬ ‫‪ .9‬أ ْرﺳﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺤﺴ ٌ‬
‫ﻦ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺣﺴﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫إ ْ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺴﻦ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫‪ .10‬أ ْ‬
‫ﺣﺴﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺨﺮ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ج‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫إﺧﺮاﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺮج‬ ‫‪ .11‬أﺧﺮج‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻌ ٌﻢ‬ ‫إﻧﻌﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻌﻢ‬ ‫‪ .12‬أﻧﻌﻢ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺪرك‬ ‫إدراﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺪرك‬ ‫‪ .13‬أدرك‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫‪ .14‬أﻧﺬر‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻠ‪9‬‬ ‫إ‪I‬ﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠ‪9‬‬ ‫‪ .15‬أﻟ‪9‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺤﺴ ٌ‬


‫‪B.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬرون‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬران‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬرﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬر ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬرا‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬرﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬر ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ ٍر‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﲔ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺴ ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻣﻨﺬرات‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬرﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬرة‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬر ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬرﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬر ًة‬ ‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﻨﺬر ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬرﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬر ٍة‬ ‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺴﻨ ٍﺔ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬


‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰل‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪون‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪا‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰ ٍل‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴ ٍﺪ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻣﻨﺰﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰ‪L‬‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣﻨْﺰ‪ًL‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣﻨﺰﻻ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺘﲔ‬ ‫ات‬‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ًة‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ت‬‫ﻣﻨﺰﻻ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰ‪ٍ L‬‬ ‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ٍة‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﻔﻠ ٌ‬


‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﺢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ً‬
‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠ ٍﺢ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬


‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻠﺤ ٍﺔ‬
1

3.2.3 Akhbara Family (Part 3)

Today, we’re going to finish up the second line of our family. I taught you:

ٌ ْ ْ
ً ‫ﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧ ﱪ‬
So he’s an To inform He informs He informed
informer

We know that in the past tense, the doer is known. Sometimes, you can pronounce the past tense
differently so that the doer is unknown--that’s what happens in the passive. The way to do that is to
ْ
make two sounds take over the word: ‘u’ and ‘e.’ So, if the past tense was ‫أﺧﱪ‬, then the past passive
ْ ْ ْ
version would be ‫أﺧﱪ‬. Now if ‫ أﺧﱪ‬means ‘he informed,’ ‫ أﺧﱪ‬means ‘he was informed.’ We don’t know
who informed him anymore. The doer is a mystery.

Those are the two sounds that take over the past tense. The two sounds that take over the present
ْ ْ
tense are ‘u’ and ‘a,’ so ‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬from the first line becomes ‫( ﻳﺨﱪ‬I didn’t have to change the beginning
ْ
because it was already ‘u’—I only had one part to change, this time). ‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬means ‘he informs,’ so the
ْ
passive, ‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬means ‘he is being informed.’

Let’s translate everything we’ve got so far:

ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
So he’s an informer To inform He informs He informed
ٌ ْ ْ
ً ‫ﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﺰ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
… To inform He is being informed He was informed

ْ ٌ ْ
‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬in the first line gave birth to ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬. I took the ‘yu’ and put a ‘mu’ and that’s how I got the Ism Faa’il.
ْ ٌ ْ ٌ ْ ٌ ْ
‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬gives birth to ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬. There’s a big difference between ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬, the ism faa’il, and ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬, what we call the
ٌ ْ
Ism Maf’ool. Its meaning is passive: ‫ ﻣﺨﱪ‬is the one that gets informed, NOT the informer. Practice
saying these two lines aloud with the verb list in 3.2.1 Handout to get you more comfortable with this
material.
2

EXERCISES:

A. Make these words passive and put them through the entire past tense chart. Pay special
attention to the harakaat and sounds, being sensitive to whether or not the word is active or
passive.
ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﻫﻠﻚ‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬

B. Take the present tense of these words, make them passive, and then put them through the
entire present tense chart. Respect the passive sounds.

ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﻫﻠﻚ‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬

C. Translate the following words into English:


ْ ْ
‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬.7 ‫ أﺧﱪا‬.1
ْ ْ
‫ ﻳﺨﱪان‬.8 ‫ ﺗﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬.2
ْ ْ ْ
ْ ‫ﱪ‬
‫ أﺧﱪﺗﺎ‬.9 ‫ أﺧ‬.3
ْ ْ
‫ أﺧﱪ‬.10 ‫ ﺗﺨﱪون‬.4
ْ ْ ْ
‫ أﺧﱪوا‬.11 ‫ ﻳﺨﱪن‬.5
ْ ْ ْ
‫ أﺧﱪﻧﺎ‬.12 ‫أﺧﱪ‬.6

D. Translate the following words into Arabic:


1. They both were informed
2. Both of them are being informed
3. We informed
4. I was informed
5. Both of you inform
6. Both of those women were informed
7. I am being informed
8. You were informed
9. Both of those women are being
informed
10. Those women are being informed
11. He was informed
12. She was informed
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪A.‬‬ ‫‪ #‬أﻫﻠ"ﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﻫﻠ"ﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ أﻫﻠﻚ‬ ‫‪ #‬أﻧﺬروا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﻧﺬرا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ أﻧﺬر‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ أﻫﻠ"ﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﻫﻠ"ﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ أﻫﻠ"ﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ أﻧﺬ ْرن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﻧﺬرﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ أﻧﺬرت‬
‫")ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧ) أ ْﻧﺬ ْر ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧ) أﻫﻠ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﻫﻠ"ﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﻫﻠ"ﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﻧﺬ ْرﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﻧﺬ ْرت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬
‫*‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫"‬ ‫ﻠ‬‫ﻫ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ أ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﻫﻠ"ﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﻫﻠ"ﺖ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ أﻧﺬرﺗ *‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﻧﺬ ْرﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﻧﺬ ْرت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ أﻫﻠ"ﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻫﻠ"ﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ أﻧﺬ ْرﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎأﻧﺬ ْرت‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪ #‬أﻓﻠﺤﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﻓﻠﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ أﻓﻠﺢ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ أﻓﻠﺤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﻓﻠﺤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ أﻓﻠﺤﺖ‬
‫أﻧ) أﻓْﻠ ْﺤ)ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﻓﻠﺤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ أﻓﻠﺤﺖ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ أﻓﻠﺤﺘ *‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﻓﻠﺤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﻓﻠﺤﺖ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ أﻓﻠﺤﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻓﻠﺤﺖ‬

‫‪ْ #‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ْ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪B.‬‬ ‫‪-‬ﻠ"ﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬ﻠ"ﺎن‬ ‫‪-‬ﻠﻚ‬ ‫‪ #‬ﻳﻨ َﺬرون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻨ َﺬران‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻨ َﺬر‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪َ -‬ﻠ"ﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ْ‬ ‫"ﺎن‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪َ .‬ﻠ َ‬ ‫‪َ .‬ﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ْ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻨ َﺬ ْرن‬ ‫‪ #‬ﺗﻨ َﺬران‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻨ َﺬر‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫أﻧ) ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪َ .‬ﻠ"ﻮن‬ ‫"ﺎن‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪َ .‬ﻠ َ‬ ‫‪َ .‬ﻠﻚ‬ ‫أﻧ) ﺗﻨ َﺬرون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨ َﺬران‬ ‫أَﻧﺖ ﺗﻨ َﺬر‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪َ .‬ﻠ"ﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ْ‬ ‫"ﺎن‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪َ .‬ﻠ َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ‪َ .‬ﻠ"ﲔَ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻨ َﺬ ْرن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨ َﺬران‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨ َﺬرﻳﻦ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪َ 0‬ﻠ"ﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻫ َﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻨ َﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧ َﺬر‬
‫َ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪ #‬ﻳﻔ َﻠﺤﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻔ َﻠﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻔ َﻠﺢ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻔ َﻠﺤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻔ َﻠﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻔﻠَﺢ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧ) ﺗﻔ َﻠﺤﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻔ َﻠﺤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻔﻠَﺢ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻔ َﻠﺤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻔ َﻠﺤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻔ َﻠﺤﲔَ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻔﻠَﺢ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻓﻠَﺢ‬
4

ْ ْ
C. 7. ‫( ﻳﺨﱪ‬Present Tense) He informs 1. ‫ﱪا‬
َ ‫( أﺧ‬Past Passive Tense) Both of
them were informed
ْ ْ
8. ‫ﱪان‬
َ َ ‫( ﻳﺨ‬Present Passive Tense) Both of 2. ‫( ﺗﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬Present Passive Tense) You
them are being informed fem. are being informed
ْ ْ ْ
9. ‫( أﺧﱪﺗﺎ‬Past tense) Both of them fem. 3. ْ ‫( أﺧﱪ‬Past Tense) You all informed
informed
ْ ْ
10. ‫( أﺧﱪ‬Present Tense) I inform 4. ‫( ﺗﺨﱪون‬Present Tense) You all inform
ْ ْ ْ
11. ‫( أﺧﱪوا‬Past Passive Tense) They were 5. ‫( ﻳﺨﱪن‬Present Tense) They fem.
informed Inform
ْ ْ ْ
12. ‫( أﺧﱪﻧﺎ‬Past Passive Tense) We were 6. ‫( أﺧﱪ‬Past Passive Tense) He was
informed informed

ْ
D. 1. They both were informed ‫أﺧﱪا‬
ْ
2. Both of them are being informed ‫ﻳﺨﱪان‬
ْ ْ
3. We informed ‫أﺧﱪﻧﺎ‬
ْ ْ
4. I was informed ‫أﺧﱪت‬
ْ
5. Both of you inform ‫ﺗﺨﱪان‬
ْ
6. Both of those women were informed ‫أﺧﱪﺗﺎ‬
ْ
7. I am being informed ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ْ ْ
8. You were informed ‫أﺧﱪت‬
ْ
9. Both of those women are being ‫ﺗﺨﱪان‬
informed
ْ ْ
10. Those women are being informed ‫ﻳﺨﱪن‬
ْ
11. He was informed ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬
ْ
12. She was informed ‫ﺗﺨﱪ‬
1

3.2.4 Akhbara Family (Part 4)

ْ
The sarf sagheer of the ‫ أﺧﱪ‬family is:

ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫و اﻟ‬ ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﺧﱪ‬
ٌ ْ ْ
‫و اﻟﻈ ْﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺨﱪ‬

ْ
The last two lines are new. Al Amru ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ‬is the command, and An Nahyu ‫ اﻟ ﻲ‬is the forbidding. We’ll
ْ
discuss ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ‬, and ‫اﻟ ﻲ‬, and ‫ اﻟﻈ ْﺮف‬in more detail in the next session, InshaAllah. For now, though, I’d
like you to memorize these lines flawlessly. For more practice, try doing the sarf kabeer—that is, put
each word in each line in its respective chart.
1

3.2.5 Akhbara Family (Part 5)

Okay, today, started going over the new lines we learned in the last session:

ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫و اﻟ‬ ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﺧﱪ‬
ْ ْ ْ
You know what the first two lines mean. The third line is new. ‫ اﻷ ْﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‬means ‘the command.’ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ْ ْ
means “Inform!’ Every time you make a command for this family, it looks like ‫أﺧﱪ‬. So the command of
ْ ْ ْ
‫ أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬is ‫ أ ْﺳﻠ ْﻢ‬and the command for ‫أﺷﺮك‬, is ‫أﺷﺮك‬. That’s how they all are.

Now, when we learned how to make commands, we would take the present tense, make it lightest, and
ْ ْ ْ
take the ‘ta’ off. If we did that to ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬, we’d end up with ‫ﺧﱪ‬, which is not readable, so we’d add an alif.

In this family, you always add an ‫أ‬.

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪ‬ ‫ﺧﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬

Add ‫أ‬ Remove the ‘ya’ Make lightest Take present tense

Just a note—commands can only be given to someone that’s there. You can’t give commands to ‘he,
she, they, etc.’ I cant give commands to myself, either. I can only give commands to ‘you.’ There are six
different you’s in Arabic, and so, you have to know how to make six commands. We just made the
ْ ْ
command for anta: ‫أﺧﱪ‬. That’s not the command for ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬, *‫أﻧ‬, etc. Let’s walk through them and make
their commands. Memorize this before moving onto the next session:

Add َ‫أ‬ Remove ‘ta’ Make lightest Take present tense


ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪ‬ ‫ﺧﱪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﱪ‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪا‬ ‫ﺧﱪا‬ ‫ﺗﺨﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪوا‬ ‫ﺧﱪوا‬ ‫ﺗﺨﱪوا‬ ‫أﻧ*ْ ﺗﺨﱪون‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪي‬ ‫ﺧﱪي‬ ‫ﺗﺨﱪي‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪا‬ ‫ﺧﱪا‬ ‫ﺗﺨﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﺧﱪن‬ ‫ﺧﱪن‬ ‫ﺗﺨﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺨﱪن‬
2

EXERCISES:

Each of the following needs to have commands that match:

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻧ*ْ أﺧﱪوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪ‬

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻦ أﺧﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪي‬

Go through each of the fi’l below and see if you can create the commands following the pattern we
learned in this family.

ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ أﻧﺒﺖ‬.10 ‫ أﻓﻠﺢ‬.7 ‫ أﻓﺴﺪ‬.4 ‫ض‬3‫ أ‬.1
ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ أﻧﻌﻢ‬.11 ‫ﺸﺄ‬7‫ أ‬.8 ‫ أﻧﺰل‬.5 ‫ أﻧﺬر‬.2
ْ ْ ْ
‫ أ ْﺑﺼﺮ‬.12 ‫ أﻫﻠﻚ‬.9 ‫ أﻧﻜﺮ‬.6 ‫ أﻧﻔﻖ‬.3
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .7‬أﻓﻠﺢ‬ ‫‪ .1‬أ‪3‬ض‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻓﻠﺤﻮا‬ ‫أﻓﻠﺤﺎ‬ ‫أﻓﻠ ْﺢ‬ ‫أ‪3‬ﺿﻮا‬ ‫أ‪3‬ﺿﺎ‬ ‫أ‪3‬ض‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻓﻠﺤﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻠﺤﺎ‬ ‫أﻓﻠ‪D‬‬ ‫أ‪3‬ﺿﻦ‬ ‫أ‪3‬ﺿﺎ‬ ‫أ‪3‬ﺿﻲ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬أ‪7‬ﺸﺄ‬ ‫‪ .2‬أﻧﺬر‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أ‪7‬ﺸﺆوا‬ ‫أ‪7‬ﺸﺌﺎ‬ ‫أ‪7‬ﺸﺄ‬ ‫أﻧﺬروا‬ ‫أﻧﺬرا‬ ‫أﻧﺬ ْر‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أ‪7‬ﺸﺌﻦ‬ ‫أ‪7‬ﺸﺌﺎ‬ ‫أ‪7‬ﺸ‪G‬ﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺬ ْرن‬ ‫أﻧﺬرا‬ ‫أﻧﺬري‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9‬أﻫﻠﻚ‬ ‫‪ .3‬أﻧﻔﻖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻫﻠ‪H‬ﻮا‬ ‫أﻫﻠ‪H‬ﺎ‬ ‫أﻫﻠﻚ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻘﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻘﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻫﻠ‪H‬ﻦ‬ ‫أﻫﻠ‪H‬ﺎ‬ ‫أﻫﻠ‪H‬ﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻘﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻘﻲ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .10‬أﻧﺒﺖ‬ ‫‪ .4‬أﻓﺴﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺒﺘﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺒﺘﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺒﺖ‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪوا‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪا‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺒﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺒﺘﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺒﺘﻲ‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪن‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪا‬ ‫أﻓﺴﺪي‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬أﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫‪ .5‬أﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﻌﻤﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﻌﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻌ ْﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﻌﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﻌﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻌﻤﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺰﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﺰ‪J‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .12‬أ ْﺑﺼﺮ‬ ‫‪ .6‬أﻧﻜﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أ ْﺑﺼﺮوا‬ ‫أ ْﺑﺼﺮا‬ ‫أ ْﺑﺼ ْﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﻜﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﻜﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﻜ ْﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أ ْﺑﺼ ْﺮن‬ ‫أ ْﺑﺼﺮا‬ ‫أ ْﺑﺼﺮي‬ ‫أﻧﻜ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﻜﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﻜﺮي‬
1

3.2.6 Akhbara Family (Part 6)

We are finishing off the sarf sagheer of this family today. Here’s what we’ve got:

ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ٌ ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫و اﻟ‬ ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﺧﱪ‬
ٌ ْ ْ
‫و اﻟﻈ ْﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺨﱪ‬

ْ ْ
‫ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪ‬means ‘Don’t inform!’ It’s a forbidding statement where you’re telling someone not to do
something. Just like there are six commands, there are six ways to forbid. All you have to do is take the
present tense (make sure it’s second person—a ‘you’), make it lightest, tack on the ‫ ﻻ‬in the beginning,
and you’ve got the forbidding taken care of. Look:

ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪوا‬$‫أﻧ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺨﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪ‬
ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺨﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪي‬

(Notice that the commanding and the forbidding are both lightest, but in the forbidding, you don’t get rid of the
‘ta’ in the beginning.)

ٌ
Now, let me tell you what ‫ ﻇ ْﺮف‬tharf means. A ‫ ﻇ ْﺮف‬is an ism that has to do with time or space. ‫ ﻓ ْﻮق‬and
ْ
‫ ﺗﺤﺖ‬mean ‘over or above’ and ‘under,’ both of which are spaces, or places, so they are considered ‫ﻇ ْﺮف‬.

ْ
‫ ﻗ ْﺒﻞ‬and ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ‬mean ‘before’ and ‘after,’ respectively. Both have to do with time, so they, too, are tharf. ‫و‬

ٌ ْ ْ
‫( اﻟﻈ ْﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺨﱪ‬notice it looks like the ism maf’ool) means, ‘the time or place of informing.’ So if I inform
ٌ ْ
you of something in the house, the house becomes the ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬, the place where I informed you.

ٌ ْ
We’ve got one last part for the sarf kabeer—the sarf kabeer of the tharf, ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬. It follows the chart of
the masdar:
ٌ ْ ْ ٌ ْ
‫ﻣﺨﱪات‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬
ْ ْ ً ْ
‫ت‬ ٍ ‫ﻣﺨﱪا‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪا‬
ْ ْ ْ
‫ات‬ ٍ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﱪ‬ٍ ‫ﻣﺨ‬
2

EXERCISES:

A. Go through each of the fi’l below and see if you can come up with the six ways to forbid,
following the pattern we learned in this family.

ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أﻓﺴﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﻜﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫أﻫﻠﻚ‬

B. Do the sarf kabeer of the tharf for the fi’l listed above.

C. Take these letters, put them in this family, and do their sarf sagheer:

‫ ن ف ق‬.6 ‫ ن ذ ر‬.5 ‫ ف ل ح‬.4 ‫ ع ر ض‬.3 ‫ ل ه م‬.2 ‫ ش ر ك‬.1


‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪A.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬أﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫‪ .1‬أﻫﻠﻚ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻻ ْ‬ ‫ﻻ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻻﺗﻨﻌﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌ ْﻢ‬ ‫‪F‬ﻠ‪E‬ﻮا‬ ‫‪F‬ﻠ‪E‬ﺎ‬ ‫‪F‬ﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻻ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻻ ْ‬ ‫ﻻ ْ‬ ‫ﻻ ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻌﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪F‬ﻠ‪E‬ﻦ‬ ‫‪F‬ﻠ‪E‬ﺎ‬ ‫‪F‬ﻠ‪E‬ﻲ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬أﻓﺴﺪ‬ ‫‪ .3‬أﻧﻜﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪوا‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪا‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜﺮوا‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜﺮا‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ ْﺮ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪن‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻔﺴﺪا‬ ‫ﻻﺗﻔﺴﺪي‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜﺮا‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜﺮي‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪B.‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬أﻧﻌﻢ‬ ‫‪ .1‬أﻫﻠﻚ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪E‬ﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪E‬ﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠﻚ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪ٍ E‬‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪E‬ﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪E‬ﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻌ ٍﻢ‬ ‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪ٍ E‬‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻠ‪E‬ﲔ‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻣﻬﻠ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬أﻓﺴﺪ‬ ‫‪ .3‬أﻧﻜﺮ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪا‬ ‫ات‬
‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮا‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺴ ٍﺪ‬ ‫ات‬
‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ ٍﺮ‬

‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪C.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‪H‬ك‬ ‫إﺷﺮاﻛﺎ‬ ‫‪HK‬ك‬ ‫أﺷﺮك‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‪H‬ك‬ ‫إﺷﺮاﻛﺎ‬ ‫أﺷﺮك ‪HK‬ك‬ ‫‪ .1‬ش ر ك‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ‪H‬ك‬ ‫واﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ‪HL‬ك‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﺷﺮك‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻠ‪M‬‬ ‫إ‪N‬ﻬﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠ‪M‬‬ ‫أﻟ‪M‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻠ‪M‬‬ ‫إ‪N‬ﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠ‪M‬‬ ‫أﻟ‪M‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ل ه م‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻠ‪M‬‬ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻠ‪M‬‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻟ‪M‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْ‪ٌ O‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْ‪ٌ O‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ض‬ ‫إ‪P‬اﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻳ‪O‬ض‬ ‫أ‪P‬ض‬ ‫ض‬ ‫إ‪P‬اﺿﺎ‬ ‫أ‪P‬ض ﻳ‪O‬ض‬ ‫‪ .3‬ع ر ض‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْ‪ٌ O‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ض‬ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ‪O‬ض‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أ‪P‬ض‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻔﻠ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻔﻠ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺢ‬ ‫إﻓﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫إﻓﻼﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻠﺢ‬ ‫أﻓﻠﺢ‬ ‫‪ .4‬ف ل ح‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْﻔﻠ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺢ‬ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻔﻠ ْﺢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻓﻠ ْﺢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫‪ .5‬ن ذ ر‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺬ ْر‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻧﺬ ْر‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫إﻧﻔﺎﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫إﻧﻔﺎﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫أﻧﻔﻖ‬ ‫‪ .6‬ن ف ق‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻔﻖ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻧﻔﻖ‬
1

3.3.1 Allama Family (Part 1)

We started our next family today, the ‫ ﻋﻠﻢ‬family:

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ً ‫ﺗ ْﻌﻠ‬


‫ﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ً ‫ﺗ ْﻌﻠ‬


‫ﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬
ْ ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬ ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠ ْﻢ‬
ْ
‫و اﻟﻈ ْﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬

ْ
The first difference between this family and the first one we learned is that the ‫ أﺧﱪ‬family has an alif in
ْ ْ
the beginning (‫ أﻧﻔﻖ‬,‫ أﺧﱪ‬,‫)أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‬, while this family always has a shadda on the middle letter (‫ ﻧﺰل‬,‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬, ,‫ﻛﺮم‬

‫)ﺷﺮف‬. If the past tense sounds like ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬, then its present tense will sound like ‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬, and all the other
words in the sarf sagheer will follow this family’s pattern.

ً ْ ْ ْ
Now, when we said ‫أﺧﱪ ﻳﺨﱪ إﺧﺒﺎرا‬, we went on to say ‫…ﻓﻬﻮ‬something, right? The next word, or the Ism

Faa’il, is pretty easy to construct. It’s just the present tense with a ‘mu’ on it. That’s where ‫ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬comes
from. Likewise, the Ism Maf’ool (the last word on the second line), is just a ‘mu’ on the present passive
(remember that the present passive likes to have an ‘u’ and ‘a’ sound, while the past passive takes an ‘u’
and ‘e’ sound). The tharf looks just like the Ism Maf’ool, so there’s less to memorize!

The last bit that we constructed was the command—where did we get ‫ ﻋﻠ ْﻢ‬from? The same way we
ْ
normally make commands. We just took the present tense, took off the ta in the beginning (‫)أﻧﺖ‬, and
ْ
made it lightest. We can read it just fine, so there’s no need to add anything to the beginning. The ‫أﺧﱪ‬
family is known for having an alif in their command, rules aside, so you’ll always find one there.

Memorize this family, and practice going through the exercises to get more comfortable plugging in
different words into this pattern.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ family. See if you can recite the sarf sagheer of‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ ‪A. Each of the following is from the‬‬
‫‪each of the words below following the pattern you noticed in this family:‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪل‬ ‫ﺑﺪل‬

‫ﺗﻤﺘﻴﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻊ‬

‫ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬

‫ﺗﺰﻳﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫زﻳﻦ‬

‫=ﺴﺨﲑا‬ ‫>ﺴﺨﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺬﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺬب‬ ‫ﻋﺬب‬

‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺪم‬ ‫ﻗﺪم‬

‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺮق‬ ‫ﻓﺮق‬

‫ﺗﺬﺑﻴﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺬﺑﺢ‬ ‫ذﺑﺢ‬

‫ﺗﺼﺮﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﺻﺮف‬

‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺪر‬ ‫ﻗﺪر‬

‫ﺗﻜﺮﻳﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻛﺮم‬

‫ﺗﻘﻄﻴﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬

‫ﺗﻐﻠﻴﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻖ‬

‫ﺗﻜﻘﲑا‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺮ‬

‫‪B. Now that you’ve gotten your feet wet, try plugging in these letters into this family. Go on and do‬‬
‫‪the sarf sagheer each time.‬‬

‫نز ل‬ ‫كذب‬ ‫صدق‬ ‫بشر‬ ‫سبح‬

‫د بر‬ ‫أول‬ ‫ذبح‬ ‫فرق‬ ‫قرب‬


1

3.3.2 Allama Family (Part 2)

Today, we’re just going to practice what we’ve learned for this family. The sarf sagheer is:

ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻴ ًﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬
So he is a teacher Teaching He teaches He taught
ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻴ ًﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬
So he was the person being
Teaching He is being taught He was taught
taught (student)
ْ ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬ ‫اﻷ ْﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠ ْﻢ‬
Forbidding Form: Don’t Teach! Command Form: Teach!
ْ
‫و اﻟﻈ ْﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬
The time or place to teach

Practice this a few times, and then move on to the exercises. That should have more practice for you to
do so you become comfortable with this family.
2

EXERCISES:

A. Practice going through the sarf kabeer of the past, past passive, present, and present
passive tenses, using words from the pg.2 of the previous handout. The sarf kabeer of ‫ﻧﺰل‬
is attached to this handout for your reference. Be sure to respect the pattern of this family,
and the sounds that come with past passive and present passive tenses!

B. Translate into English:

ْ
‫ ﻋﻠ ْﻢ‬.6 ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺖ‬.1
ْ
‫ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬.7 ‫ ﻋﻠﻤﻦ‬.2
ْ
‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬.8 ‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬.3
ْ ْ
‫ أﺧﱪا‬.9 ‫ ﻋﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬.4

‫ ﻣﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬.10 ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬.5

C. Translate the following words into Arabic:

1. Both of them (fem.) are being taught 6. I was taught

2. You (fem) are teaching 7. I am teaching

3. They (masc.) were taught 8. I am being taught

4. They (fem.) taught 9. Both of you are being taught

5. Two Teachers 10. I was informed


‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪A.‬‬ ‫‪Past Passive Tense‬‬ ‫‪Past Tense‬‬

‫‪ ,‬ﻧﺰﻟ ْﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻧﺰل‬ ‫‪ ,‬ﻧﺰﻟ ْﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻻ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻧﺰﻟْ‪ْ.‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻧﺰﻟْ‪ْ.‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺰﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻧﺰﻟﺖ‬

‫‪Present Passive Tense‬‬ ‫‪Present Tense‬‬

‫‪ ,‬ﻳﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫‪ ,‬ﻳﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﺰل‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﺰل‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﺰل‬

‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﺰل‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﻨﺰﻟ ْﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﺰل‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻨﺰﻟﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﺰﻻن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﺰﻟﲔ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻨﺰل‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧﺰل‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻨﺰل‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧﺰل‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪B.‬‬ ‫!‪Teach‬‬ ‫‪ .6 (Past Passive) You were taught‬ﻋﻠ ْﻢ‬ ‫‪.1‬ﻋﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬
‫!‪(both of you)Don’t Teach‬‬ ‫‪ .7 They fem. taught‬ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻋﻠﻤﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﻳﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬
‫‪(Present Passive Tense) They are‬‬
‫‪They fem. are teaching‬‬
‫‪being taught‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9 Both of you taught‬أﺧﱪا‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﻋﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫‪(Past Passive Tense) Both of them were‬‬
‫‪informed‬‬
‫‪people who teach/teachers‬‬ ‫‪ .10 All of you are teaching‬ﻣﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﺗﻌﻠﻤ ْﻮن‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪C.‬‬ ‫‪1. Both of them (fem.) are being taught‬‬
‫‪ 6. I was taught‬ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫‪2. You (fem) are teaching‬‬ ‫‪ 7. I am teaching‬ﺗﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻢ‬

‫‪3. They (masc.) were taught‬‬ ‫‪ 8. I am being taught‬ﻋﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻢ‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪4. They (fem.) taught‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫‪9. Both of you are being taught‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪5. Two Teachers‬‬ ‫‪ 10. I was informed‬ﻣﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﺧﱪت‬
3.5.1 Jaahada Family

We’re starting our third family today:

‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ً و ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬


You’ll notice that this family has two masdars, and an alif right after the first letter in the past tense.
Other than that, there’s nothing too different about this family’s sarf from the others.

Now, to make the Ism Faa’il, which is the fa-huwa part, what do you look for? You look at the fil
ٌ
mudaari’. So if it’s ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬, you just pop a ‘mu’ on it, and you’ve got ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬.

ٌ
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ً و ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬

In the previous families, every time we started the second line, there was an ‘u’ and an ‘e’ sound, like
ْ
‫ أﺧﱪ‬and ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬. The same thing is going to happen here, except it’s going to sound a little weird: ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺪ‬. It

sounds long because ‫ ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬was long, and so, the ‘u’ sound in the passive sounds long, too. The ‘e’ sound
is normal, just how we would expect it to be. The second word, for the present passive, had an ‘u’ and
ْ ْ
‘a’ sound going on. ‫ ﻳﺨﱪ‬became ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬, and ‫ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬became ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬. So now, in this family, ‫ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬becomes

‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬. Nothing new, here. The present passive is where the Ism Maf’ool comes from, so it’s no surprise
ٌ
that it’s ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬.
ٌ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًوﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
ٌ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًوﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺪ‬

The rest of the sarf sagheer is predictable. For the command, just take the present tense, take the ya off,
ْ
make it lightest, and there you have it: ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬. Nothing fancy is going on for the Nahi or the Tharf (looks
like the Ism Maf’ool). That’s it. Now you know the third family!

ٌ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًوﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
ٌ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًوﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺪ‬
ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ"ﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
ٌ
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪A. See if you can recite the sarf sagheer (all four lines) of each of the words below following the‬‬
‫‪pattern you noticed in this family. Use the notes above as a guide, but try to do it from memory‬‬
‫‪when you’re comfortable:‬‬

‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًو ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺟﺪاﻻ و ﻣﺠﺎد*‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎدل‬ ‫ﺟﺎدل‬

‫ﻫﺠﺎرا و ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮة‬ ‫‪-‬ﺎﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺟﺮ‬

‫رﺑﺎﻃﺎ و ﻣﺮاﺑﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺮاﺑﻂ‬ ‫راﺑﻂ‬

‫ﻋﻬﺎدا و ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪة‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻫﺪ‬

‫ﺻﺒﺎرا و ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺎﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺑﺮ‬

‫وﻓﺎﻗﺎ و ﻣﻮاﻓﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻮاﻓﻖ‬ ‫واﻓﻖ‬

‫ﻇﻬﺎرا و ﻣﻈﺎﻫﺮة‬ ‫ﻳﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻇﺎﻫﺮ‬

‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎ و ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﺐ‬

‫دﻓﺎﻋﺎ و ﻣﺪاﻓﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺪاﻓﻊ‬ ‫داﻓﻊ‬

‫ﺿﻌﺎﻓﺎ و ﻣﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺎﻋﻒ‬ ‫ﺿﺎﻋﻒ‬

‫ﻋﻘﺎﺑﺎ و ﻣﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺎﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻗﺐ‬

‫ﺻﺤﺎﺑﺎ و ﻣﺼﺎﺣﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ‬

‫ﻏﺪارا و ﻣﻐﺎدرة‬ ‫ﻳﻐﺎدر‬ ‫ﻏﺎدر‬

‫ﻗﺴﺎﻣﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎ‪F‬ﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺳﻢ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺎدا و ﻣﺒﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺪ‬


1

3.6. Ta’allma Family

Our fourth family:

ً
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

There’s a ‫ ت‬in this family and it’s all fatha, fatha, fatha except when you get to the ‘u’ of the present
tense (but you’d expect the ‘u’ for the present tense anyway, so there’s nothing new there). The other
‘u’ is in the masdar. Other than that, you’ve got fathas across the board.

The next word should be easy to construct since we’ve come up with an ‫ اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬before. ‘Mu’ and ‘e’

are the two sounds that come up every time, and this family is no exception. So the ‫ اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬here is:

ً
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

Now, let’s make the passives. Remember that past passives have ‘u’ and ‘e’ sounds, while present
passives have ‘u’ and ‘a’ sounds. You can have multiple u’s when making the past passive. Here we go:

ً
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

ً
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

The ‫ ت‬is a fixture to this family, so it’s still going to be there in the past tense. The ‫ أﻣﺮ‬and the ‫ ﻲ‬are
not going to be any different in construction than in any other of the families: we’ll take the present
tense, make it lightest, pop off the ‫ ي‬for the ‫أﻣﺮ‬, and switch the ‫ ي‬to a ‫ ت‬for the ‫ ﻲ‬:

ً
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬
ً
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫واﻟ"ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬

You already know the ‫ﻇﺮف‬, and now, the fourth family, too.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬
‫‪ family as a guide:‬ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ‪Try out the sarf sagheer of these words using the‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫ﺗﺪﺑﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺪﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻐﲑ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﲑ‬

‫ﺗﻔﻜﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻜﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺒﺪﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﺪل‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪل‬

‫ﺗﺤﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺑﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺑﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺑﺺ‬

‫ﺗﻘﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪم‬

‫ﺗﻄﻮﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻮع‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻮع‬

‫ﺗﻔﺴﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻔﺴﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﺢ‬

‫=ﺸﻬﺪا‬ ‫ﻳ?ﺸﻬﺪ‬ ‫=ﺸﻬﺪ‬

‫ﺗﺠﻨﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﻨﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻨﺐ‬

‫ﺗﻄﻬﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻬﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺰﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺰل‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺰل‬

‫ﺗﺒﺘﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﺘﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺘﻞ‬

‫ﺗﺠﺮﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺮع‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮع‬

‫ﺗﱪﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﱪج‬ ‫ﺗﱪج‬

‫ﺗﻌﺠﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺠﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺠﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻌﻤﺪا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﺪ‬

‫‪F‬ﺠﺪا‬ ‫ﻳ‪G‬ﺠﺪ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺠﺪ‬

‫ﺗﻮ‪H‬ﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻮﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻛﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻴﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﻤﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻤﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻄﻴﲑا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻄﲑ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﲑ‬

‫ﺗﻤﻴﲒا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﲒ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻴﲒ‬


1

3.7.1 Tasaa’ala Family

We’re starting a new family today, but before we get into the memorization of it, I want you to notice some
similarities between this one and the ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬family:

ً
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬
ً ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫ﻳ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
Look: the ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬family has a ‫ت‬, a shaddah before you get to the last letter, and fatha’s everywhere (except when
you get to the masdar). The next family is also all fathas, but has an alif instead of a shaddah. That’s the only
difference. So if we picked up ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬and tried putting it in this new family, it would be:

ً
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

ً
‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬

We just replaced the shaddah with an alif. So, it’s pretty similar to the previous family we just learned. The sarf
sagheer, then, is also similar to the ‫ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬sarf sagheer. Again, just elongate the sound where you would normally
expect to have a shaddah, and you’ve got:

ٌ ً ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ﺴﺎ ﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
ٌ ً ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﻮ ﻞ‬
ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
ٌ
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬

There you have it. Practice the exercises in this handout, and you will know five families!
2

EXERCISES:

A. See if you can recite the sarf sagheer (all four lines) of each of the words below following the pattern
you noticed in this family. Use the notes above as a guide, but try to do it from memory when you’re
comfortable:

ً ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫ﻳ ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺎوﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎون‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎون‬

‫ﺗﺒﺎرﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﺎرك‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎرك‬

‫ﺗﺠﺎوزا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎوز‬

‫ﺗﺜﺎﻗﻼ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺜﺎﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﺎﻗﻞ‬

‫ﺗﻐﺎﻣﺰا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻐﺎﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺎﻣﺰ‬

‫ﺗﺨﺎﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺨﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺎﻓﺖ‬

‫ﺗﺮاﺟﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰاﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاﺟﻊ‬

‫ﺸﺎورا‬ ‫ﻳ ﺸﺎور‬ ‫ﺸﺎور‬

‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﺎﻫﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎرف‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎرف‬

‫ﺗﻌﺎﺳﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺎﺳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﺳﺮ‬

‫ﺗﻐﺎﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻐﺎﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺎﺑﻦ‬

‫ﺗﻔﺎﺟﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻔﺎﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺟﺮ‬

‫ﺎ‬A‫ﺗﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻘﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺳﻢ‬

‫ﺗﻨﺎﺻﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬

B. Take the following letters and plug them into this family (do the sarf sagheer):

‫وع د‬ ‫نبز‬ ‫لو م‬ ‫نف س‬

C. Review: Keep all the families that you learned so far in mind as you try this exercise. Look at the
following words, and try to figure out which family they belong to:
‫‪3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﺧﺮج اﻟْﻤ ْﺮﻋﻰ )‪(٤‬ﻓﺠﻌ‪ Z‬ﻏﺜﺎء ً أ ْ‬


‫ﺣﻮى )‪(٥‬ﺳﻨﻘﺮﺋﻚ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺢ ْ‬
‫اﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ اﻷﻋ‪(١) L‬ا‪O‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﺴﻮى )‪(٢‬وا‪O‬ي ﻗﺪر ﻓﻬﺪى )‪(٣‬وا‪O‬ي أ‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻳﺨﺸﻰ‬‫ﺗ_ﺴﻰ )‪(٦‬إﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎء اﷲ إﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﺠﻬﺮ وﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﻔﻰ )‪(٧‬وﻧ‪ef‬ك ﻟﻠ‪ef‬ى )‪(٨‬ﻓﺬﻛ ْﺮ إن ﻧﻔﻌﺖ ا‪O‬ﻛﺮى )‪(٩‬ﺳﻴﺬﻛﺮ ﻣ‬

‫ْ‬
‫)‪(١٠‬وﻳﺘﺠﻨ‪l‬ﺎ اﻷﺷﻘﻰ )‪(١١‬‬

‫ﺐ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ٌة ﻳ ْﺤﺴﺒﻮن ﻛﻞ ﺻ ْﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ w‬ﻢ ‪ x‬اﻟْﻌﺪو ﻓ ْ‬


‫ﺎﺣﺬ ْر‪ ْx‬ﻗﺎﺗﻠ‪o‬‬ ‫ﺟﺴﺎﻣ‪ ْo‬وإ ْن ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮا ْﺴﻤ ْﻊ ﻟﻘ ْﻮﻟ‪ ْo‬ﻛﺄ‪ْ p‬ﻢ ﺧﺸ ٌ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وإذا رأ ْﻳ‪ْ n‬ﻢ ﺗﻌﺠﺒﻚ أ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫ْ‬
‫اﷲ أ‪ y‬ﻳﺆﻓﻜﻮن )‪(٤‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻒﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ رﺑﻚ و‪ ْx‬ﻧﺎ ﻤﻮن‬ ‫إﻧﺎ ﺑﻠ ْﻮﻧﺎ‪ ْx‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﻠ ْﻮﻧﺎ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﺠﻨﺔ إذ أﻗﺴﻤﻮا ﻟﻴ ْﺼﺮﻣ!ﺎ ﻣ ْﺼﺒﺤﲔ )‪(١٧‬وﻻ ~ ْﺴﺘﺜﻨﻮن )‪(١٨‬ﻓﻄﺎف ﻋﻠ ْ‪w‬ﺎ ﻃﺎ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫)‪(١٩‬ﻓﺄ ْﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺮ‚ )‪(٢٠‬ﻓﺘﻨﺎد ْوا ﻣﺼﺒﺤﲔ )‪(٢١‬أن اﻏﺪوا ﻋ‪ L‬ﺣ ْﺮﺛ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ إن ﻛﻨ…ْ ﺻﺎرﻣﲔ )‪(٢٢‬ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻘﻮا و‪ ْx‬ﻳﺘﺨﺎﻓﺘﻮن )‪…(٢٣‬ﻗﺎل‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أ ْوﺳﻄ‪ o‬أﻟ ْﻢ أﻗﻞ ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻟ ْﻮﻻ ﺴﺒﺤﻮن )‪(٢٨‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮا ﺳ ْﺒﺤﺎن رﺑﻨﺎ إﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻇﺎﻟﻤﲔ )‪(٢٩‬ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻌﻀ‪ o‬ﻋ‪ L‬ﺑﻌ ٍﺾ ﻳﺘﻼوﻣﻮن )‪(٣٠‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮا ﻳﺎ و ْﻳﻠﻨﺎ‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫إﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻃﺎﻏﲔ )‪(٣١‬ﻋﺴﻰ رﺑﻨﺎ أن ﻳ ْﺒﺪﻟﻨﺎ ﺧﲑًا ﻣ!ﺎ إﻧﺎ إ‪ Š‬رﺑﻨﺎ راﻏﺒﻮن )‪…(٣٢‬أﻓﻨﺠﻌﻞ اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺠﺮﻣﲔ )‪(٣٥‬ﻣﺎ ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻛ ْﻴﻒ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﺤﻜﻤﻮن )‪(٣٦‬أ ْم ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻛﺘ ٌ‬


‫ﺎب ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺪرﺳﻮن )‪(٣٧‬إن ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﲑون )‪(٣٨‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬
‫‪B.‬‬ ‫لو م‬ ‫نفس‬
‫ً‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻼو ٌم‬ ‫ﺗﻼوﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻼوم‬ ‫ﺗﻼوم‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻓ ٌﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬
‫ً‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻼو ٌم‬ ‫ﺗﻼوﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻼوم‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮوم‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻓ ٌﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻓﺲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮﻓﺲ‬

‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻼو ْم‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻼو ْم‬ ‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻓ ْﺲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻨﺎﻓ ْﺲ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻼو ٌم‬ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻓ ٌﺲ‬

‫وعد‬ ‫نبز‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻋﺪا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺑ ٌﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺑﺰا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺑﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺑﺰ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻋﺪا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮوﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺑ ٌﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺑﺰا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺑﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻮﺑﺰ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺑ ْﺰ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻨﺎﺑ ْﺰ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻮاﻋﺪ‬ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺑ ٌﺰ‬

‫‪C.‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﺧﺮج اﻟْﻤ ْﺮﻋﻰ )‪(٤‬ﻓﺠﻌ‪ Z‬ﻏﺜﺎء ً أ ْ‬
‫ﺣﻮى )‪(٥‬ﺳﻨﻘﺮﺋﻚ ﻓﻼ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺢ ْ‬
‫اﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ اﻷﻋ‪(١) L‬ا‪O‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﺴﻮى )‪(٢‬وا‪O‬ي ﻗﺪر ﻓﻬﺪى )‪(٣‬وا‪O‬ي أ‬
‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ :‬اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻳﺨﺸﻰ‬‫ﺗ_ﺴﻰ )‪(٦‬إﻻ ﻣﺎ ﺷﺎء اﷲ إﻧﻪ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﺠﻬﺮ وﻣﺎ ﻳﺨﻔﻰ )‪(٧‬وﻧ‪ef‬ك ﻟﻠ‪ef‬ى )‪(٨‬ﻓﺬﻛ ْﺮ إن ﻧﻔﻌﺖ ا‪O‬ﻛﺮى )‪(٩‬ﺳﻴﺬﻛﺮ ﻣ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ :‬اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬


‫ْ‬
‫)‪(١٠‬وﻳﺘﺠﻨ‪l‬ﺎ اﻷﺷﻘﻰ )‪(١١‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺐ ﻣﺴﻨﺪ ٌة ﻳ ْﺤﺴﺒﻮن ﻛﻞ ﺻ ْﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ w‬ﻢ ‪ x‬اﻟﻌﺪو ﻓ ْ‬
‫ﺟﺴﺎﻣ‪ ْo‬وإ ْن ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮا ْﺴﻤ ْﻊ ﻟﻘ ْﻮﻟ‪ ْo‬ﻛﺄ‪ْ p‬ﻢ ﺧﺸ ٌ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎﺣﺬ ْر‪ ْx‬ﻗﺎﺗﻠ‪o‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫وإذا رأ ْﻳ‪ْ n‬ﻢ ﺗﻌﺠﺒﻚ أ‬

‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ :‬اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬


‫ْ‬
‫اﷲ أ‪ y‬ﻳﺆﻓﻜﻮن )‪(٤‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻒﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ رﺑﻚ و‪ ْx‬ﻧﺎ ﻤﻮن‬ ‫إﻧﺎ ﺑﻠ ْﻮﻧﺎ‪ ْx‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺑﻠ ْﻮﻧﺎ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﺠﻨﺔ إذ أﻗﺴﻤﻮا ﻟﻴﺼﺮﻣ!ﺎ ﻣﺼﺒﺤﲔ )‪(١٧‬وﻻ ~ ْﺴﺘﺜﻨﻮن )‪(١٨‬ﻓﻄﺎف ﻋﻠ ْ‪w‬ﺎ ﻃﺎ‬

‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫)‪(١٩‬ﻓﺄ ْﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﻛﺎﻟﺼﺮ‚ )‪(٢٠‬ﻓﺘﻨﺎد ْوا ﻣﺼﺒﺤﲔ )‪(٢١‬أن اﻏﺪوا ﻋ‪ L‬ﺣ ْﺮﺛ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ إن ﻛﻨ…ْ ﺻﺎرﻣﲔ )‪(٢٢‬ﻓﺎﻧﻄﻠﻘﻮا و‪ ْx‬ﻳﺘﺨﺎﻓﺘﻮن )‪…(٢٣‬ﻗﺎل‬

‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬


‫‪5‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أ ْوﺳﻄ‪ o‬أﻟ ْﻢ أﻗﻞ ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻟ ْﻮﻻ ﺴﺒﺤﻮن )‪(٢٨‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮا ﺳ ْﺒﺤﺎن رﺑﻨﺎ إﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻇﺎﻟﻤﲔ )‪(٢٩‬ﻓﺄﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻌﻀ‪ o‬ﻋ‪ L‬ﺑﻌ ٍﺾ ﻳﺘﻼوﻣﻮن )‪(٣٠‬ﻗﺎﻟﻮا ﻳﺎ و ْﻳﻠﻨﺎ‬

‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬


‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫إﻧﺎ ﻛﻨﺎ ﻃﺎﻏﲔ )‪(٣١‬ﻋﺴﻰ رﺑﻨﺎ أن ﻳ ْﺒﺪﻟﻨﺎ ﺧﲑًا ﻣ!ﺎ إﻧﺎ إ‪ Š‬رﺑﻨﺎ راﻏﺒﻮن )‪…(٣٢‬أﻓﻨﺠﻌﻞ اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻛﺎﻟﻤﺠﺮﻣﲔ )‪(٣٥‬ﻣﺎ ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻛ ْﻴﻒ‬

‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫أ ْﺳﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﺤﻜﻤﻮن )‪(٣٦‬أ ْم ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺎب ﻓﻴﻪ ﺗﺪرﺳﻮن )‪(٣٧‬إن ﻟ‪ْ ƒ‬ﻢ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﲑون )‪(٣٨‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‪ :‬اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬
1

3.8.1 Families 6, 7, and 8

Today, we are going to learn three families in one go. Don’t worry—they’re pretty similar, so just pay
attention, and you’ll learn them in no time. Here they are:

ً ْ ْ ْ
‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
ً ْ ْ ْ
‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳ ﻨﻜ‬ ‫اﻧﻜ‬
ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎرا‬ ‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬

All of these families start with an ‫ ا‬. Let’s take the first one, and try the sarf sagheer:

ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣ ْﻘﱰ‬ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ب‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻘﱰ‬ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ب‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
ْ ‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ ْﻘﱰ‬%‫و اﻟ‬
‫ب‬ ْ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ا ْﻗﱰ‬
‫ب‬
ٌ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْﻘﱰ‬
‫ب‬

Simple enough, right? This family has a ‫ ت‬in it—that’s what distinguishes it from the other two. The
second family’s sarf sagheer is similar:

ٌ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ً ‫ا ْﻧﻜﺴﺎرا‬ ْ
‫ﻳﻨ ﻜ‬
ْ
‫اﻧﻜ‬

ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬%‫و اﻟ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻧﻜ‬

ٌ ْ
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﻜ‬

This one seems a little short, right? This is a shortcut family—there isn’t any passive for it, so you go
straight to ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‬. The last family:
ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎرا‬ ‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
ْ ً ‫ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔﺎرا‬ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
ْ ْ
‫ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮ‬, ‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ‬%‫و اﻟ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮ‬
ْ
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
2

You now know all eight families. Practice running through lots of examples to help solidify them in your
mind. You know the first three families by heart, so it’ll be hard to forget them. As for the others, here
are some tips to help you keep them straight:

1. The first three families are the ONLY ones in which the present tense, commanding, and forbidding
have a dummah.

ْ
ً ‫ﺧﺒﺎرا‬ ْ ْ
‫إ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧﱪ‬
ً ْ
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻢ‬8‫ﻳﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﻢ‬8‫ﻋﻠ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ً و ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬

2. The next two all begin with ta, and pretty much have fatha’s across the board (except the masdar):

ً
‫ﻠﻤﺎ‬8 ‫ﺗﻌ‬ ‫ﻠﻢ‬8 ‫ﻳﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻠﻢ‬8 ‫ﺗﻌ‬
ً ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬, ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬B‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬,

3. The last three are ‫ ا‬families. They have an ‫ ا‬in the past tense and the masdar. Notice that the ‫ا‬
ً ْ
doesn’t have a hamza like in ‫إﺧﺒﺎرا‬.

ً ْ ْ ْ
‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
ً ‫ا ْﻧﻜﺴﺎرا‬ ْ
‫ﻳﻨﻜ‬
ْ
‫اﻧ ﻜ‬
ً ‫ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔﺎرا‬ ْ
‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
ْ
‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES‬‬

‫‪A. Practice. Do the sarf sahgeer of each of these, using the first page as a guide (if you need it!):‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬

‫اﻧﺘﻈﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻈﻢ‬

‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﻘﻢ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﻢ‬

‫اﻧﺘﺼﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺼﺮ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺼﺮ‬

‫اﺳﺘﺒﺎﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺒﻖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺒﻖ‬

‫اﻧ‪B‬ﺸﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﻨ‪FB‬‬ ‫اﻧ‪FB‬‬

‫اﻋﺘﺰاﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﺰل‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺰل‬

‫اﻏﱰاﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﱰف‬ ‫اﻏﱰف‬

‫اﺑ‪J‬ﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺒ‪J‬ﻞ‬ ‫اﺑ‪J‬ﻞ‬

‫اﻗﱰاﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰن‬ ‫اﻗﱰن‬

‫اﻛ‪B‬ﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜ‪B‬ﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻛ‪B‬ﺴﺐ‬

‫اﺟ‪J‬ﺎدا‬ ‫ﻳﺠ‪J‬ﺪ‬ ‫اﺟ‪J‬ﺪ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻤﺎﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻤﻊ‬

‫اﻏ‪B‬ﺴﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻐ‪B‬ﺴﻞ‬ ‫اﻏ‪B‬ﺴﻞ‬

‫اﺟﺘﻨﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺘﻨﺐ‬ ‫اﺟﺘﻨﺐ‬

‫اﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻠﻒ‬

‫اﺣ‪B‬ﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺤ‪B‬ﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﺣ‪B‬ﺴﺐ‬

‫اﻗﺘﺘﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺘﺘﻞ‬ ‫اﻗﺘﺘﻞ‬

‫ْ‬
‫!‪ family does not have passives‬اﻧﻘﻠﺐ ‪Remember that the‬‬
‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﻧﻘﻼﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻧﻘﻠﺐ‬

‫اﻧﺒﻌﺎﺛﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﻌﺚ‬ ‫اﻧﺒﻌﺚ‬

‫اﻧﻔﻼﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻧﻔﻠﻖ‬

‫اﻧﺒﺠﺎﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺒﺠﺲ‬ ‫اﻧﺒﺠﺲ‬

‫اﻧﻘﻌﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘ‪U‬‬ ‫اﻧﻘ‪U‬‬


‫‪4‬‬

‫ا‪V‬ﺴﻼﺧﺎ‬ ‫ﻳ‪X‬ﺴﻠﺦ‬ ‫ا‪V‬ﺴﻠﺦ‬

‫اﻧﻜﺪارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻜﺪر‬ ‫اﻧﻜﺪر‬

‫ا‪Y‬ﻤﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳ‪%‬ﻤﺮ‬ ‫ا‪Y‬ﻤﺮ‬

‫اﻧﺼﺮاﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮف‬ ‫اﻧﺼﺮف‬

‫اﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ‬ ‫اﻧﻄﻠﻖ‬

‫اﻧﻔﺠﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﺠﺮ‬ ‫اﻧﻔﺠﺮ‬

‫اﻧﻔﻄﺎرا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻔﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻧﻔﻄﺮ‬

‫‪Practice for the last family:‬‬

‫اﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

‫اﺳﺘﺄذاﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺄذن‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺄذن‬

‫اﺳﺘﺨﻼﺻﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬

‫اﺳﺘﺨﻼﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﻠﻒ‬

‫اﺳﺘﺒﺪاﻻ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺒﺪل‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺒﺪل‬

‫اﺳﺘ_ﺸﺎرا‬ ‫ﺴﺘ_‪F‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘ_‪F‬‬

‫اﺳﺘﺤﻔﺎﻇﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺤﻔﻆ‬

‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮاﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﺮج‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮج‬

‫اﺳﱰﻫﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﱰﻫﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﱰﻫﺐ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎرا‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺮ‬

‫اﺳ‪B‬ﺸﻬﺎدا‬ ‫ﺴ‪B‬ﺸﻬﺪ‬ ‫اﺳ‪B‬ﺸﻬﺪ‬

‫اﺳﺘﺼﺮاﺧﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺼﺮخ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺼﺮخ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻀﻌﺎﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻀﻌﻒ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻀﻌﻒ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻄﻌﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻄﻌﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻄﻌﻢ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻌﺘﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻌﺘﺐ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺘﺐ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻌﺠﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻌﺠﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺠﻞ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻌﺼﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻌﺼﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﺼﻢ‬


‫‪5‬‬

‫اﺳﺘﻐﻼﻇﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻐﻠﻆ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻠﻆ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻔﺘﺎﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺘﺢ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻤﺴﺎﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺴﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺴﻚ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻨﻜﺎﺣﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻨﻜﺢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻜﺢ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻨﻜﺎﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻨﻜﻒ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻜﻒ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻜﺒﺎرا‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﱪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻜﱪ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻜﺜﺎرا‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻜﺜﺮ‬

‫اﺳﺘﻤﺘﺎﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬


‫‪1‬‬

‫)‪3.9.1 Cumulative Review (Part 1‬‬

‫‪We’re going to go through some ayahs in Surah AlKahf and try to match words to the families we’ve‬‬
‫‪learned so far:‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺘﺎب وﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ! ﻋﻮﺟﺎ )‪(١‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬اﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﷲ ا ي أﻧﺰل ﻋ ﻋ ْﺒﺪه اﻟ‬

‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺰل‬ ‫إﻧﺰاﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺰل‬ ‫إﻧﺰاﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫أﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫و اﻟ‪-‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺰل‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ ٌ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﺰل‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ً ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ >ﻧﻪ وﻳ@? اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ا ﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮن اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺎت أن ﻟ‪ G‬أﺟﺮً ا ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ )‪(٢‬‬‫‪ (a‬ﻗﻴ ًﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺬر ﺑﺄ ًﺳﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪا ﻣ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪), it ends with ‘a’.‬ﻳﻨﺬر( ’‪ makes the present tense light, so instead of ending with ‘u‬ل ‪Note:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫‪ light‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟ‪-‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺬ ْر‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻧﺬ ْر‬
‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ً ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ >ﻧﻪ وﻳ@? اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ا ﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮن اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺎت أن ﻟ‪ G‬أﺟﺮً ا ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ )‪(٢‬‬ ‫‪ (b‬ﻗﻴ ًﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺬر ﺑﺄ ًﺳﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪا ﻣ‬

‫‪.‬ﻳ@? ‪ still carries over. Orginially, it was‬ل ‪Note: The effect of the‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣ@ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫?‬ ‫ﺗ@ﺸﲑا‬ ‫ﻳ@?‬ ‫‪?M‬‬ ‫‪ light‬ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ@ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫?‬ ‫ﺗ@ﺸﲑا‬ ‫ﻳ@?‬ ‫‪?M‬‬

‫و اﻟ‪-‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ@ ْ‬
‫?‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ْ M‬‬
‫?‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ@ ٌ‬
‫?‬
2

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ً ْ ْ
(٢) ‫ أﺟﺮً ا ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ‬G‫ﻦ >ﻧﻪ وﻳ@? اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ا ﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮن اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺎت أن ﻟ‬ ‫( ﻗﻴ ًﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺬر ﺑﺄ ًﺳﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪا ﻣ‬c
ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺆﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬
ْ
‫ﻣﺆﻣﻨﻮن‬

‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬

Note: If you go through the families, it matches up with the akhbara family most closely, even though
ً ْ ْ
it sounds a bit different since it starts with a hamza. Instead of ‫أ ْءﻣﻦ ﻳﺆﻣﻦ إﺋﻤﺎﻧﺎ‬, we smooth it out to:

ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺆﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬
ً
‫إﻳﻤﺎﻧﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻳﺆﻣﻦ‬ ‫آﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬
ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣ ْﺆﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬
ً
‫إﻳﻤﺎﻧﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻳﺆﻣﻦ‬ ‫أوﻣﻦ‬
ْ ‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ ْﺆﻣ‬-‫و اﻟ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ْ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ آﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬
ٌ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْﺆﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ً ْ ْ
(٢) ‫ أﺟﺮً ا ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ‬G‫ﻦ >ﻧﻪ وﻳ@? اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ا ﻳﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻠﻮن اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺎت أن ﻟ‬‫( ﻗﻴ ًﻤﺎ ﻟﻴﻨﺬر ﺑﺄ ًﺳﺎ ﺷﺪﻳﺪا ﻣ‬d

Note: This one doesn’t match up with any of the families we learned yet. It’s not from the 8 big families
we learned, but we still know that it’s a ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬.

ً ‫( وﻳﻨْﺬر ا ﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮا اﺗﺨﺬ اﷲ و‬a .3


(٤) ‫>ا‬

Note: The effect of the ‫ ل‬still carries over.

ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬ ‫ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬light
ْ ً ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬ ‫إﻧﺬارا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺬر‬ ‫أﻧﺬر‬
ْ ْ
‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺬ ْر‬-‫و اﻟ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﻧﺬ ْر‬
ْ
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﺬ ٌر‬

ً ‫( وﻳﻨْﺬر ا ﻳﻦ ﻗﺎﻟﻮا اﺗﺨﺬ اﷲ و‬b


(٤) ‫>ا‬

Note: We know this is ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬, even though it’s not the first word of the past tense chart (which would

be ‫)ﻗﺎل‬. It’s got three letters, but doesn’t match up with any of the families we learned so far. It must be
3

from one of the small families we haven’t learned yet (hint: if the past tense is only 3 letters, it can’t be
from one of the 8 families).

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫ْ إن ﻟ ْﻢ‬d‫(ﻓﻠﻌﻠﻚ ﺑﺎﺧ ٌﻊ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻋ آﺛﺎر‬٥) ‫ إن ﻳﻘﻮﻟﻮن إﻻ ﻛﺬ ًﺑﺎ‬G‫ﻦ أﻓﻮاﻫ‬ ‫ ْﻢ ﻛﱪت ﻛﻠﻤ ًﺔ ﺗﺨﺮج ﻣ‬W‫ﻦ ﻋﻠ ٍﻢ وﻻ ﻵﺑﺎ‬‫ ﺑﻪ ﻣ‬G‫ ﻣﺎ ﻟ‬.4
ْ ْ
(٦) ‫ﺬا اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ أﺳ ًﻔﺎ‬f ‫ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮا‬

When I’ve gone through all the families we’ve covered, I don’t find a match. It must be from a small
family. All I know so far is that this is ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬.

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ ‫ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻣ‬m‫ْﻬﻒ واﻟﺮﻗ‬ ْ


‫ﻦ >ﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﻬﻒ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮا رﺑﻨﺎ آﺗﻨﺎ ﻣ‬ ‫ اﻟ‬q‫(إذ أوى اﻟﻔﺘﻴﺔ إ‬٩) ‫ﻦ آﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ ﻋﺠ ًﺒﺎ‬ ‫ أ ْم ﺣﺴ ْﺒﺖ أن أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟ‬.5

(١٠) ‫ﻦ أ ْﻣﺮﻧﺎ رﺷ ًﺪا‬ ْ ‫ ًﺔ وﻫﻴ‬rْ ‫ر‬


ْ ‫ﺊ ﻟﻨ ﺎ ﻣ‬

ْ ‫ ﻫﻴ‬sounds like ‫ !ﻋﻠ ْﻢ‬Commands and forbidding have a sukoon (in the sarf sagheer) at the end, so that’s
‫ﺊ‬
what gives this one away. It’s not a past tense because it doesn’t have an ‘a’ at the end. The sarf sagheer
for this word is challenging, but this is what we came to in class:

ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻬﻴ‬ ً ْ
‫ﺊ‬ ‫ﻴﻴﺌﺎ‬v ‫ﻴﺊ‬w ‫ﻫﻴﺊ‬
ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻬﻴ‬ ً ْ
‫ﺊ‬ ‫ﻴﻴﺌﺎ‬v ‫ﻴﺊ‬w ‫ﻫﻴﺊ‬
ْ ‫ﻴ‬v ‫ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ‬-‫و اﻟ‬
‫ﺊ‬ ْ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻫﻴ‬
‫ﺊ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
ٌ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻬﻴ‬
‫ﺊ‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫)‪3.9.2 Cumulative Review (Part 2‬‬

‫‪Today, we went over sarf kabeer of each of three families. It’s written out here so that you can refer to‬‬
‫‪these notes as you practice doing the sarf kabeer yourself. It looks a little overwhelming, but you know‬‬
‫!‪all this‬‬

‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺧﺒﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧ ﱪ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺧﺒﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺨﱪ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﺧ ﱪ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ أﺧﱪ‬
‫ْ ٌ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺨﱪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫) ﻳﺨﱪون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫) أﺧﱪوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﺧﱪا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ أﺧﱪ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺨﱪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ أﺧﱪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﺧﱪﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ أﺧﱪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﱪ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﱪون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬أﺧ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪت‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺨﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ أﺧﱪﺗ ‪3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺧﱪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ أﺧﱪﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺧﱪت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺧﺒ ٌ‬‫ْ‬
‫إﺧﺒﺎرت‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎران‬ ‫ﺎر‬ ‫إ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫إﺧﺒﺎر ٍ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎر ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫إ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫إﺧﺒﺎر ٍ‬ ‫إﺧﺒﺎر ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺎر‬
‫إﺧﺒ ٍ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺨﱪات‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪة‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪون‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺨﱪا ً‬
‫ات‬‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﱪ‬‫ﻣﺨ ٍ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ B‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ B‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫) ﻳﺨﱪون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺨﱪ‬ ‫) أﺧﱪوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﺧﱪا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ أﺧﱪ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺨﱪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ أﺧﱪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ أﺧﱪﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ أﺧﱪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﱪ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﺨﱪون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬أﺧ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪت‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺨﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺨﱪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫‪3‬‬ ‫ﺗ‬‫ﱪ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ أﺧ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺧﱪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ أﺧﱪﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺧﱪت‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺨﱪات‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪة‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪون‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺨﱪا ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﱪ‬‫ﻣﺨ ٍ‬

‫اﻟ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻻﺗﺨﱪوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺨﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﺨﱪ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬أﺧﱪوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﺨﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺨﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﺨﱪي‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ أﺧﱪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ أﺧﱪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ أﺧﱪي‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺨﱪات‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪان‬ ‫ﻣﺨ ﱪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺨﱪا ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺨﱪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺨﱪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﱪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﱪ‬
‫ﻣﺨ ٍ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻢ‬
‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻌﻠ‪ٌ 3‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬

‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻌﻠ‪ْ 3‬ﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻋﻠ‪ْ 3‬ﻢ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠ ٌﻢ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫) ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫) ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻋﻠ ْﻤ‪ْ.‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘ ‪3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﻌﻠ‪ٌH‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠ ٍ‪H‬‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠ ٌﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪ٍ 3‬ﻢ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ B‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ B‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫) ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫) ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻋﻠ ْﻤ‪ْ.‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘ ‪3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻋ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪ٌ 3‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠ ٍﻢ‬

‫اﻟ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻻﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎﻻﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻌﻠ‪ْ 3‬ﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻋﻠ‪ْ 3‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻋﻠ‪3‬ﻤﻲ‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠ ٌﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠ‪3‬ﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌ ‪3‬ﻠ ٍﻢ‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًو ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ًو ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻫﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫) ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫) ﺟﺎﻫﺪوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺟﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺟﺎﻫﺪت‬

‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﻫ ْﺪ ْ‬


‫‪2‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺗﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺟﺎﻫﺪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺟﺎﻫ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺟﺎﻫﺪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺟﺎﻫﺪﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﺟﻬ ٌ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎدات‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدان‬ ‫ﺎد‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪة‬

‫ات‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎد ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎدا ً‬


‫ﺟﻬﺎد ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬

‫ات‬
‫ﺟﻬﺎد ٍ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎد ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎ ٍد‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍة‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪون‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪا ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫ ٍﺪ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ B‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ B‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫) ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫) ﺟﻮﻫﺪوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺪا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺟﻮﻫﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺠﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺟﻮﻫﺪن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺪﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺟﻮﻫﺪت‬

‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺟﻮﻫ ْﺪ ْ‬


‫‪2‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺪﺗﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺟﻮﻫﺪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺟﻮﻫ ‪3‬‬
‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺪﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺟﻮﻫﺪت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺟﻮﻫﺪﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺟﻮﻫﺪت‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪون‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪا ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫ ٍﺪ‬

‫اﻟ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﻫﺪوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺟﺎﻫﺪ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺪي‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺟﺎﻫﺪن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺟﺎﻫﺪا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺟﺎﻫﺪي‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪان‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ‬

‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪا ً‬


‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬

‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫﺪ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻫ ٍﺪ‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫)‪3.9.3 Cumulative Review (Part 3‬‬

‫‪Picking up from where we left last time, we did the sarf kabeer of three more families:‬‬

‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫و اﻟ‪5‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫أﻧ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻤ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠ ٍﻢ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٍﻢ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ= اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ= اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫أﻧ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻤ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٍﻢ‬

‫اﻟ‪5‬ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ ﻻﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﺘﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬ ‫أﻧ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠ ْﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﺘﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٌﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻠ ٍﻢ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟ‪5‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺖ‬

‫أﻧ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫أﻧ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋ ْﻠ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼت‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ً‬
‫ت‬
‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ٍ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ت‬
‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ٍ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋ ٍﻞ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻼت‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪GA‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻼن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪ً GA‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻼ ً‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﲔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪ٍGA‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪A‬ﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎ‪ٍ A‬ﻞ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ= اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ= اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻼ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﻦ‬ ‫‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺖ‬

‫أﻧ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫أﻧ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪ْ A‬ﻠ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺖ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﻮ‪A‬ﻠﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼت‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋ‪G‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋ‪ً G‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ً‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋ‪ٍG‬‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋ ٍﻞ‬

‫اﻟ‪5‬ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧ ﻻﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎﻻﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫أﻧ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎﻻﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋ‪H‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪F‬ﺴﺎﺋ‪H‬‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼت‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼن‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ً‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ت‬
‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻼ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‪C‬ﺴﺎﺋ ٍﻞ‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣ ْﻘﱰ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ب‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻘﱰ ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰب‬
‫و اﻟ‪5‬ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ ْﻘﱰ ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ا ْﻗﱰ ْ‬
‫ب‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْﻘﱰ ٌ‬
‫ب‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻳﻘﱰﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ اﻗﱰﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ اﻗﱰب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﱰب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ اﻗﱰﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ اﻗﱰﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﻮن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﱰب‬ ‫أﻧ ا ْﻗﱰ ْﺑ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﱰب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﱰب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﻗﱰ ٌ‬
‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎت‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎن‬ ‫اب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬‫اﻗﱰاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﲔ‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﻗﱰ ٌ‬
‫ﺎت‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫اﻗﱰاﺑﲔ‬ ‫اب‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﻘﱰ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰ ٍ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ= اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ= اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻳﻘﱰﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﱰب‬ ‫اﻗﱰﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ اﻗﱰﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ اﻗﱰب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎن ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﱰب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ اﻗﱰﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ اﻗﱰﺑﺖ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎن أﻧ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﻮن‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﱰب‬ ‫أﻧ ا ْﻗﱰ ْﺑ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎن أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺖ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﱰب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﱰب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﻘﱰ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰ ٍ‬

‫اﻟ‪5‬ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗ ْﻘﱰ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ْاﻗﱰ ْ‬
‫أﻧ ﻻﺗﻘﱰﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أﻧ اﻗﱰﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻗﱰﺑﺎ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﻘﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﱰﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﱰ‪N‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ اﻗﱰ ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻗﱰﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ اﻗﱰ‪N‬‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﻘﱰ ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ﻣﻘﱰ ٍ‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫)‪3.9.4 Cumulative Review (Part 4‬‬

‫‪In the previous session, we went over the sarf kabeer of three families. We’ve only got two more to go:‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ا ْﻧﻜﺴﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻳﻨﻜ‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻧ ﻜ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻧﻜ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻨﻜ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ون‬ ‫' ﻳﻨﻜ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻨﻜ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫' اﻧﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ اﻧﻜ ا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ اﻧﻜ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ْن‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻨﻜ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ْن‬ ‫ﻫﻦ اﻧﻜ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ اﻧﻜ ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ اﻧﻜ ت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ون‬ ‫أﻧ‪ ,‬ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫أﻧ‪ ,‬اﻧﻜ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻧﻜ ْ ﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ااﻧﻜ ْ ت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ْن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫ﺗ ‪1‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ اﻧﻜ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻧﻜ ْ ﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ اﻧﻜ ْ ت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻨﻜ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻧﻜ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ اﻧﻜ ْ ﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ اﻧﻜ ْ ت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﻧﻜﺴ ٌ‬
‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎرات‬ ‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎران‬ ‫ﺎر‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﻧﻜﺴﺎرا ً‬
‫ات‬‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎر ٍ‬ ‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎر ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎر ٍ‬ ‫اﻧﻜﺴﺎر ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺎر‬
‫ا ﻧ ﻜﺴ ٍ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫اً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ًة‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬

‫اﻟ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وا‬ ‫أﻧ‪ ,‬ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫وا‬ ‫أﻧ‪ ,‬اﻧﻜ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻧﻜ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ اﻧﻜ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ْن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﻨﻜ‬ ‫ْن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ اﻧﻜ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ اﻧﻜ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫أﻧﺖ اﻧﻜ‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺳﺮات‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫اً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺳﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﻨﻜﺮﺳﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻜ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻓﻬﻮﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬ ‫‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔﺎرا ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬ ‫‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫' ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫' ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫اﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْﺮ ْ‬‫أﻧ‪ْ ,‬‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧ‪ْ C ,‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮت‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻦ اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗ ‪1‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮت‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪ْ D‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أ ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ٌ‬
‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎرات‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎران‬ ‫ﺎر‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔﺎرا ً‬
‫ات‬‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎر ٍ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎر ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎر ٍ‬ ‫ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺎر ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺎر‬
‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔ ٍ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮات‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮة‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘ ْﻐﻔﺮا ً‬
‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٍﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬


‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان ' ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫' ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻤﺎ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان ﻫﻦ ‪ْ B‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮت ﻫﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْﺮت أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ أﻧ‪ ,‬ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْﺮ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان أﻧ‪ْ C ,‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫‪0‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْﺮت أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ أﻧﺘﻦ ا ْﺳﺘ ْﻐﻔ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان أﻧﺘﻦ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻦ‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺗ‬‫ﺮ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪ْ D‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أ ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮت‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮات‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮة‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮون‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘ ْﻐﻔﺮا ً‬
‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ات‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﻟ ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎﻻ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮا أﻧ‪ ,‬ﻻ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧ‪,‬‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎﻻ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮا أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‪ْ C‬ﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮي‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ا ْﺳﺘﻐﻔﺮي‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮات‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮان‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘ ْﻐﻔﺮا ً‬
‫ات‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻐﻔﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬
1

3.10 Cumulative Exam

What is the sarf sagheer and sarf kabeer of the following words? Say them aloud, record yourself, and
then double-check your answers by checking against the answer key attached. If you struggle through
this, practice the sarf charts some more before moving on to new material.

‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬


‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ف‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫واﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ف‬ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫أﻧ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓْ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪7‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻒ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻳﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻳﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻒ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫أﻧ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓْ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪7‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬

‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻮا‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﰲ‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻗﻮرب‬
‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻗﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎرب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎرﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﺎر ْﺑ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻗﺮ ٌ‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﺎن‬ ‫اب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﲔ‬ ‫اب‬
‫ﻗﺮ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻗﻮرﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻮرﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮرب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻮرﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮرﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﻮر ْﺑ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر ْ‬


‫ب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر‪M‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر‪M‬‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا ً‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬


‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮ‬

‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮت‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‪ْN‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬

‫ات‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮت‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮ‪ْN‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫‪7‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮي‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮي‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬

‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬
1

3.10 Cumulative Exam

What is the sarf sagheer and sarf kabeer of the following words? Say them aloud, record yourself, and
then double-check your answers by checking against the answer key attached. If you struggle through
this, practice the sarf charts some more before moving on to new material.

‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬


‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ف‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫واﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ف‬ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫أﻧ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓْ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪7‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻒ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻳﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻳﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻒ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫أﻧ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓْ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪7‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬

‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻮا‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﰲ‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻗﻮرب‬
‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻗﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎرب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎرﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﺎر ْﺑ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻗﺮ ٌ‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﺎن‬ ‫اب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﲔ‬ ‫اب‬
‫ﻗﺮ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻗﻮرﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻮرﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮرب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻮرﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮرﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﻮر ْﺑ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر ْ‬


‫ب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر‪M‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر‪M‬‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا ً‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬


‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮ‬

‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮت‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‪ْN‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬

‫ات‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮت‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮ‪ْN‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫‪7‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮي‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮي‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬

‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬
1

3.10 Cumulative Exam

What is the sarf sagheer and sarf kabeer of the following words? Say them aloud, record yourself, and
then double-check your answers by checking against the answer key attached. If you struggle through
this, practice the sarf charts some more before moving on to new material.

‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬


‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ف‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫واﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ف‬ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫أﻧ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓْ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪7‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻳﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﻒ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻳﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻳﻔ ٍ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﻒ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫أﻧ‪3‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓْ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ‪7‬‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺷﺮف‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺖ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻮن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬

‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻮا‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺷﺮﻓﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮف‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺷﺮﻓﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺷﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺷﺮﰲ‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﺎن‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓًﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻓ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﲔ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ٍف‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻗﺎرب‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ و ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻗﻮرب‬
‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻗﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬
‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ب‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻗﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﺎرب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎرﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﺎر ْﺑ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻗﺮ ٌ‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﺎن‬ ‫اب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺮا ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺮاﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاﺑﲔ‬ ‫اب‬
‫ﻗﺮ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﻘﺎرب‬ ‫‪ -‬ﻗﻮرﺑﻮا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻮرﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻗﻮرب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻗﻮرﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﻮرﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﻮر ْﺑ‪ْ3‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﻘﺎرب‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﻗﺎرب‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﻗﻮر ْﺑﺖ‬
‫‪5‬‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر ْ‬


‫ب‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻗﺎرﺑﻮا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر ْ‬
‫ب‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻﺗﻘﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻﺗﻘﺎر‪M‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻗﺎر ْﺑﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻗﺎرﺑﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻗﺎر‪M‬‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٌ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﺎن‬ ‫ب‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎر ًﺑﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎرﺑﲔ‬ ‫ب‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎر ٍ‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا ً‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬


‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮ‬

‫و اﻟ!ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬

‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮت‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‪ْN‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬

‫ات‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﻀﺎرع ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ ﻣﺎض ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﻋ‪ G‬اﻟﻤﺠﻬﻮل‬

‫‪ -‬ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮوا‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮا‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻦ ﻳﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﺛﺮت‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮ‪ْN‬‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﺗﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﻧﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ أﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ ﺗﻜﻮﺛ ْﺮت‬

‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺆﻧﺚ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻔﻌﻮل ﻣﺬﻛﺮ‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫‪7‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ًة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬

‫اﻟ!ﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬

‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬ ‫أﻧ‪ 3‬ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮوا‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮ‬

‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮي‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻦ ﺗﻜﺎﺛ ْﺮن‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬ ‫أﻧﺖ ﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮي‬

‫ﻇﺮف‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮان‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٌﺮ‬
‫ً‬
‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮا‬

‫ات‬
‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ٍ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻜﺎﺛ ٍﺮ‬
1

3.11.1 Six Small Families (Part 1)

We’re going to start the six families now. We learned the 8 families first because they are easier—they’re
ْ ْ
predictable. If I gave you ‫أﻧﻌﻢ‬, you can do the sarf sagheer of it because you know how to do ‫أﺧﱪ‬. That’s
not how it works with the six families, though. Knowing the first word of the family isn’t enough. You would
need to know the maadi, mudaari’, and the masdar. The masdars can be different, too. If you have ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬,
ً ً ْ
which sounds just like ‫ ﻊ‬, and you’d think the masdar is ‫( ﺣ ْﺴﺒﺎ‬since the masdar of ‫ﻊ‬ is ‫) ﻌﺎ‬, but the
ً
masdar is actually ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬. This is something you’re going to have to get used to. I’ll give you the masdars of
the words we go over in class, and when you memorize them, there won’t be any guesswork.

Now, here are the maadi, mudaari’, and masdar of the six families (we’ll go over the sarf sagheer later):

ً ْ ْ
To open ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
ً ْ ْ
To hit ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬
ً ْ ْ
To help ‫ﻧﺼﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬
ً ْ
To listen ‫ﻌﺎ‬ ‫ ْﺴﻤﻊ‬# ‫ﻊ‬
ً ْ
To ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬
calculate
ْ
To honor ‫ﻛﺮاﻣ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻛﺮم‬

We came up with a story in class to help remember all the families:

ً ْ ْ ً ْ
Somebody opened the door (‫)ﻓﺘﺢ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﻓﺘﺤﺎ‬, and got hit as soon as he walked in (‫)ﺿﺮب ﻳﻀﺮب ﺿ ْﺮﺑﺎ‬. He
ْ ً ْ
asked for help (ً ‫)ﻧﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ ﻧ ْﺼﺮا‬, but nobody listened to him (‫ﻌﺎ‬ ‫ ْﺴﻤﻊ‬# ‫) ﻊ‬. He got hit because he couldn’t
ً ْ
calculate (‫)ﺣﺴﺐ ﻳﺤﺴﺐ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬, but next time, he did well on the test, and was honored by the teacher ( ‫ﻛﺮم‬
ْ
‫)ﻳﻜﺮم ﻛﺮاﻣ ًﺔ‬.

Now let’s make some observations:

1. Let’s look at the past tenses of these families:


2

There are three that are fatha’s all across (‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬, ‫ﺿﺮب‬, and ‫)ﻧﺼﺮ‬, two
‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺮ ب‬ ‫ﻓﺘ ﺢ‬
that have a kasra on the middle letter (‫ﻊ‬ and ‫)ﺣﺴﺐ‬, and one with a
‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻊ‬
damma in the middle (‫)ﻛﺮم‬. Note: When I say the fat-ha one, or the
‫ﻛﺮم‬
kasra-one, I’ll always be referring to the middle letter of the word
since the first and last letters are always the same.

2. What makes the three fatha families different from each other? Their present tenses do. Look:

ْ
‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
Goes to an ‘a’ An ‘a’
ْ
‫ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬
Goes to an ‘e’ An ‘a’
ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬
Goes to a ‘u’ An ‘a’

The past tenses have fathas all across, but the middle letter in the present tense is different. If it has a
fatha, it matches the ‫ ﻓﺘﺢ‬family; a kasra, it matches ‫ ;ﺿﺮب‬and a damma matches the ‫ ﻧﺼﺮ‬family. If you

didn’t know the families, you’d think that ‫ ﺿﺮب‬is exactly the same as ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬. Then you might guess that the
ْ ْ
present tense of ‫ ﺿﺮب‬is ‫ ﻳﻀﺮب‬when it’s actually ‫ﻳﻀﺮب‬. That’s why the harakahs are really important—
you don’t want to put something in the wrong family.

Then there are two kasra families. Again, their past tenses look similar, but it’s the present tenses that
make them different: one is an ‘e’ to ‘a’, and the other is ‘e’ to ‘u’.

‫ ْﺴﻤﻊ‬# ‫ﻊ‬
ْ
‫ﻳﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬

Now, the last family has a damma in both the past and present tense.

ْ
‫ﻳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻛﺮم‬
3

EXERCISES

A. Memorize all the six families. You need to know them by heart so that you don’t confuse them with
each other. Once you have them down, go on to Part B and practice.

B. Looking at the past and present tenses of these words, figure out which family they belong to.
Don’t worry about the masdars for now.

Tip: When the past tense is fatha, it could belong to either the fataha, daraba, or nasara family, and
the present tense could either be like yaftahu, or yadribu, or yansuru. If the past tense has a kasra
in it, then it could go with either samia or hasiba. But if the past tense has a damma in it, it can only
go with one family, the karuma family.

Which Family? Present Tense Past Tense


ْ
‫ﻳﻀﺤﻚ‬ ‫ ﺿﺤﻚ‬.1
ْ
‫ﻳﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫ ﻛﻔﺮ‬.2

‫ﻳ ْﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫ رﺟﻊ‬.3

‫ﻳ ْﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫ ﺑﻌﺪ‬.4
ْ
‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫ ﻋﻠﻢ‬.5
ْ
‫ﻳﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫ ﺟﻠﺲ‬.6
ْ
‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫ ﻛﺘﺐ‬.7

‫ﻳ ْﺒﺪأ‬ ‫ ﺑﺪأ‬.8
ْ
‫ﻳﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ ﺣﻔﻆ‬.9
ْ
‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫ ﻧﻈﺮ‬.10
ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫ ﻧﺰل‬.11

‫ ْﺴﺄل‬# ‫ ﺳﺄل‬.12
ْ
‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ أﺧﺬ‬.13
ْ
‫ﻳﻐﻀﺐ‬ ‫ ﻏﻀﺐ‬.14
ْ
‫ﻳﺤﺰن‬ ‫ ﺣﺰن‬.15
‫‪4‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY‬‬

‫‪Part B:‬‬

‫?‪Which Family‬‬ ‫‪Present Tense‬‬ ‫‪Past Tense‬‬


‫ْ‬
‫ﻊ ‪ْ #‬ﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺤﻚ‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺿﺤﻚ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻔﺮ‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﻛﻔﺮ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺿﺮب ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﻳ ْﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫‪ .3‬رﺟﻊ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻛﺮم ﻳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻳ ْﺒﻌﺪ‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻊ ‪ْ #‬ﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻠﻢ‬ ‫‪ .5‬ﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺿﺮب ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻠﺲ‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﺟﻠﺲ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺘﺐ‬ ‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺘﺐ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻳ ْﺒﺪأ‬ ‫‪ .8‬ﺑﺪأ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻊ ‪ْ #‬ﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫‪ .9‬ﺣﻔﻆ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ‬ ‫‪ .10‬ﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺿﺮب ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺰل‬ ‫‪ .11‬ﻧﺰل‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺢ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫‪ْ #‬ﺴﺄل‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﺳﺄل‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻧﺼﺮ ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫‪ .13‬أﺧﺬ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻊ ‪ْ #‬ﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻐﻀﺐ‬ ‫‪ .14‬ﻏﻀﺐ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻊ ‪ْ #‬ﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺰن‬ ‫‪ .15‬ﺣﺰن‬
1

3.11.2 Six Small Families (Part 2)

We started the six small families last session, and went over their sarf sagheer today, beginning with:

ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓﺎﺗ‬ ً ْ ْ
‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻔﺘ‬
‫ﻮح‬
ً ْ
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘ ْﺢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻓﺘ ْﺢ‬

Notice that the ism faa’il rhymes with the word ‫ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬. So the one who opens, or the opener, is ‫ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬. We’d

make the ism faai’ls of the other families the same way: the one who hits would be ‫ ; ﺿﺎرب‬the one who

helps would be ‫ ;ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‬the one who listens, ‫ ﺳﺎﻣﻊ‬and so on.

ْ ْ
Likewise, the ism maf’ool rhymes with ‫ﻣﻔﻌﻮل‬. That’s where we got ‫ ﻣﻔﺘﻮح‬from, the one that was opened.
You’d go on and do this to make the ism maf’ool of the other families, too: the one that was hit would be
ْ ْ
‫ ;ﻣﻀﺮوب‬the one helped, ‫ﻣﻨﺼﻮر‬, etc.

The amr and the nahi are no mystery to us now. We construct them the same way we always have: take the
present tense, make it lightest, take off the ta in the beginning, and if it’s hard to read (the first letter starts
with a sukoon), just pop on an alif and you’re good to go.

With that as a refresher, let’s go over the sarf sagheer of the rest of the families:

ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺿﺎر‬ ً ْ ْ
‫ب‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬
ْ
ٌ ‫ﻀﺮ‬ ً ْ ْ
‫وب‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺮب‬ ‫ﺿﺮب‬
ْ
ْ ‫ﻀﺮ‬ ْ
ْ ‫اﺿﺮ‬
‫ب‬ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‬

ً ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻧﺎﺻ ٌﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮا‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬
ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﻨْﺼ‬
‫ﻮر‬
ً ْ
‫ﻧﺼﺮا‬
ْ
‫ﻳﻨﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ‬
ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻨﺼ ْﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻧﺼ ْﺮ‬

ً ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺳﺎﻣ ٌﻊ‬ ‫ﻌﺎ‬, ‫ ْﺴﻤﻊ‬/ ‫ﻊ‬,
2

ٌ ً ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﺴﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﻌﺎ‬, ‫ ْﺴﻤﻊ‬/ ‫ﻊ‬,
ْ
‫ ْﺴﻤ ْﻊ‬1 ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ‬ ‫ ْﻊ‬,‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ا‬

ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﺣﺎﺳ‬ ً ْ
‫ﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬
ْ ً ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣﺤﺴﻮب‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬
ْ ‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻﺗ ْﺤﺴ‬
‫ﺐ‬ ْ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ‬
ْ ‫اﺣﺴ‬
‫ﺐ‬

Our last family is different from the rest of our families, so we’ll go over it in detail here.
ْ
ٌ4‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺮاﻣ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻛﺮم‬

Notice that the ism faai’l sounds different than the ones we made before. It’s not ‫ ﻛﺎر ٌم‬like we’d expect.

Rather, it has something that sounds like 4‫ﻛﺮ‬. Instead of adding an alif like you would to make ‫ ﺿﺎرب‬or

‫ ﻧﺎﺻﺮ‬, you add a ya.

This family also does not have a passive, so there is no passive line to do. There was another family that we
ْ
learned of before that didn’t have a passive—the 9‫ اﻧﻜ‬family. So there are two families that never have a
ْ
passive, the 9‫ اﻧﻜ‬family and the ‫ ﻛﺮم‬family.

No surprises in the amr or nahi, so here’s our sarf sagheer:


ْ
ٌ4‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺮاﻣ ًﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻛﺮم‬
ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻜﺮ ْم‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻛﺮ ْم‬

All we have left to learn now is the tharf. There are three tharf for each family, but they all follow the same
pattern. So, if you know the tharf of one family, you know the tharf of the others:

ٌ ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘ ٌﺢ‬

All the tharfs begin with ‘ma.’ Remember that a tharf refers to a time or place. So if you took the verb ‫ ﺳﺠﺪ‬,
ٌ ٌ ٌ
to make sajdah, the tharf for that would be ‫ ﻣ ْﺴﺠﺪ ﻣ ْﺴﺠﺪ ﻣ ْﺴﺠﺪة‬. Sound familiar? A masjid is a place where
ٌ ْ
you make sajdah! School, in Arabic, is ‫ ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬. It matches the third of these words!

Congratulations. You’ve now learned all 14 families. Keep practicing them so that you don’t forget them.
Sarf comes by saying things out loud, so practice, practice, practice!
3

EXERCISES

A. Look at the verb list from 3.11.1 Six Small Families (Part 1). Now that you’ve learned the sarf
sagheer of all six families, try doing the sarf sagheer of all of those words, paying close attention to
the harakaat. Remember that the ism faa’il of the ‫ ﻛﺮم‬family is different from the others and
doesn’t have a passive.

Use this as a guide:

ً ْ ْ
‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
ٌ ‫ﻓﻬﻮ ﻣ ْﻔﺘ‬
‫ﻮح‬
ً ْ
‫ﻓﺘﺤﺎ‬
ْ
‫ﻳﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬
ْ ْ
‫و اﻟ ﻲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘ ْﺢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻓﺘ ْﺢ‬
ٌ ْ ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﻔﺘ‬ ْ
‫ﻣﻔﺘﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫و اﻟﻈﺮف ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻔﺘ ٌﺢ‬
1

4.1 Properties of the Ism—Introduction to Type

Today we’re going to get introduced to the last property of the ism—type. When we talk about type, we
talk about a word being common or proper. To understand this better, think about the difference
between saying ‘a chair,’ and ‘the chair.’ Well, ‘a chair’ is not specific and could refer to any chair, while
‘the chair’ is very particular. What I mean by ‘common’ is that it could be anything while something
‘proper’ is something specific. Just like how we would say that everything is masculine unless proven
feminine when we were studying gender, we say that everything is common unless proven proper when
we study type.

There are seven kinds of proper isms:

1. Proper names
2. Pronouns
3. Pointers
4. The one being called
5. Words that have ‫ال‬
1. Proper names (e.g: Husna, Dallas, and New York)are names of specific people, places, etc.
2. Pronouns (he, she, them, they, it, etc. ) refer to something/someone specific, and are also
considered proper.
3. Pointers (this, that, these, those): I haven’t taught you these in Arabic yet, but pointers are always
proper. For example, if you asked, ‘Which computer?’ and I said, ‘This computer,’ I used two words
to refer to the computer (this + computer). The word ‘this,’ the word I’m using to point at the
computer, is also considered proper.
4. When you call someone you’re referring to a specific person. Even if you use a general word like,
‘Girl!’ you’re still calling someone in particular, and so, the one being called would be considered
proper.
When you call someone in Arabic, you have to use the word ‫ ﻳﺎ‬, and make them light. The one

you call cannot be heavy. For example, I would say, ‫ ﻳﺎ و‬when I want to say, ‘Boy!’ I would

never say ٌ ‫ﻳﺎ و‬.


Remember that a word is normally heavy and needs to have one of four reasons to be light. This
is the second reason we’ve learned so far, the first being partly flexibles.

5. Words that have ‫ال‬: ‫ ال‬means ‘the,’ so words that start with ‫ ال‬are considered proper.
2

There is something that you should never, ever forget about ‫ال‬. Think back to the lesson on light and

heavy. Now look at the ‫ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ‬chart below and see if you notice anything:

‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬


ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬
ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻢ‬

‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬


ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬
ْ
‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺘﲔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ ال‬hates tanween. Either the tanween is there or ‫ ال‬is there. They both can’t be on the same word. But ‫ال‬
has no problem with ending combinations, so long as they also don’t end in tanween (did you see that
the tanween had to go in the feminine plural combination?). ‫ ال‬doesn’t make a word light. It only gets

rid of tanween. The pair and plural combinations remain heavy when used with ‫ال‬.

Why can’t a word have ‫ ال‬and tanween at the same time? Well, ‫ ال‬means ‘the,’ and tanween is the
English equivalent of ‘a.’ The Arabs don’t have a word for ‘a,’ but whenever a tanween comes on a word,
the translation needs to have an ‘a’ in it. For example, ‫ﺘﺎب‬ ٌ ‫ ﻛﺘ‬means ‘a
‫ اﻟ‬means ‘the book,’ while ‫ﺎب‬
ٌ ‫ﺘ‬
book.’ Does it make sense so say, ‘A the book?’ No. That’s why you can’t ever say ‫ﺎب‬ ‫ اﻟ‬because that
would mean you have both an ‘a’ and ‘the’ on the word.

There are a total of seven reasons a word can be proper, and we now know five. We’ll cover the rest in
the next session, inshaAllah.
3

EXERCISES:

Are the following proper or common?

‫ اﻟﺼﻠﻮات‬.1
The prayers

‫ اﻟﻮ ْﺳﻄﻰ‬.2
The middle, the balanced, the excellent

‫ ﻋﺠ ًﺒﺎ‬.3
Strange

‫ اﻟﻨﺎس‬.4
The people

‫ ﻫﺬا‬.5
This

‫ْﻢ‬ ‫ رﺑ‬.6
Your Master

ْ
‫ إذﻧﻪ‬.7
His Permission

Drink ٌ ‫ ﺷﺮ‬.8
‫اب‬

‫ ﻫﻮ‬.9
He

‫ي‬2‫ ا‬.10
The one who

‫ اﻵﻳﺎت‬.11
The miraculous signs

‫ ﻟﻘ ْﻮ ٍم‬.12
For a nation

‫ زﻛﺮﻳﺎ‬.13
Zakariyyah

‫ ﻳﺎ رب‬.14
Master!

‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘ ْﺮآن‬.15


This Quran
4

ANSWER KEY:

1. P
2. P
3. C
4. P
5. P
6. P
7. P
8. C
9. P
10. P
11. P
12. C
13. P
14. P
15. P
1

4.2 Properties of the Ism—Type (cont’d)

We learned five kinds of proper isms so far:

1. Proper Names
2. Pronouns
3. Pointers
4. When you’re calling someone
5. When it has an ‫ ال‬on it

6. ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬
7. If the word after ‘of’ is proper, the word before ‘of’ is also proper

(1-5 were explained on previous handout)

6. ‫اﺳﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬: I’m giving you the Arabic name for this here because giving the English one would make it

more confusing. Here are the ‫ اﺳﻢ ﻣﻮﺻﻮل‬we learned in class today:

those who ‫ا ﻳﻦ‬ the two who ‫ا ان‬ the one who ‫ا ي‬

those who (f) ‫اﻻ‬ the two who (f) ‫اﻟﺘﺎن‬ the one who (f) ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬

These are a small group of words that you’ll find all over the Quran. It’s good to know them and their
meanings.

7. If the word after ‘of’ is proper, the word before ‘of’ is also proper. This is something I made you
write down, but we aren’t ready to discuss it just yet!

We’ve now officially finished the study of type. Practice identifying the four properties of the ism to
solidify everything we’ve learned so far.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪What’s the status, number, gender, and type of each of the following words‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻓﺌﺘﲔ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻧﻔ ٍﺲ واﺣﺪ ٍة‬‫‪ .2‬ﻣ‬

‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓ (ﻘﻮن‬
‫‪ .3‬إذا ﺟﺎءك (‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻨﻔﻘﲔ‬
‫‪ .4‬واﻟﺼﺎدﻗﲔ واﻟﻘﺎﻧﺘﲔ و (‬
‫ﺐ اﻟﺸﻬﻮات‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺣ ( (‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬واﻟﺮاﺳﺨ(ﻮن ﰲ اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻓ ْﻮق اﺛﻨﺘﲔ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .8‬ﻛﺎﻓﺮة‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .9‬إن ﰲ ذﻟﻚ ﻟﻌﱪ ًة ﻷ(و‪ B‬اﻷ ْﺑﺼﺎر‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺂر‬ ‫‪ .10‬ﻏﲑ ﻣ(ﻀ ٍ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .11‬ﻣ‪H‬ﺸﺎ‪G‬ﺎت‬
‫(‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻣﻨﻪ (آﻳﺎت‬

‫‪ .13‬و ا ان‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬أﻫﻞ اﻟ‪O‬ﺘﺎب‬

‫ﲑ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬ﻋﺬاب ﻳﻮ ٍم ﻛﺒ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن اﺧﺘﺼ (ﻤﻮا ﰲ ر‪ْ G‬ﻢ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺿﻮن‬ ‫‪ .17‬و (‪ U‬ﻣ(‪( W‬‬
‫‪ .18‬ﺑﻨﻲ إ ْﺳﺮا‪Y‬ﻴﻞ‬

‫‪ .19‬آل ﻓ ْﺮﻋ ْﻮن‬

‫‪ .20‬ﻣ‪ Z‬إ ْﺑﺮاﻫ[‬


3

ANSWER KEY:

1. N/J, 2, F, C
2. First word: J, S, F, C
Second word: J, S, F, C
3. R, PL, M, P
4. N/J, PL, M, P
5. N/J, PL, F, P
6. R, PL,M, P
7. N/J, 2, F, C
8. R, S, F, C
9. N, S, F, C
10. J, S, M, C
11. R, PL, F, C
12. R, PL, F, C
13. R, 2, M, P
14. J, S, M, P
15. First word: J, S, M, C
Second word: J, S, M, C
16. R, 2, M, C
17. R, PL, M, C
18. N/J, S, M, P
19. N/J, S, M, P
20. N/J, S, M, P
1

5.1 Fragments—Introduction to Idhafah

Today, we’re going to move on from studying the four properties of the ism to see how isms come
together with other isms and form phrases. A phrase is more than two words. There are two kinds of
phrases in Arabic: sentences and fragments. Sentences are complete ideas. When I say, ‘I am a teacher,’
I’m communicating a full idea, so this would be called a sentence. ‘My marker,’ on the other hand,
doesn’t convey a complete thought. It’s more than a word, but less than a sentence—which is what we
call a fragment. Before I teach you sentences, I’m going to teach you five different fragments, the first of
which is called Idhafah ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬.

The definition of an Idhafah is: __________ of _____________. Here are some Idhafahs we listed out in
class:

The house of Allah SWT

The name of a friend

The car of the teacher

There are other ways an Idhafah can present itself, but you can rearrange it so that you see the ‘of’
again:

His car car of his

Your house house of yours

The people’s book book of the people

The Idhafah is always made up of two parts: the part before the ‘of’, the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬, and the part after the

‘of’, the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, for example:

The house of Allah SWT

‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬


2

EXERCISES:

Find the ‫( ﻣﻀﺎف‬M), the part before ‘of,’ and the ‫( ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬MI), the part after ‘of,’ in each of the

following phrases:

1. The Night of Power 11. The people of the book

2. The Messenger of Allah 12. Our signs

3. The Creator of the Universe 13. The teacher’s book

4. Their happiness 14. The nation of ‘Aad

5. His fate 15. Their hands

6. Sons of Isra’el 16. Your Master

7. The life of this world 17. His Permission

8. Ibraheem A’s nation 18. The Promise of Allah

9. The establisher of prayer 19. Musa’s mother’s heart

10. The reward of the life of the hereafter 20. Their prayer
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. M= night; MI= power


2. M= messenger; MI= Allah
3. M = The Creator; MI= the Universe
4. M = happiness; MI= their
5. M = fate; MI = his
6. M = sons; MI = Isra’el
7. M= the life; MI = this world
8. M = nation; MI= Ibraheem A
9. M = the establisher; MI = prayer
10. M= the reward; MI = the life
M = the life; MI= the hereafter
11. M= the people; MI = the book
12. M = signs; MI= our
13. M = book; MI = the teacher
14. M = nation; MI = ‘Aad
15. M = hands; MI = their
16. M = Master; MI = Your
17. M = Permission; MI = His
18. M = Promise; MI= Allah
19. M = heart ; MI = mother
M= mother; MI = Musa
20. M = prayer; MI = their
1

5.1.1 Vocabulary Words (Part 1)

In this unit, I want to focus on learning vocabulary and how to make some good sentences. The words
below are 20 ism faa’ils, or titles of people, from the Qur’an that we will be using. We went over the
meaning of the first 8. Memorize this vocabulary:

ْ ْ
‫ منافِق‬.4 ‫ كا ِفر‬.3 ‫ مح ِسن‬.2 ‫ مؤ ِمن‬.1
ُ ُ ُ
Someone who
Hypocrite Disbeliever Believer
does excellent
ْ ْ
‫ ظالِم‬.8 ‫ْعض‬ ِ ُ‫ م‬.7 ‫ش‬ ّ ِ َ‫ مُب‬.6 ‫ من ِذر‬.5
ُ
Someone who does Someone who Someone who
Warner
wrong ignores congratulates
ْ
‫ مف ِسد‬.12 ‫ م ْص ِلح‬.11 ‫ كا ِذب‬.10 ‫قائل‬
ِ .9
ُ ُ
ْ ْ
‫ خالِق‬.16 ‫ مج ِرم‬.15 ‫ مف ِلح‬.14 ‫صابر‬
ِ .13
ُ ُ
‫خاسر‬
ِ .20 ‫شاهد‬
ِ .19 ‫كع‬
ِ ‫ را‬.18 ‫ساجد‬
ِ .17
2

EXERCISES

A. Use the list below to help you practice the meanings. Cover the English, then look at the Arabic,
and try to guess the meaning. After doing that a few times, cover the Arabic, look at the English,
and try to come up with the Arabic word yourself.

ْ
‫ مؤ ِمن‬.1
ُ
1. Believer
ْ
‫ مح ِسن‬.2
ُ
2. Someone who does excellent

3. Disbeliever ‫ كا ِفر‬.3

‫ منا ِفق‬.4
ُ
4. Hypocrite
ْ
‫ من ِذر‬.5
ُ
5. Warner

6. Someone who congratulates ‫ش‬ّ ِ َ‫ مُب‬.6


ْ
7. Someone who ignores ‫ْعض‬ ِ ُ‫ م‬.7
8. Someone who does wrong ‫ ظالِم‬.8

B. Now, try Exercise A out of order or flashcard these words. Put the Arabic on one side and English
on the other. Look at the Arabic and then try to guess the English. When you’re comfortable,
switch: look at the English and try to come up with the Arabic. Master these eight words before
moving on to the next lesson.
1

5.1.2 Vocabulary Words (Part 2)

Today, we did another eight words:

ْ ْ
‫ منا ِفق‬.4 ‫ كا ِفر‬.3 ‫ مح ِسن‬.2 ‫ مؤ ِمن‬.1
ُ ُ ُ
ْ ْ
‫ ظالِم‬.8 ‫ْعض‬ ِ ُ‫ م‬.7 ‫ش‬ّ ِ َ‫ مُب‬.6 ‫ من ِذر‬.5
ُ
ْ
‫ مف ِسد‬.12 ‫ م ْص ِلح‬.11 ‫ كا ِذب‬.11 ‫قائل‬
ِ .9
ُ ُ
Someone who Someone who Liar A speaker
makes trouble makes peace
ْ ْ
‫ خالِق‬.16 ‫ مج ِرم‬.15 ‫ مف ِلح‬.14 ‫صابر‬
ِ .13
ُ ُ
Creator Criminal A successful A patient person
person
‫خاسر‬
ِ .21 ‫شاهد‬
ِ .19 ‫كع‬
ِ ‫ را‬.18 ‫ساجد‬
ِ .17

Practice going through these words until you can give the Arabic when you hear the English. Be sure to
review the first eight words we learned last session as well.
2

EXERCISES

A. Use the list below to help you practice the meanings. Cover the English, then look at the Arabic, and
try to guess the meaning. After doing that a few times, cover the Arabic, look at the English, and try
to come up with the Arabic word yourself.

‫قائل‬
9. A speaker
ِ .9
‫كا ِذب‬
10. Liar
َ .10
‫ م ْص ِلح‬.11
11. Peace-maker
ُ
ْ
‫ مف ِسد‬.12
12. Trouble-maker
ُ
‫صابر‬
13. A patient person
ِ .13
ْ
‫ مف ِلح‬.14
14. A successful person
ُ
ْ
‫ مج ِرم‬.15
15. Criminal
ُ
‫ خالِق‬.16
16. Creator

B. Now, try Exercise A out of order or flashcard these words. Put the Arabic on one side and English on
the other. Look at the Arabic and then try to guess the English. When you’re comfortable, switch:
look at the English and try to come up with the Arabic. Throw in the eight words you learned in the
last lesson as well.
1

5.1.3 Vocabulary Words (Part 3)

We’re finishing off this handout today by going over the meaning of the last four words:

ْ ْ
ٌ‫ منا ِفق‬.4 ٌ‫ كا ِفر‬.3 ٌ‫ مح ِسن‬.2 ٌ‫ مؤ ِمن‬.1
ُ ُ ُ
ْ ْ
ٌ‫ ظالِم‬.8 ٌ‫ْعض‬ ِ ُ‫ م‬.7 ٌ‫ش‬ّ ِ َ‫ مُب‬.6 ٌ‫ من ِذر‬.5
ُ
ْ
ٌ‫ مف ِسد‬.12 ٌ‫ م ْص ِلح‬.11 ٌ‫ كا ِذب‬.11 ٌ‫قائل‬
ِ .9
ُ ُ
ْ ْ
ٌ‫ خالِق‬.16 ٌ‫ مج ِرم‬.15 ٌ‫ مف ِلح‬.14 ٌ‫صابر‬
ِ
ُ ُ
.13

ٌ‫خاسر‬
ِ .21 ٌ‫شاهد‬
ِ .19 ٌ‫كع‬
ِ ‫ را‬.18 ٌ‫ساجد‬
ِ .17
A loser Someone who Someone who Someone who
testifies does ruku’ does sajdah
You are responsible for these words that come up in the Quran. Be sure to learn the new words (the last
row) and also review the words you learned before (1-16).
2

EXERCISES

A. Use the list below to help you practice the meanings. Cover the English, then look at the Arabic, and
try to guess the meaning. After doing that a few times, cover the Arabic, look at the English, and try
to come up with the Arabic word yourself.

ٌ‫ساجد‬
ِ .17ٌ
17. Someone who does sajdah

ٌ‫كع‬
ِ ‫ را‬.18
18. Someone who does ruku’

ٌ‫شاهد‬
ِ
19. Someone who testifies
.19

ٌ‫خاسر‬
ِ
20. A loser
.20

B. Now, try Exercise A out of order or flashcard these words. Put the Arabic on one side and English on
the other. Look at the Arabic and then try to guess the English. When you’re comfortable, switch:
look at the English and try to come up with the Arabic. Throw in the 16 words you learned in the last
two lessons, as well.
1

5.2 Fragments—Idhafah (cont’d)

We’re continuing our conversation about ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. These two words make up an ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬. They
are both isms and have a status, number, gender and type. Today, we just got used to the rules of
making an Idhafah. Here’s how it goes:

a. The ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬must be light and cannot have an ‫ ال‬on it. If we wanted If we tried to make a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬out

of ‫رﺳﻮل‬, these would be our options:


0 2

‫ﻮل‬
0 ‫ﺳ‬0 ‫ر‬2 " ‫ﻮل‬
0 ‫ﺳ‬ ‫اﻟﺮ‬
0 24 ! ٌ
‫رﺳﻮل‬
0 2
Heavy
!
Light, no ‫ال‬ Has ‫ال‬

b. The ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬must be Jarr. If we wanted ‫ اﷲ‬to be our ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, our options would look like:

8‫اﷲ‬
4 ‫ﻮل‬
0 ‫ﺳ‬0 ‫ر‬2 " ‫اﷲ‬ ‫رﺳﻮل‬
24 0 0 2 ! ‫رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬
0 4 0 0 2 !
Jarr Not Jarr Not Jarr

When you have a word that’s light and has no ‫ال‬, and the word right after it is ‫ﺟﺮ‬, you have a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and

‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬situation. It’s an all-or-nothing deal, though. If one word meets the ‫’ﻣﻀﺎف‬s conditions, but the

word right after it is not ‫ﺟﺮ‬, then it’s not an Idhafah, and vice versa. Both words meet this criteria in

‫اﷲ‬
4 ‫ﻮل‬
0 ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ ر‬so it’s considered an Idhafah.
0 2

To help things come together a bit more, think back to the definitions of a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. A ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

is the word before ‘of,’ and a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is the word after ‘of.’ Now think back to the definition of Jarr.

Sound familiar? Jarr status is defined as the word after ‘of,’ too! So it would make sense that a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬
would have to be Jarr—their definitions match!
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ‪Are the highlighted portions of cases of‬‬


‫‪َ ? Remember:‬‬

‫‪%‬إﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬


‫‪Light‬‬
‫ﺟﺮ ‪Jarr‬‬
‫ال ‪No‬‬

‫ﺎك‬ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٤‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫‪ْ ,‬ﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮ ْ‪1‬ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(١‬اﻟْﺤ ْﻤﺪ ‪%‬ﷲ رب اﻟْﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ )‪(٢‬اﻟﺮ ْ‪1‬ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(٣‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳ ْ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪% % َ- % َ َ-‬‬ ‫َ ‪َ % َ َ %- َ % َ - 7‬‬ ‫‪% % َ- % َ َ- % َ- % %‬‬
‫‪َ َ- % % -‬‬ ‫َ ‪َ %‬‬
‫ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫اﻫﺪﻧﺎ اﻟﺼﺮاط اﻟْﻤ ْ‬‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮب‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻐ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﲑ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫@‬ ‫ﻠ‬
‫َ َ َ َ َ ‪% 7 َ % َ %‬‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺖ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻧ‬‫َ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬‫ا=‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫اط‬
‫َ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫ﺻ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٦‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻘ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺎك ‪ْ َ 5‬ﺴﺘ ‪%‬ﻌﲔ ‪(٥)7‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫ﺪ و ‪%‬إ ‪َ -‬ﻳ‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫َﻧﻌﺒ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪َ 7‬‬

‫اﻟﻀﺎﻟ‪%-‬ﲔَ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ْ ْ‬


‫@ﻢ َوﻻ ‪َ -‬‬‫َ َ ‪%‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ا=ي ﻳﺪع اﻟْﻴﺘ )‪(٢‬وﻻ ﻳﺤﺾ ﻋ‪ N‬ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟْﻤ ْ‬


‫ﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓَﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﻜ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫َ َ ‪% % َ َ َ َ 7- 7‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪% 7 - 7 َ % َ-‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓَ َﺬﻟ‪%‬‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫ب ‪%‬ﺑﺎ ‪%‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪-%‬ﺬ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ا=ي ﻳ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫أَرأ َ ْﻳﺖ ‪َ -‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ْQ‬‬ ‫ﻼ‪ْ R‬‬ ‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎﻋﻮن )‪(٧‬‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻮن‬‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻳ‬‫و‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٦‬‬‫)‬ ‫ون‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺎﻫﻮن )‪َ - (٥‬‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٤‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻟ‬
‫َ ‪َ 7 َ َ 7َ َ َ َ 7 َ7‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪َ 7 َ %‬‬ ‫َ َ َ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪َ 7 %‬‬

‫ﺪو ‪%‬د‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻷﺧ‬ ‫ﺎب‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫وج )‪(١‬واﻟْﻴ ْﻮم اﻟْﻤ ْﻮﻋﻮد )‪(٢‬وﺷﺎﻫﺪ وﻣ ْﺸﻬﻮد )‪(٣‬ﻗﺘﻞ أ ْ‬
‫ﺻ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ ‪7‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪%‬‬
‫‪َ 7‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫َ َ ‪7‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ ‪7‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬
‫َ َ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ات اﻟ ‪7 7‬‬
‫ﱪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴ َﻤﺎ ‪%‬ء ذَ ‪%‬‬
‫َو ‪َ -‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬اﻟﻨﺎر ذات اﻟْﻮﻗﻮد )‪(٥‬إ ْذ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋﻠ ْ@ﺎ ﻗﻌ ٌ‬


‫ﻮد )‪(٦‬‬
‫‪7 7 َ َ َ 7 % % 7 َ % َ % َ-‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ﺎك‬ ‫ﻳ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٤‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫‪ْ ,‬ﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮ ْ‪1‬ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(١‬اﻟْﺤ ْﻤﺪ ‪%‬ﷲ رب اﻟْﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ )‪(٢‬اﻟﺮ ْ‪1‬ﻦ اﻟﺮﺣ )‪(٣‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻳ ْ‬
‫ﻮ‬
‫‪َ َ-‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪% -‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ ‪% %‬‬ ‫‪% % َ- % َ َ-‬‬ ‫َ ‪َ % َ َ %- َ % َ - 7‬‬ ‫‪% % َ- % َ َ- % َ- % %‬‬
‫َ‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬

‫ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫اﻫﺪﻧﺎ اﻟﺼﺮاط اﻟْﻤ ْ‬‫ْ‬ ‫ﻧ ْﻌﺒﺪ وإﻳﺎك ‪ْ 5‬‬


‫ﻮب‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻐ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﲑ‬ ‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫@‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺖ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻧ‬‫َ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬‫ا=‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫اط‬‫ﺮ‬ ‫ﺻ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٦‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻘ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٥‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﻌ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬
‫َ َ َ َ َ ‪% 7 َ % َ %‬‬ ‫َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫‪َ َ 7‬‬
‫َ‬
‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ ‪َ َ َ َ- % َ 7 7‬‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬

‫اﻟﻀﺎﻟ‪%-‬ﲔَ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ْ ْ‬


‫@ﻢ َوﻻ ‪َ -‬‬‫َ َ ‪%‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ا=ي ﻳﺪع اﻟْﻴﺘ )‪(٢‬وﻻ ﻳﺤﺾ ﻋ‪ N‬ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟْﻤ ْ‬


‫ﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓَﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﻜ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫َ َ ‪% % َ َ َ َ 7- 7‬‬ ‫ﻚ ‪% 7 - 7 َ % َ-‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓَ َﺬﻟ‪%‬‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫ب ‪%‬ﺑﺎ ‪%‬‬ ‫ﻜ ‪-%‬ﺬ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ا=ي ﻳ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫أَرأ َ ْﻳﺖ ‪َ -‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ْQ‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ا=ﻳﻦ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﺎﻋﻮن )‪(٧‬‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻮن‬‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻳ‬‫و‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٦‬‬‫)‬ ‫ون‬ ‫اء‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٥‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻮن‬‫ﺎﻫ‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﻼ‪R‬‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫‪٤‬‬‫)‬ ‫ﻟ ‪َ -% َ 7 %‬‬
‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠ‬
‫‪َ 7 َ َ 7َ َ َ َ 7 َ7 7 َ %‬‬ ‫‪َ 7 َ %‬‬ ‫َ ‪َ َ 7‬‬
‫‪%‬‬
‫‪No‬‬

‫ﺪو ‪%‬د‬
‫ْ‬
‫اﻷﺧ‬ ‫ﺎب‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫وج )‪(١‬واﻟْﻴ ْﻮم اﻟْﻤ ْﻮﻋﻮد )‪(٢‬وﺷﺎﻫﺪ وﻣ ْﺸﻬﻮد )‪(٣‬ﻗﺘﻞ أ ْ‬
‫ﺻ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫َ ‪7‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫َ َ ‪7‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ َ‬ ‫‪%‬‬ ‫َ ‪7‬‬ ‫‪%‬‬
‫َ َ‬
‫‪%‬‬ ‫ات اﻟ ‪7 7‬‬
‫ﱪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴ َﻤﺎ ‪%‬ء ذَ ‪%‬‬
‫َو ‪َ -‬‬
‫‪Yes‬‬ ‫‪No‬‬ ‫‪Yes‬‬

‫)‪(٤‬اﻟﻨﺎر ذات اﻟْﻮﻗﻮد )‪(٥‬إ ْذ ‪ ْQ‬ﻋﻠ ْ@ﺎ ﻗﻌ ٌ‬


‫ﻮد )‪(٦‬‬
‫‪7 7 َ َ َ 7 % % 7 َ % َ % َ-‬‬
‫‪No‬‬
1

5.2.1 Vocabulary-Sarf Sagheer

We are going over where the first eight words of this chart came from by looking at their sarf sagheer.
Soon, we will start using them in sentences.

ْ ْ
ٌ‫ منا ِفق‬.4 ٌ‫ كا ِفر‬.3 ٌ‫ مح ِسن‬.2 ٌ‫ مؤ ِمن‬.1
ُ ُ ُ
ْ ْ
ٌ‫ ظالِم‬.8 ٌ‫ْعض‬
ِ ُ‫ م‬.7 ٌ‫ش‬ّ ِ َ‫ مُب‬.6 ٌ‫ من ِذر‬.5
ُ

ْ ْ ْ
ٌ ٌ ٌُ ‫يخ ِب‬ ٌ‫ب‬
َ َ ‫أَخ‬ ٌ‫ مؤ ِمن‬.11
ُ ُ
ْ ْ .
ٌ‫فهوٌمؤ ِمن‬ ٌ‫ِإيمانا‬ ٌ ‫يؤ م‬
‫ن‬ ٌ‫آمن‬
ُ َ ُ ِ ُ َ َ
ٌSo he’s a believer ٌTo believe ٌHe believes ٌHe believed

ْ
2
ْ ْ
ٌ ٌ ٌُ ‫يخ ِب‬ ٌَ َ ‫أَخ‬
‫ب‬ ٌ ‫سن‬
ِ ‫ مُح‬.2.
ُ
ْ ْ ‫إ‬ ْ ْ ‫أ‬
ٌ‫فهوٌمح ِسن‬ ‫حسانا‬ ٌ ‫يحس‬
‫ن‬ ٌ‫حسن‬
ُ َ ِ ُ ِ ُ َ َ َ
So he’s someone ٌTo excel ٌHe excels ٌHe excelled ‫م‬
ٌwho excels

ْ
ٌ ٌ ٌ ‫ين ص ر‬ ٌ‫َنصر‬ ٌ‫ كافِر‬.3
ُ ُ َ َ َ
ْ ْ
ٌ‫كافِر‬
َ ٌ‫فهو‬ ‫كُفرا‬ ٌ ُ ‫يكف‬
‫ر‬ ٌ‫ك َفر‬
ُ َ َ َ
So he’s a ٌTo disbelieve ٌHe disbelieves He disbelieved
ٌdisbeliever

ٌ ٌ ٌ‫د‬
ُ ‫اه‬
ِ ‫ج‬ ‫ي‬ ٌ‫اه َد‬
َ ‫ج‬ ٌ‫ منافِق‬.4
َ ُ َ ُ
ٌ‫فهوٌمنَا ِفق‬ ٌ‫ِن َفاقاٌوٌمنَافَ َقة‬ ٌ‫ينَا ِف ُق‬ ٌ‫َنافَ َق‬
ُ ُ ُ
So he’s a ٌHypocrisy ٌHe is hypocritical He was
ٌhypocrite hypocritical
2

5
ْ ْ ْ .
ٌ ٌ ٌُ ‫يخ ِب‬ ٌ‫ب‬
َ َ ‫أَخ‬ ٌ‫ من ِذر‬.5
ُ ُ
ْ ْ ْ ْ
ٌ‫فهوٌمن ِذر‬ ‫ِإن َذارا‬ ٌ ‫ين ِذ‬
‫ر‬ ٌ ‫أَن َذ‬
‫ر‬
ُ ُ ُ َ ‫م‬
ٌSo he’s a warner ٌTo warn ٌHe warns ٌHe warned
ٌ

ٌ‫يع ِّلم‬ ٌ‫ع ّلَم‬ ٌ‫ش‬ّ ِ َ‫ مُب‬.6


ُ َُ َ َ
ْ
ٌ‫ش‬ّ ِ َ‫فهوٌمُب‬ ‫َتب ِشريا‬ ٌ‫ش‬ ّ ِ ‫يب‬ ٌ‫ش‬ َّ ‫ب‬
ُ َُ َ َ
So he’s a To congratulate He congratulates He
congratulator congratulated

ْ ْ ْ
ُ‫ب‬
ٌ ِ ‫يخ‬
ُ
ٌ‫ب‬
َ َ ‫أَخ‬ ٌ‫ْعض‬
ِ ُ‫ م‬.7
ْ ْ ْ ْ
ٌ‫ْعض‬
ِ ُ‫فهوٌم‬ ‫ِإْعاضا‬ ٌ ُ ‫ْع‬
‫ض‬ ِ ُ‫ي‬ ٌ ‫أَْع‬
‫ض‬
َ َ َ
So he’s someone To ignore He ignores He ignored
that ignores

ْ
ٌ ٌ ٌ ‫ين ص ر‬
ُ
ٌ ‫َنصر‬ ٌ‫ ظالِم‬.8
ُ َ َ َ
ْ ْ
ٌ‫ظالِم‬
َ ٌ‫فهو‬ ‫ظُلما‬ ٌ ‫يظ ِل‬
‫م‬ ٌ‫ظ َلم‬
َ
ُ َ َ
So he’s someone To wrong He wrongs He wronged
who wrongs
‫‪1‬‬

‫)‪5.2.2 Vocabulary Words-Sarf Sagheer (Part 2‬‬

‫‪We are picking up where we left off last time and are finishing the sarf sagheer of the remaining words‬‬
‫‪on this chart:‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪ .21‬مف ِسدٌ‬ ‫‪ .22‬م ْص ِلحٌ‬ ‫‪ .21‬كا ِذبٌ‬ ‫قائلٌ‬
‫‪ِ .9‬‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .21‬خالِقٌ‬ ‫‪ .21‬مج ِرمٌ‬ ‫‪ .21‬مف ِلحٌ‬ ‫صابرٌ‬
‫ِ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫‪.21‬‬

‫خاسرٌ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫‪.11‬‬ ‫شاهدٌ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫‪.29‬‬ ‫كعٌ‬
‫‪ .21‬را ِ‬ ‫ساجدٌ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫‪.21‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ينصرٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫َنصرٌ‬ ‫قائلٌ‬
‫‪ِ ٌ.9‬‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ً‬
‫ائلٌ‬
‫فهوٌ َق ِ‬ ‫َق ْولٌ‬ ‫ولٌ‬
‫َي ُق ُ‬ ‫الٌ‬
‫َق َ‬
‫ً‬
‫م ُقولٌ‬ ‫َق ْولٌ‬ ‫الٌ‬
‫ي ُ َق ُ‬ ‫يلٌ‬
‫ِق َ‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَل ٌَت ُقلٌ‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌقُلٌ‬

‫الٌ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنه ٌَم َقال ٌَم ِقيل ٌَم َق َ‬

‫ْ‬
‫يض ِربٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫َضربٌ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫‪ .21‬كا ِذبٌ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫كا ِذبٌ‬‫فهوٌ َ‬ ‫ك ِذ ًبا‬‫ذ ًباٌ ‪َ /‬‬‫ك ٌ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫يك ِذ ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫ك َذبٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ذوبٌ‬ ‫َمك ُ‬ ‫ك ِذ ًبا‬ ‫كذ ًباٌ ‪َ /‬‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫يك َذ ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫كُ ِذبٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنهٌلٌتكذ ْ‬ ‫بْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫بٌ‬ ‫َ َ ِ‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌ ِاك ِذ ٌ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمك ِذبٌمك َذبٌمك َذبةٌ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫بُ‬
‫يخ ِ ٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫بٌ‬
‫أَخ َ َ‬ ‫‪ .22‬م ْص ِلحٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫فهوٌم ْص ِلحٌ‬ ‫ِإ ْص ََل ً‬
‫حا‬ ‫ي ْص ِلحٌ‬ ‫أ َ ْص َلحٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫فهوٌم ْص َلحٌ‬ ‫ِإ ْص ََل ً‬
‫حا‬ ‫ي ْص َل ٌ‬
‫ح‬ ‫أ ُ ْص ِل ٌ‬
‫ح‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَلٌت ُ ْص ِلحٌ‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌأ ْصلحٌْ‬
‫َ ِ‬
‫ُ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌم ْص َلحٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫بُ‬
‫يخ ِ ٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫بٌ‬
‫أَخ َ َ‬ ‫‪ .21‬مف ِسدٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمف ِسدٌ‬ ‫ِإفسادًا‬ ‫يف ِس ٌُ‬
‫د‬ ‫أَفس َدٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمفسدٌ‬ ‫ِإفسادًا‬ ‫يفس ٌُ‬
‫د‬ ‫أُف ِس َ ٌ‬
‫د‬
‫ُ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ َ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَلٌتُف ِسدٌ‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌأَف ِس ٌ‬
‫د‬
‫ْ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمفسدٌ‬
‫ُ َ‬

‫ْ‬
‫يض ِربٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫َضربٌ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫صابرٌ‬
‫ِ‬ ‫‪.21‬‬

‫ابرٌ‬ ‫صْ ً‬ ‫ي ْص ِ ٌ‬
‫فهوٌ َص ِ‬ ‫با‬
‫َ‬ ‫بُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫بٌ‬
‫َص َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَل ٌَت ْص ِ ٌ‬
‫ب‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌ ِاص ِ ٌ‬
‫ب‬

‫بةٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫وٌالظرفٌمنه ٌَمص ِب ٌَمص َبٌ َمص َ َ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫بُ‬
‫يخ ِ ٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫بٌ‬
‫أَخ َ َ‬ ‫‪ .21‬مف ِلحٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمف ِلحٌ‬ ‫ِإف ََل ً‬
‫حا‬ ‫يف ِل ٌ‬
‫ح‬ ‫أَف َل ٌ‬
‫ح‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمف َلحٌ‬ ‫ِإف ََل ً‬
‫حا‬ ‫يف َل ٌ‬
‫ح‬ ‫أُف ِل ٌ‬
‫ح‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَلٌتُف ِل ْحٌ‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌأَف ِل ْ ٌ‬
‫ح‬
‫ْ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمف َلحٌ‬
‫ُ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫بُ‬
‫يخ ِ ٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫بٌ‬
‫أَخ َ َ‬ ‫‪ .21‬مج ِرمٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمج ِرمٌ‬ ‫ِإجرا ًما‬ ‫يجر ٌم‬ ‫أَجرمٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ ِ ُ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫جراماًٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمجرمٌ‬ ‫ِإ‬ ‫يجرمٌ‬ ‫أُج ِرمٌ‬
‫ُ َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ُ َ ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَلٌتُج ِر ٌْم‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌأَج ِر ٌْم‬
‫ْ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمجرمٌ‬
‫ُ َ‬

‫ْ‬
‫ينصرٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫َنصرٌ‬ ‫‪ .21‬خالِقٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫خالِقٌ‬
‫فهوٌ َ‬ ‫خل ًقا‬ ‫َ‬ ‫يخل ُ ُ ٌ‬
‫ق‬ ‫خ َل َقٌ‬
‫َ‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ًْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمخلُوقٌ‬ ‫خلقا‬ ‫َ‬ ‫يخ َل ُ ٌ‬
‫ق‬ ‫خُ ِل َقٌ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَل ٌَتخل ُ ٌ‬
‫ق‬ ‫األمرمنهٌاُخلُقٌ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمخ ِلقٌمخ َلقٌمخ َل َقةٌ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬

‫ْ‬
‫ينصرٌ‬ ‫َنصرٌ‬ ‫ساجدٌ‬
‫ِ‬
‫َ ُ ُ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫‪.21‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫اجدٌ‬
‫فهوٌ َس ِ‬ ‫سج َد ًةٌ‬ ‫ي َ ْسج ٌُ‬
‫د‬ ‫سج َدٌ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَلٌت َ ْسج ٌ‬
‫د‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌاُسج ٌ‬
‫د‬
‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌم ْس ِجدٌم ْسجدٌم ْسج َدةٌ‬
‫َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬

‫ْ‬
‫يفتحٌ‬
‫َ‬
‫َ ُ‬
‫فَتحٌ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫كعٌ‬
‫‪ .21‬را ِ‬
‫كعٌ‬ ‫فهوٌرا ِ‬ ‫رك ُ ً‬
‫وعا‬ ‫كعٌ‬ ‫ي ْر‬ ‫كعٌ‬ ‫ر‬
‫َ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫َ َ ُ‬ ‫َ ََ‬
‫ك ْ ٌع‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَل ٌَتر َ‬ ‫ك ْ ٌع‬ ‫ْ‬
‫األمرٌمنهٌ ِار َ‬
‫كعةٌ‬ ‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌم ْركعٌم ْركعٌم ْر‬
‫َ ِ َ َ َ ََ‬

‫ي َ ْسمعٌ‬ ‫ََسِعٌ‬ ‫شاهدٌ‬


‫ِ‬
‫َ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪.29‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫اهدٌ‬
‫فهوٌ َش ِ‬ ‫َش َهاد ًةٌ‬ ‫يَش َه ٌُ‬
‫د‬ ‫َش ِه َدٌ‬
‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫شهاد ٌةً‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمش ُهودٌ‬ ‫يُش َه ٌُ‬
‫د‬ ‫ش ِه َدٌ‬
‫ُ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ َ َ‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنه ٌَلٌتَش َه ٌ‬
‫د‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌ ِاش َه ٌ‬
‫د‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمش ِهدٌمش َهدٌمش َه َدةٌ‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬

‫ي َ ْسمعٌ‬ ‫ََسِعٌ‬ ‫خاسرٌ‬


‫ِ‬
‫َ ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪.11‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اسرٌ‬
‫خ ِ‬‫فهو َ‬ ‫خُ ً‬
‫ْسا‬ ‫يخ ٌ‬
‫ْس‬ ‫خ ِْسٌ‬
‫ُ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫َ َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فهوٌمخسورٌ‬ ‫خُ ً‬
‫ْسا‬ ‫يخ ٌ‬
‫ْس‬ ‫خُ ِْسٌ‬
‫َ ُ‬ ‫ُ َ ُ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالهنيٌعنهٌ َل ٌَتخ ْ ٌ‬
‫ْس‬ ‫األمرٌمنهٌ ِاخ ْ ٌ‬
‫ْس‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وٌالظرفٌمنهٌمخ ِْسٌمخْسٌمخْسةٌ‬
‫َ َ َ َ َ‬ ‫َ‬
1

5.3.1 Introduction to Sentences

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
There are two kinds of sentences in Arabic: a) ‫ُجْ ةَل ِفع ِليةة‬
‫ م‬b) ‫ُج ةَل ِإْسِيةة‬.
‫ م‬A ‫ُج ةَل ِإْسِيةة‬
‫ م‬is defined as an ism-
ْ
based sentence—the most important thing in the jumlah (sentence) is the ism. A ‫ُجْ ةَل ِفع ِليةة‬ ‫ م‬is defined as
a fi’l-based sentence—the most import thing the jumlah is the fi’l. The harder one of these two is ‫ُجْ ةَل‬ ‫م‬
ْ
‫إْسِيةة‬,
ِ and that is what the first third of this unit will focus on.

Now, to understand Jumlah Ismiyyah really well, we have to understand its three parts:

1. ‫ م ْبت ةدأ‬Mubtada’
‫م ة‬
2. ‫خ ةب‬
‫ ة‬Khabar

3. ‫ب‬
ِ ‫الخ ة‬
‫ مم ةت ةع ِلق ِب ة‬Muta‘alliq bil khabar
1. Mubtada’: the most important part of a Jumlah Ismiyyah. Without a mubtada’, you can’t have a
jumlah ismiyyah. This is the first thing you should look for when you’ve got a jumlah ismiyyah.
How do you find it?
a. It is an ism that has to be raf,’ and if you are looking at a long line, the first raf’ thing that
you come across will be your mubtada. A mubtada’ will NEVER be jarr.
b. There’s only one time that your mubtada will be nasb: Harf Nasbs are harfs that beat up on
mubtada’s. For example:

ْ ْ
‫اهب ِإ ةَل ر ِب‬ِ ‫ِإ ِن ذة‬ ‫س‬
‫م ر‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ف‬
ِ ‫االن ة ة ة‬
‫ل‬ ‫ان‬‫س‬ ِ ‫ِإ ةن‬
‫ة‬
ْ ْ ً ‫إن لِلمت ِقني مف‬
‫أ ة ةن لة مُه أةجرً ا حسنًا‬ ‫ازا‬ ‫ِ ة م ة ة ة ة‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة‬
‫الك ْو ةثر‬ ‫اك‬ ْ ْ
‫ة ة‬ ‫ِإنةا أةعطةينة ة‬
Is that ‫إ ةن‬or
ِ ‫?إنةا‬
ِ It is ‫إ ةن‬+
ِ ‫( ةنا‬the attached version of
nahnu). Since the noon is repeated, you can just
smoosh them together = ‫ِإنةا‬

In sum, a mubtada is:


a. The first raf’ you find,
b. it can be a victim of harf nasb,
c. and you can’t have a sentence without it.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES‬‬

‫‪Find the mubtada’s in the following sentences:‬‬

‫اط م ْست ِق ري‬ ‫‪ .19‬و هو عَل صر‬ ‫ك ي ْوم‬ ‫ذل‬


‫ة مة ة ة ِ ة ر م ة‬ ‫ةِ ة ة‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ي‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ك ِر ر‬
‫ول ة‬
‫ل ةر مس ر‬
‫‪ِ .20‬إنةه ملة ةقو م‬ ‫هذا ِصراط‬ ‫ة‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ة‬
‫‪ .21‬هو الغفور الودود‬ ‫حد‬ ‫هو ِإ ةَل ةوا ِ‬
‫مة ة م م ة م م‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ظي‬
‫هو ةنبأ ةع ِ‬ ‫هذا ِذكر مبارك‬
‫مة ة‬ ‫مة ة‬
‫‪.22‬‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ِ .23‬إنةما الحياة م المنيا لة ِعب و ةَلو‬ ‫ك ِري‬
‫ِإنةه ملة مقرآن ة‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة ة ة‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫المؤ ِمنمون‬‫مُه م م‬ ‫هي ِفتنةة‬
‫ة‬
‫‪.24‬‬ ‫‪.6‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ضالمون‬ ‫‪ِ .25‬إ ةن ةه مؤ ةال ِء لة ة‬ ‫هو مؤ ِمن‬
‫ة‬ ‫م‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫المح ِسنِنية‬
‫ج ةزآء م م‬ ‫‪ .26‬ذلك‬
‫ةِ ة ة‬
‫اوية‬ ‫هي خ‬
‫ة ِ ة‬
‫‪.8‬‬

‫ار‬
‫ن الن ة ِ‬ ‫أل ْس ةف ِل ِم‬ ‫‪ .27‬إن المنافقني ِف ْ‬
‫الر ِك ا ة‬
‫ِ ة م ة ِ ِ ةِ ة‬ ‫الحجار ِة‬
‫ك ِ‬ ‫ي ة‬ ‫‪ .9‬فه‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة ة‬ ‫ةِ ة‬
‫ار‬‫الغ ِ‬ ‫ه ةما ِِف ة‬ ‫م‬ ‫‪ .10‬هي حيةة‬
‫ة‬
‫‪.28‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أةن مُتْ م ْس ِل ممون‬ ‫ك ِنعمة‬ ‫‪ .11‬تل‬
‫ة‬ ‫م‬ ‫ِ ة ة‬
‫‪.29‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات و ةن ِع ري‬ ‫جن ة ر‬ ‫ِإ ةن ال مم ةت ِقنية ِِف‬ ‫‪ .12‬هذه س ِب ِيل‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬
‫‪.30‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وأ ة ةن ع ةل ْي ِه النةشأ ة ةة األمخرى‬ ‫‪ .13‬هذه جهن‬
‫ة ة‬ ‫ة ة ةم‬
‫‪.31‬‬
‫ة‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ار اللِ‬ ‫ة مة ة م‬
‫نحن أنص‬ ‫‪.32‬‬ ‫كرة‬‫‪ِ .14‬إ ةن ةهذه ةتذ ِ‬
‫ة‬
‫هذا الي ْوم‬ ‫‪ِ .15‬إ ةّنا ب ةقرة‬
‫ة ة م‬ ‫ة ة ة‬
‫‪.33‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫اللِ حق‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أ ة ةن وع ةد‬ ‫‪ِ .16‬إ ةّنا ةشجرة‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة ة‬ ‫ة‬
‫‪.34‬‬

‫هو ق م ْرآن م ِجيد‬ ‫َشء ع ِجيب‬ ‫‪ .17‬هذا ْ‬


‫ة‬ ‫مة‬
‫‪.35‬‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة ة ة‬
‫حي‬
‫الل ةغفمور ر ِ‬ ‫‪ .18‬إن‬
‫ة‬ ‫ِ ة ة‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY‬‬

‫‪Mubtada’s are in red:‬‬

‫اط م ْست ِق ري‬ ‫‪ .19‬و هو عَل صر‬ ‫ك ي ْوم‬ ‫ذل‬


‫ة مة ة ة ِ ة ر م ة‬ ‫ةِ ة ة‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ي‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ك ِر ر‬
‫ول ة‬
‫ل ةر مس ر‬
‫‪ِ .20‬إنةه ملة ةقو م‬ ‫هذا ِصراط‬ ‫ة‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ة‬
‫‪ .21‬هو الغفور الودود‬ ‫حد‬ ‫هو ِإ ةَل ةوا ِ‬
‫مة ة م م ة م م‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ظي‬
‫هو ةنبأ ةع ِ‬ ‫هذا ِذكر مبارك‬
‫مة ة‬ ‫مة ة‬
‫‪.22‬‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ِ .23‬إنةما الحياة م المنيا لة ِعب و ةَلو‬ ‫ك ِري‬
‫ِإنةه ملة مقرآن ة‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة ة ة‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫المؤ ِمنمون‬‫مُه م م‬ ‫هي ِفتنةة‬
‫ة‬
‫‪.24‬‬ ‫‪.6‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ضالمون‬ ‫‪ِ .25‬إ ةن ةه مؤ ةال ِء لة ة‬ ‫هو مؤ ِمن‬
‫ة‬ ‫م‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫المح ِسنِنية‬
‫ج ةزآء م م‬ ‫‪ .26‬ذلك‬
‫ةِ ة ة‬
‫اوية‬ ‫هي خ‬
‫ة ِ ة‬
‫‪.8‬‬

‫ار‬
‫ن الن ة ِ‬ ‫أل ْس ةف ِل ِم‬ ‫‪ .27‬إن المنافقني ِف ْ‬
‫الر ِك ا ة‬
‫ِ ة م ة ِ ِ ةِ ة‬ ‫الحجار ِة‬
‫ك ِ‬ ‫ي ة‬ ‫‪ .9‬فه‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة ة‬ ‫ةِ ة‬
‫ار‬‫الغ ِ‬ ‫ه ةما ِِف ة‬ ‫م‬ ‫‪ .10‬هي حيةة‬
‫ة‬
‫‪.28‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫أةن مُتْ م ْس ِل ممون‬ ‫ك ِنعمة‬ ‫‪ .11‬تل‬
‫ة‬ ‫م‬ ‫ِ ة ة‬
‫‪.29‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ات و ةن ِع ري‬ ‫جن ة ر‬ ‫ِإ ةن ال مم ةت ِقنية ِِف‬ ‫‪ .12‬هذه س ِب ِيل‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬
‫‪.30‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وأ ة ةن ع ةل ْي ِه النةشأ ة ةة األمخرى‬ ‫‪ .13‬هذه جهن‬
‫ة ة‬ ‫ة ة ةم‬
‫‪.31‬‬
‫ة‬
‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ار اللِ‬ ‫ة مة ة م‬
‫نحن أنص‬ ‫‪.32‬‬ ‫كرة‬‫‪ِ .14‬إ ةن ةهذه ةتذ ِ‬
‫ة‬
‫هذا الي ْوم‬ ‫‪ِ .15‬إ ةّنا ب ةقرة‬
‫ة ة م‬ ‫ة ة ة‬
‫!‪not a sentence‬‬ ‫‪.33‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫اللِ حق‬ ‫ة‬ ‫أ ة ةن وع ةد‬ ‫‪ِ .16‬إ ةّنا ةشجرة‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة ة‬ ‫ة‬
‫‪.34‬‬

‫هو ق م ْرآن م ِجيد‬ ‫َشء ع ِجيب‬ ‫‪ .17‬هذا ْ‬


‫ة‬ ‫مة‬
‫‪.35‬‬
‫ة‬ ‫ة ة ة‬
‫حي‬
‫الل ةغفمور ر ِ‬ ‫‪ .18‬إن‬
‫ة‬ ‫ِ ة ة‬
1

5.3.2 Parts of a Sentence–Mubtada’

A basic definition of the parts of the ‫مجةل إمسية‬:

The Mubtada’ (‫ )مبتدأ‬is the part before the “is”. It usually occurs first. Every sentence must have a

Mubtada’. There are two parts that could occur after the “is”. They are (1) Khabr (‫)خ َب‬
َ and (2) Muta’alliq
bil khabr (‫)مت َع ِلق بالخب‬. Both of these parts could occur individually or together. Here are the possible
َُ
scenarios:

1. ‫ = مجةل إمسية‬Mubtada’ + Khabr + Muta’alliq bil khabr

2. ‫ = مجةل إمسية‬Mubtada’ + Khabr

3. ‫ = مجةل إمسية‬Mubtada’ + Muta’alliq bil khabr

Guidelines for finding the Mubtada’:

1. The first Ism mentioned in Raf’ is the Mubtada’.

ْ
ُ ‫ أ َ َّلل ُأَك َب‬: the word ُ ‫ أ َ َّلل‬is the Mubtada’.

‫ ِف الب ْيت و د‬: ‫ل‬


‫ل‬ ‫ و د‬is the Mubtada’. (‫ ِف‬is a harf of jarr, and ‫ الب ْيت‬is Jarr, so neither of them is
َ ِ َ ِ َ َ ِ
َ
Mubtada’).

2. In some crazy cases the Mubtada’ can be Nasb. This is when a Harf of Nasb beats up a Mubtada’
and forces it into Nasb. However, it is important to remember that the Harf of Nasb and its victim
can have a long distance relationship. The harf of nasb and its victim constitute the Mubtada’.

ْ ْ ْ
‫س‬
‫سان لَ ِفي خُ ر‬ ‫اإلن‬
ِ ‫ ِإ َن‬: ‫اإلنسان‬
ِ ‫ ِإ َن‬is the Mubtada’.
َ َ

ْ ْ ْ ْ ْ
‫أ َ َن لَ ُُه أَجرً ا حسنًا‬: ‫ أ َ َن أَجرً ا حسنًا‬is the Mubtada’. ‫ أَجرً ا‬is the victim of ‫أ َ َن‬, but ‫ أَجر ًا حسنًا‬are Mawsoof
َ َ َ َ َ
ْ
Sifah, therefore ‫ أ َ َن أَجرً ا حسنًا‬together are the Mubtada’.
َ َ
ْ ‫د‬
‫ك‬
َ ‫باخع َنف َس‬
ِ ‫ك‬ َ َ‫ لَ َعل‬: ‫ك‬
َ َ‫ – لَ َع َل( لَ َعل‬harf of Nasb, ‫ – ك‬victim) is the Mubtada’.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES‬‬

‫‪Find the Mubtada’ in the following sentences:‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫د ِ َّللِ‬
‫الحم ُ‬
‫َ‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫‪ .2‬أ َ َن َل ب ْي ًتا‬
‫َُ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ّيم أَك َب ُ‬ ‫َُ ُ‬
‫‪ .3‬أ‬
‫‪ِ .4‬إنَه ع ِليد‬
‫ُ َ‬
‫ح ْيد‬ ‫د‬
‫اّلل َغفُور ر ِ‬ ‫إن‬
‫ِ َ ََ‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫َ‬
‫د‬
‫رية‬ ‫ك ِب َ‬ ‫دارنا َ‬
‫ُ‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫ك ِعسى ابن م ْري‬ ‫ذلِ َ‬


‫َُ ََ‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫ل ك ُل ْ‬
‫َش رء‬ ‫َُ ُ َ‬ ‫‪.8‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫حون‬ ‫ل‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ف‬‫ُه الم‬
‫ُ ُ ُ َ‬
‫‪.9‬‬

‫هذ ِه جهن‬‫‪ِ .11‬‬


‫َ َ َُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ألْنار‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ن َتح ِِتا ا‬ ‫‪ِ .11‬م‬
‫ُ‬
‫َش رء ع ِليد‬ ‫كل ْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ه َو ِب ُ ِ َ‬
‫‪ُ .12‬‬
‫أل ْر ِض‬
‫ماوات و ا َ‬ ‫ب الس‬ ‫ربنا ر‬
‫ِ َ‬ ‫َ ُ َ ُ َ‬
‫‪.13‬‬

‫حص ى‬‫أي الح ْزب ْْي أ ْ‬


‫َ ُ ِ َ ِ َ َ‬
‫‪.14‬‬
‫ْ د‬
‫غ لف‬ ‫قُلُوبُنا ُ‬ ‫‪.15‬‬
‫لع َل اّلل غف د‬
‫ور‬ ‫ََ َ ُ‬ ‫ََ‬
‫‪.16‬‬

‫ك ْم‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ِإنَا مع‬


‫ََ‬
‫‪.17‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWERS: Mubtada’ is in red‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫د ِ َّللِ‬
‫الحم ُ‬
‫َ‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫‪ .2‬أ َ َن َل ب ْي ًتا‬
‫َُ‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ّيم أَك َب ُ‬ ‫َُ ُ‬
‫‪ .3‬أ‬
‫‪ِ .4‬إنَه ع ِليد‬
‫ُ َ‬
‫ح ْيد‬ ‫د‬
‫اّلل َغفُور ر ِ‬ ‫إن‬
‫ِ َ ََ‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫َ‬
‫د‬
‫رية‬ ‫ك ِب َ‬ ‫دارنا َ‬
‫ُ‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫ك ِعسى ابن م ْري‬ ‫ذلِ َ‬


‫َُ ََ‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫ل ك ُل ْ‬
‫َش رء‬ ‫َُ ُ َ‬ ‫‪.8‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫حون‬ ‫ل‬
‫ِ‬ ‫ف‬‫ُه الم‬
‫ُ ُ ُ َ‬
‫‪.9‬‬

‫هذ ِه جهن‬ ‫‪ِ .11‬‬


‫َ َ َُ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ألْنار‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ن َتح ِِتا ا‬ ‫‪ِ .11‬م‬
‫ُ‬
‫َش رء ع ِليد‬ ‫كل ْ‬
‫َ‬ ‫ه َو ِب ُ ِ َ‬
‫‪ُ .12‬‬
‫أل ْر ِض‬
‫ماوات و ا َ‬ ‫ب الس‬ ‫ربنا ر‬
‫ِ َ‬ ‫َ ُ َ ُ َ‬
‫‪.13‬‬

‫حص ى‬‫أي الح ْزب ْْي أ ْ‬


‫َ ُ ِ َ ِ َ َ‬
‫‪.14‬‬
‫ْ د‬
‫غ لف‬ ‫قُلُوبُنا ُ‬ ‫‪.15‬‬
‫لع َل اّلل غف د‬
‫ور‬ ‫ََ َ ُ‬ ‫ََ‬
‫‪.16‬‬

‫ك ْم‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ِإنَا مع‬


‫ََ‬
‫‪.17‬‬
1

5.3.3 & 5.3.4 Parts of a Sentence–Khabr & Muta’alliq bil Khabr

We learnt that the ‫ مجةل إمسية‬is made up of 1) Mubtada’, 2) Khabr and 3) Muta’alliq bil khabr. The
Mubtada’ is the first Raf’ word you find or the Harf of Nasb and its victim together.

Today we will talk about the Khabr and the Muta’alliq bil Khabr (MBK). Remember that a ‫ مجةل إمسية‬must
always have a Mubtada’ and either a Khabr or a Muta’alliq bil Khabr, or both.

The second Raf’ word we find will be the Khabr.

1. ‫الحمد ل ِّلل‬
َ
: ‫ الحمد‬is the Mubtada’ because it is the first Raf’ word. ‫ لِلل‬cannot be the Khabr because
َ
it is Jarr. Therefore, this sentence does not have a Khabr.
2. ‫ك‬ ٌ
َ ‫باخع َنف َس‬
‫ك ل‬َ َ‫لَ َع ّل‬: ‫ك‬
َ َ‫ لَ َع ّل‬is the Mubtada’ here (Harf of Nasb and its victim). Since we have identified

the Mubtada’, we have to look for a word after it that is Raf’. ‫باخ ٌع‬
‫ ل‬is the Khabr.

The Harf of Jarr and its victim is the Muta’alliq bil Khabr.

1. ‫ أ َ ّ َن لَُه أَجرً ا حسنًا‬: ‫ أ َ ّ َن‬and ‫ أَجرً ا حسنًا‬together is the Mubtada’. ‫ لَُه‬is the Muta’alliq bil Khabr.
َ َ َ َ
2. ‫كثون فلي له‬ ‫ ُه ما‬: ‫ ُه‬is the Mubtada’, ‫كثون‬ ‫ ما‬is the Khabr (2nd Raf’ word), ‫ فلي له‬is the Muta’alliq bil Khabr
َ ‫ل‬ َ ‫ل‬
(Harf of Jarr and its victim).

Sometimes we find an independent word that is Nasb in the ‫ مجةل إمسية‬- this word is part of the Khabr
itself. Make sure not to confuse this with the victim of the Harf of Nasb.

1. ‫ك‬ ٌ ٌ
َ ‫باخع َنف َس‬
‫ك ل‬َ َ‫ لَ َع ّل‬: ‫ك‬
َ َ‫ لَ َع ّل‬is the Mubtada’, ‫باخع‬
‫ ل‬is the Khabr. ‫ك‬
َ ‫ َنف َس‬is a Nasb word (it is not the victim
of a harf of Nasb), therefore it is part of the Khabr.
2. ً ‫ أ َ ّّيم أَحسن عمل‬: ‫ أ َ ّّيم‬is the Mubtada’, ‫ أَحسن عم ًل‬is the Khabr.
َ َ َ َ َ َ

3. ‫طعا ًما‬ َ ‫ أ َ ّّيم أَز‬: ‫ أ َ ّّيم‬is the Mubtada’, ‫طعا ًما‬


َ ‫كى‬ َ ‫كى‬
َ ‫ أَز‬is the Khabr (‫كى‬
َ ‫ أَز‬is Raf’, but it is not apparent
because it is a non-flexible word.)
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES‬‬

‫‪Identify the Mubtada’, Khabr, and Muta’alliq bil Khabr in the following sentences:‬‬

‫‪ .1‬سالل ٌم طالل ٌ‬
‫ب يف المع َه لد‬ ‫الحمد ل ّ َِلل‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫ألر لض‬ ‫‪ .3‬إنا لجاعلون خل ً‬ ‫‪ .4‬أ َ ّ َن َل بي ًتا‬


‫يفة يف ا َ‬
‫َ َ ل َ‬ ‫ل َّ َ ل‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪ .5‬لإنَه لبك ّل َش ٍء ع لليٌ‬ ‫‪ .6‬أ َ ّّيم أَك َب‬
‫َ‬ ‫ل َ‬ ‫ّ‬

‫اِلل‬ ‫‪ .8‬لإنَه ع لليٌ‬


‫ول ّ‬
‫‪ .7‬أ َ ّ َن لفيكم َرس َ‬ ‫ّ َ‬
‫حيٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .9‬لإ ّنَا ل ِّلل‬ ‫اِل َغفور ر ل‬ ‫‪ .11‬إن‬
‫ل َّ َّ َ‬
‫َ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫راجعون‬ ‫لإ ّنَا لإلي له ل‬ ‫رية‬ ‫ك لب َ‬
‫‪ .12‬دارنا َ‬
‫َ‬
‫‪.11‬‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ل‬
‫هو َم للك ليف هذا الب َ ل‬ ‫ك لعسى ابن مري‬
‫‪ .14‬ذلل َ‬
‫َ ََ‬
‫‪.13‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ضل لعل ًما‬ ‫أ َ ّّيم أَف َ‬ ‫‪.15‬‬ ‫‪َ .16‬ل ك ّل ََش ٍء‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ك‬‫َ َ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫هو قا لت‬ ‫‪ُ .18‬ه المف للحون‬
‫َ‬
‫‪.17‬‬
‫َ‬
‫ك‬ ‫ه َو قا لتل لاب لن َ‬ ‫هذ له ج َه ّ َن‬
‫ل َ‬
‫‪.19‬‬ ‫‪.21‬‬
‫ٌ‬
‫قائ ٌم‬
‫ت َزيد ل‬ ‫ليف البي ل‬ ‫‪.21‬‬ ‫ألْنار‬
‫‪ .22‬لمن َتح لِتا ا َ‬
‫َ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .24‬هو لبك ّل َش ٍء ع لليٌ‬
‫َل س ّيَارة ليف أَم لريكا‬ ‫ل َ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪.23‬‬
‫َ‬
‫كيٌ‬ ‫اِل عز ٌ‬
‫ح ل‬ ‫يز‬ ‫َّ َ ل‬ ‫ألر لض‬
‫ماوات و ا َ‬
‫ل َ‬
‫ب الس‬‫‪ .26‬ربنا ر‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ ّ َ ّ َ‬
‫‪.25‬‬

‫كتا ًبا‬ ‫ٌ‬


‫دارس ل‬ ‫َص لديقنَا ل‬ ‫‪.27‬‬ ‫ْي أَحصى‬
‫َ‬ ‫الحز َب ل‬
‫‪ .28‬أ َ ّي ل‬
‫لُه أَج ٌر كريٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫َل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪.29‬‬ ‫‪ .31‬قلوبنا غلف‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWERS‬‬

‫‪MUBTADA’ / KHABR / MUTA’ALLIQ BIL KHABR‬‬

‫‪ .1‬سالل ٌم طالل ٌ‬
‫ب يف المع َه لد‬ ‫الحمد ل ّ َِلل‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫ألر لض‬ ‫‪ .3‬إنا لجاعلون خل ً‬ ‫‪ .4‬أ َ ّ َن َل بي ًتا‬


‫يفة يف ا َ‬
‫َ َ ل َ‬ ‫ل َّ َ ل‬ ‫َ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫خ لبري‬
‫‪ .5‬لإ ّنَه لبك ّ لل ََش ٍء َ‬ ‫‪ .6‬أ َ ّّيم أَك َب‬

‫اِلل‬ ‫‪ .8‬لإنَه ع لليٌ‬


‫ول ّ‬
‫‪ .7‬أ َ ّ َن فليكم َرس َ‬ ‫ّ َ‬
‫حيٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .9‬لإ ّنَا ل ِّلل‬ ‫اِل َغفور ر ل‬ ‫‪ .11‬إن‬
‫ل َّ َّ َ‬
‫َ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫راجعون‬ ‫لإ ّنَا لإلي له ل‬ ‫رية‬ ‫ك لب َ‬
‫‪ .12‬دارنا َ‬
‫َ‬
‫‪.11‬‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ل‬
‫هو َم للك ليف هذا الب َ ل‬ ‫ك لعسى ابن مري‬
‫‪ .14‬ذلل َ‬
‫َ ََ‬
‫‪.13‬‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫ضل لعل ًما‬ ‫أ َ ّّيم أَف َ‬ ‫‪.15‬‬ ‫‪َ .16‬ل ك ّل ََش ٍء‬
‫ٌ‬
‫ك‬‫َ َ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫هو قا لت‬ ‫‪ُ .18‬ه المف للحون‬
‫َ‬
‫‪.17‬‬
‫َ‬
‫ك‬ ‫ه َو قا لتل لابنل َ‬ ‫هذ له ج َه ّ َن‬
‫ل َ‬
‫‪.19‬‬ ‫‪.21‬‬
‫ٌ‬
‫قائ ٌم‬
‫ت َزيد ل‬ ‫ليف البي ل‬ ‫‪.21‬‬ ‫ألْنار‬
‫‪ .22‬لمن َتح لِتا ا َ‬
‫َ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .24‬هو لبك ّل َش ٍء ع لليٌ‬
‫َل س ّيَارة ليف أَم لريكا‬ ‫ل َ‬
‫َ َ‬ ‫َ‬
‫‪.23‬‬
‫َ‬
‫كيٌ‬ ‫اِل عز ٌ‬
‫ح ل‬ ‫يز‬ ‫َّ َ ل‬ ‫ألر لض‬
‫ماوات و ا َ‬
‫ل َ‬
‫ب الس‬‫‪ .26‬ربنا ر‬
‫َ‬ ‫َ ّ َ ّ َ‬
‫‪.25‬‬

‫كتا ًبا‬ ‫ٌ‬


‫دارس ل‬ ‫َص لديقنا ل‬ ‫‪.27‬‬ ‫ْي أَحصى‬
‫َ‬ ‫الحز َب ل‬
‫‪ .28‬أ َ ّي ل‬
‫لُه أَج ٌر كريٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫َل‬ ‫َ‬ ‫‪.29‬‬ ‫‪ .31‬قلوبنا غلف‬
1

5.4 Introduction to Pronouns

The last thing that we did was ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. We’ll be going back to that soon, but in order to
continue, we have to go off track a little bit and learn something else. Today, we learned pronouns. We
started off by first going through the original pronouns with their meanings:

ْ
they both of them ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ he ‫ﻫﻮ‬

they (f) ‫ﻫﻦ‬ both of them (f) ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ she ‫ﻫﻲ‬

ْ ‫أ ْﻧ‬ ْ ْ
all of you both of you ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ you ‫أﻧﺖ‬
ْ ْ ْ
all of you (f) ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ both of you (f)‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ you-she ‫أﻧﺖ‬

ْ
we ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ I ‫أﻧﺎ‬

This list is on pg.18 of the 201 Handout Packet. Memorize these pronouns and their meanings. Pronouns
are one of the most important things in Arabic and will come up all the time. Make flashcards out of
them and run through them for practice. I need you to know them really well before moving on to the
next lesson.
2

EXERCISES:

Make flashcards out of the pronouns. Once you have them memorized, quiz yourself by looking only at
the English and trying to guess the Arabic. Mix up the cards and practice over and over again until you
can run through them very quickly.
1

5.6 Pronouns (Attached Versions)

We’re continuing our lesson on pronouns, but before we move on, you need to make sure you have the
original pronouns we learned last class memorized. If you haven’t done that yet, and don’t know them
backwards and forwards, then this lesson will not help you. Be sure you have the previous lesson down
before you move on.

Sometimes, when people are related to each other, they’re called cousins. When pronouns have
relationships, we call them something else, but we’ll call them cousins for now. I’m listing the cousins in
red under the original pronouns we already learned (this is also on pg.18 of the 201 Handout Packet):

ْ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬
ْ ‫’ﻫﻮ‬s cousin is always
Some cousins look ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ه‬
confused. He’s always
‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬
just like the
original pronouns! saying, ُ‫?ه‬

‫ﻫﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫’ﻫﻲ‬s cousin is always


ْ ‫أ ْﻧ‬ ْ
‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬ laughing, ‘ha!’

‫ﻛ ْﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ك‬


Other cousins
sound like they’re
ْ ْ ْ
cousins (just ‫أﻧﺘﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬
exchange the ‫ت‬
‫ﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ك‬
for a ‫)ك‬
ْ
‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬ ‫أﻧﺎ‬

‫ﻧﺎ‬ ‫ ي‬or

Make sure you know all of the cousins by heart. This lesson is one of the most important lessons you will
learn in Arabic, so get lots of practice and memorize them well.
2

EXERCISES:

1. Memorize the cousins


2. Use the flashcards you made last class but this time, look at the English and try to guess the
cousin of that pronoun.
1

5.7 & 5.8 Fragments and Pronouns

We’re going learn one more thing about pronouns. So far, we know the original pronouns and their
cousins. The first step was to memorize them, the second was to learn their meanings, and the third was
to know their cousins (when we say that ‫ ه‬is the cousin of ‫ﻫﻮ‬, that’s not actually ‫’ﻫﻮ‬s cousin. It’s what
" $" $"
‫ﻫﻮ‬ becomes sometimes).
$"
There are original pronouns and attached pronouns. When you say ‫ﻫﻮ‬, ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, ), etc, those are the original
$" $ " "
pronouns. When you say, ‘‫ﻫﻮ‬ becomes ‫ه‬, ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ becomes ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, ْ) becomes ْ)… ’ those are the attached
$" " $ " $ " " "
pronouns. The original ones are always Raf’, and the attached ones are either Nasb or Jarr. If someone
asks you what the Raf’ version of ‫ﻫﻮ‬ is, you’d say ‘‫ﻫﻮ‬.’ If someone asked you for the Nasb or Jarr version
$" $"
of ‫ﻫﻮ‬, you’d say ‫ه‬.
$" "

If you remember way back when we were discussing the status, we said that you can tell status by
ending sounds, ending combinations, and we wrote down one more thing: pronouns are weird.
Pronouns don’t care about ending sound or ending combinations. They’ve got their own rules. The
original ones are Raf’ and the attached ones are Nasb or Jarr. If you were looking at ending sounds and
looked at ‫ﻫﻮ‬, the ‘a’ sound at the end sounds like Nasb, right? But because it’s an original pronoun, it
$"
doesn’t’ matter if it sounds like Nasb. It’s still counted as Raf’. The rule for telling the status is that
original pronouns are Raf’ and the attached ones are Nasb or Jarr.

A lot of times, you’ll come across words that look like they have a cousin stuck at the end of them.
Before this lesson, a word like ‫ ْﻢ‬0
" ‫ﺴ‬. "‫ﻧﻔ‬$ ‫ أ‬would look like one word. But now, you know that it’s actually

two words: ‫ﺲ‬. "‫ﻧﻔ‬$ ‫ أ‬and ‫ﻛ" ْﻢ‬. The second word is attached. The cousins are always attached at the end of
the word (that’s why we don’t really call them cousins—we call them ‘attached pronouns’).

Attached pronouns can be attached to an ism, fi’l, or harf. Right now, since we haven’t studied fi’l or
harf, we’re only going to talk about when it’s attached to an ism. Here’s something that we’ll explain
next time: whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, the first word is a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the pronoun is a

‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. So if I looked at ‫ﻚ‬


$ ‫ﺑ‬.< ‫ر‬, the first word, ‫ب‬
.< ‫ر‬$ , would be the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the second word, the
$
attached pronoun ‫ك‬$ , would be the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. This might take some time to get used, so go through the
exercises below to get your feet wet.
2

EXERCISES:

A. For each of the cases below, find the attached pronoun. What’s the original pronoun that it
came from? What does it mean?

‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‬.1
" $ $ "(
ْ
( ‫ "ﺗﺤ "ﺘ‬.2
‫ﻚ‬

‫ ﻤ ﺎ‬%‫ﺣ‬ ‫ ﺻﺎ‬.3
"$ "( "
ْ
‫ا("ﺎ‬" ‫ (زﻟﺰ‬.4
"
ْ
‫ﻚ‬ " ‫ "ﻧﻔ "ﺴ‬.5
ْ:‫ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‬.6
$ " "
‫ازﻳﻨ( (ﻪ‬( ‫ "ﻣ "ﻮ‬.7
( ( ‫ﺳ‬$ ‫ ر‬.8
/‫ﻮ‬
"
( ‫ "ﻣ‬E $ ‫ أ‬.9
‫ﻚ‬

‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫ أﺷﺪ‬.10
" $ "E $ "

B. Which word is the ‫ ?ﻣﻀﺎف‬Which is the ‫?ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬


$

ْ
2$ "‫ أ " ْﻣﻮاﻟ‬.6 ‫ ْﻢ‬N
$
ْ
( ‫ "ﻣﺮ‬.1
‫ﻌ‬$ ‫ﺟ‬
"
ْ‫ﻢ‬N‫ ﺳ ْﻌﻴ‬.7
$ " " " $‫ﺑ‬E ‫ "ر‬.2
‫ﻚ‬

‫ أ " ْﻣﺮ "ﻧﺎ‬.8 ‫ﺎﻫﺎ‬


" ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ ﺿ‬.3
$ " $
ْ
‫ﻀ (ﺒﻲ‬ " ‫ "ﻏ‬.9 ‫ ﺻﺪر "ك‬.4
" "
ْ
" E ‫ أ"ﻫ (ﻠ (ﻬ‬.10
‫ﻦ‬ ‫ (ﻋﺒﺎده‬.5
$$ "
3

ANSWER KEY:

Section A:

ْ
1. ‫ﻤﺎ‬$‫ﻛ‬, original is ‫ﻤﺎ‬$ ‫أ "ﻧﺘ‬, both of you
" "
2. ( original is ‫ﻧﺖ‬
‫ك‬, ( " ‫أ‬, you-she (you, fem)
3. ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them
" $ " $
4. ‫ﻫﺎ‬, " original is ‫ﻲ‬ ( she
‫ﻫ‬,
"
5. " original is ‫ﻧﺖ‬
‫ك‬, ‫ أ‬, you
" "
6. ْ:, original is ْ:, they
$ $
7. ‫ (ه‬, original is ‫ﻫﻮ‬, he
"$
8. ‫ (ه‬, original is ‫ﻫﻮ‬, he
"$
9. ‫ك‬, ( original is ‫ﻧﺖ‬ ( " ‫أ‬, you-she (you, fem)
10. ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, original is ‫ﻫﻤﺎ‬, both of them
" $ " $

Section B:

Black = ‫ ;ﻣﻀﺎف‬Red = ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬


$

ْ
2, &‫أ & ْﻣﻮاﻟ‬.6 ‫ ْﻢ‬3
, / ‫ &ﻣ ْﺮ‬.1
‫ﻌ‬, ‫ﺟ‬
&
ْ‫ﻢ‬3‫ ﺳ ْﻌﻴ‬.7
, & & & ,‫ﺑ‬5 ‫ &ر‬.2
‫ﻚ‬

‫ أ & ْﻣﺮ &ﻧﺎ‬.8 ‫ﺿﺤﺎ &ﻫﺎ‬ .3


, & ,
ْ
‫ﺒﻲ‬/ ‫ﻀ‬ & ‫ &ﻏ‬.9 ‫ ﺻﺪر &ك‬.4
& &
ْ
& 5 ‫ﻬ‬/ ‫ﻠ‬/ ‫ أ&ﻫ‬.10
‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎده‬/ .5
,, &
1

5.9 Fragments—Idhaafah Construction using Attached Pronouns

The last thing we did was go thru pg. 22 in our handout and say what the original pronoun was, which
word was the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬, and which word was the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. Today, I told you why we say that. The

definition of a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬is the word before ‘of’ and the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is the word after ‘of.’ We also learned

that the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬is light and never has ‫ال‬, and the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬that always comes right after it is always Jarr.

Now if I say, ‘the book of mine,’ it’s a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬because there’s an ‘of’ in there. ‘The book’ is

before ‘of,’ so it would be the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬. ‘Mine’ would be the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬since it’s after ‘of.’ If I were to write

the Arabic version of this, I would have to make sure I made the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬light and not put and ‫ال‬. The
ٌ ‫ﻛﺘ‬, make it light and don’t put ‫ ال‬on it, my ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬would
Arabic word for book is ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬, so if I start with ‫ﺎب‬

be ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬.
ٌ ‫ﻛﺘ‬
‫ﺎب ← ﻛﺘﺎب‬

Now, I have to add ‘mine’ as the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. ‘Mine’ comes from the pronoun ‘I,’ or ‫ أﻧﺎ‬in Arabic. Since it’s

the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, and must be Jarr, I’d have to use the Jarr version of ‫أﻧﺎ‬: ‫ ي‬. Now I just put them together

and get ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬to mean ‘book of mine’ or ‘my book.’

‫ ي = ﻛﺘﺎ‬+ ‫ﻛﺘﺎب‬

We’ve said that pronouns can be stuck at the end of an ism, fi’l, or harf. But, you only call them ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

‫ إﻟﻴﻪ‬when they’re stuck to an ism.

Note: Whenever you have to add ‫ ي‬as the attached pronoun of ‫ أﻧﺎ‬, you will usually have a kasra on the

letter before the ‫( ي‬like the ‫ ب‬in the above example). This isn’t a grammar rule, but the Arabs always

like things to sound smooth. ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬doesn’t sound as smooth as ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‬, so they don’t say ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‬. ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬will

look like ‫ ﻛﺘﺎ‬in raf’, nasb, and jarr and you will need to use the context (more on this later) to
determine the status. This is NOT a grammar rule—just a phonetic one.
2

EXERCISES:

ْ
A. Use the isms listed below to create Idhafahs with a) her, b) both of yours, c) theirs, d) his, e) ‫ﻧﺤﻦ‬,

f) ‫ أﻧﺖ‬, g) ‫أﻧ‬. For example: My bag = ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻲ‬

ٌ ٌ ْ ٌ ٌ ‫ﻛﺘ‬.1
‫ ﺳ "ﻴﺎرة‬.5 ‫ دﻓﱰ‬.4 ‫ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ‬.3 ‫ ﻗﻠ ٌﻢ‬.2 ‫ﺎب‬

B. Now, try to come up with the Idhafah in Arabic by looking at the English:

ٌ ‫ ﻛﺘ‬book
1. ‫ﺎب‬

a. My book
b. Your book
c. Her book
d. Our book
e. Their book

2. ‫ ﻗﻠ ٌﻢ‬pen

a. Their (2) pen (pen of both of theirs)


b. Their pen
c. Your (2) pen
d. His pen
e. Her pen

ٌ
3. ‫ ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺔ‬bag

a. All of you ladies’ bag


b. Their bag
c. Your (2) bag
d. Our bag
e. Your (fem) bag
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫‪Section A:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪+‬ﺎ )‪1. a‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪ْ +‬ﻢ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻤﻬﺎ )‪2. a‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤ‪c) 3‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒ‪4‬ﺎ )‪3. a‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒ‪ْ 4‬ﻢ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫دﻓﱰﻫﺎ )‪4. a‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰﻛﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰ‪c) ْ6‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰه )‪d‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰﻧﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰك )‪f‬‬ ‫دﻓﱰﻛ ْﻢ )‪g‬‬

‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎر‪9‬ﺎ )‪5. a‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻜﻤﺎ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎر‪ْ 9‬ﻢ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻨﺎ )‪e‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗﻚ )‪f‬‬ ‫ﺳ "ﻴﺎرﺗ‪ْ 1‬ﻢ)‪g‬‬

‫‪Section B:‬‬

‫ﻛﺘﺎ )‪1. a‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻚ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪+‬ﺎ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻨﺎ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎ‪ْ +‬ﻢ )‪e‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻤﻬﻤﺎ )‪2. a‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤ‪b) 3‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻜﻤﺎ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻪ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻤﻬﺎ )‪e‬‬

‫ﻦ )‪3. a‬‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻜ "‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒ‪ْ 4‬ﻢ )‪b‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻜﻤﺎ )‪c‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻨﺎ )‪d‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻴﺒﺘﻚ )‪e‬‬
1

6.1 & 6.2 Fragments—Harf Jarr

We’ve been talking about ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. Before we move on, we have to memorize some stuff. I
had you memorize the following words in class today:

ْ ْ
‫ﺧﻼ‬ ‫ﻣﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺬ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬

‫ﻋﺪا‬ ْ ‫ﺣﺎش ﻣ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫رب‬

#‫ﺣﺘﻰ إ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ْ ‫ﻋ‬


‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ‬

These are called Huroof Jaarah, and each one of them is called a Harf of Jarr. These harf have a job to
do: they make the next word Jarr. Whenever you see these harf with an ism after it, that ism has to be
Jarr. Unlike isms, though, a harf doesn’t have any properties, so it doesn’t have a status, a number, a
gender, or a type.

It’s important for you to memorize them well so that you can recognize them when they come up in
Quran, for example:

.)‫أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸ ْﻴﻄﺎن اﻟﺮﺟ‬

ْ
.)‫ﺎن اﻟﺮﺣ‬0‫ ْﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮ‬/

ْ ْ ْ ‫( ﻣ‬٣) ‫ اﻟﻨﺎس‬:‫(إ‬٢) ‫( ﻣﻠﻚ اﻟﻨﺎس‬١) ‫ﻗ ْﻞ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺮب اﻟﻨﺎس‬


‫ي ﻳﻮ ْﺳﻮس ﰲ‬A‫(ا‬٤) ‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ اﻟﻮ ْﺳﻮاس اﻟﺨﻨﺎس‬

(٥) ‫ﺻﺪور اﻟﻨﺎس‬

So…

What are these harfs called? Huroof Jaarah

What is their job? To make the ism after them Jarr.

What properties do they have? None


‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Find all the Huroof Jaarah in the ayaat below:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻏﺎﺳﻖ إذا وﻗﺐ )‪(٣‬وﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺛﺎت ﰲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻗ ْﻞ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺮب اﻟْﻔﻠﻖ )‪(١‬ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ )‪(٢‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫)‪(٤‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺣﺎﺳ ٍﺪ إذا ﺣﺴﺪ )‪(٥‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٢‬وأ ْرﺳﻞ ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ U‬ﻢ ﻃﲑًا‬‫ﻠ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ﺗﺮ ﻛ ْﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻚ ﺑﺄ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟْﻔﻴﻞ )‪(١‬أﻟ ْﻢ ﻳ ْﺠﻌ ْﻞ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‪ْT‬‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮل )‪(٥‬‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٤‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠ‪ Z‬ﻛﻌﺼ ٍﻒ ﻣﺄ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫أﺑﺎﺑﻴﻞ )‪(٣‬ﺗﺮﻣ‪U‬ﻢ ﺑﺤﺠﺎر ٍة ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠ ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أرأ ْﻳﺖ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﻜﺬب ﺑﺎ^ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﺪع اﻟﻴﺘ) )‪(٢‬وﻻ ﻳﺤﺾ ﻋ ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻜﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬

‫ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺼﻠﲔ )‪(٤‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻋ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺻﻼ‪ْ f‬ﻢ ﺳﺎﻫﻮن )‪(٥‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻳﺮاءون )‪(٦‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎرك ا‪A‬ي ﺑﻴﺪه اﻟْﻤ ْﻠﻚ وﻫﻮ ﻋ ﻛﻞ ْ‬


‫ﻳﺮ )‪(١‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ اﻟﻤ ْﻮت واﻟﺤﻴﺎة ﻟﻴ ْﺒﻠﻮﻛ ْﻢ أﻳ‪ْ m‬ﻢ‬
‫‪ٍ l‬ء ﻗﺪ ٌ‬

‫ﺎﻗﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮى ﰲ ﺧ ْﻠﻖ اﻟﺮ ْ‪0‬ﻦ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ات ﻃﺒ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫أﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ وﻫﻮ اﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ اﻟﻐﻔﻮر )‪(٢‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ ﺳﺒﻊ ‪q‬ﺎو ٍ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ارﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻛﺮﺗ ْﲔ ﻳ ْﻨﻘﻠ ْ‬


‫ﺐ إﻟ ْﻴﻚ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺧﺎﺳ ًﺌﺎ‬ ‫ﺎرﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻫ ْﻞ ﺗﺮى ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻓﻄﻮر )‪ْ s(٣‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻓ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬
‫وﻫﻮ ﺣﺴﲑ )‪(٤‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻏﺎﺳﻖ إذا وﻗﺐ )‪(٣‬وﻣ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﺛﺎت ﰲ اﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻗ ْﻞ أﻋﻮذ ﺑﺮب اﻟْﻔﻠﻖ )‪(١‬ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺧﻠﻖ )‪(٢‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬

‫)‪(٤‬وﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﺷﺮ ﺣﺎﺳ ٍﺪ إذا ﺣﺴﺪ )‪(٥‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٢‬وأ ْرﺳﻞ ﻋﻠ ْ‪ْ U‬ﻢ ﻃﲑًا‬‫ﻠ‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ﺗﺮ ﻛ ْﻴﻒ ﻓﻌﻞ رﺑﻚ ﺑﺄ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟْﻔﻴﻞ )‪(١‬أﻟ ْﻢ ﻳ ْﺠﻌ ْﻞ ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‪ْT‬‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮل )‪(٥‬‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﻴﻞ )‪(٤‬ﻓﺠﻌﻠ‪ Z‬ﻛﻌﺼ ٍﻒ ﻣﺄ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫أﺑﺎﺑﻴﻞ )‪(٣‬ﺗﺮﻣ‪U‬ﻢ ﺑﺤﺠﺎر ٍة ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠ ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫أرأ ْﻳﺖ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﻜﺬب ﺑﺎ^ﻳﻦ )‪(١‬ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ا‪A‬ي ﻳﺪع اﻟﻴﺘ) )‪(٢‬وﻻ ﻳﺤﺾ ﻋ ﻃﻌﺎم اﻟﻤ ْﺴﻜﲔ )‪(٣‬ﻓﻮ ْﻳﻞ‬

‫ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺼﻠﲔ )‪(٤‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻋ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺻﻼ‪ْ f‬ﻢ ﺳﺎﻫﻮن )‪(٥‬ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ ‪ ْT‬ﻳﺮاءون )‪(٦‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎرك ا‪A‬ي ﺑﻴﺪه اﻟْﻤ ْﻠﻚ وﻫﻮ ﻋ ﻛﻞ ْ‬


‫ﻳﺮ )‪(١‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ اﻟﻤ ْﻮت واﻟﺤﻴﺎة ﻟﻴ ْﺒﻠﻮﻛ ْﻢ أﻳ‪ْ m‬ﻢ‬
‫‪ٍ l‬ء ﻗﺪ ٌ‬

‫ﺎﻗﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺮى ﰲ ﺧ ْﻠﻖ اﻟﺮ ْ‪0‬ﻦ ﻣ ْ‬


‫ات ﻃﺒ ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ‬ ‫أﺣﺴﻦ ﻋﻤﻼ وﻫﻮ اﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ اﻟﻐﻔﻮر )‪(٢‬ا‪A‬ي ﺧﻠﻖ ﺳﺒﻊ ‪q‬ﺎو ٍ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ارﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻛﺮﺗ ْﲔ ﻳ ْﻨﻘﻠ ْ‬


‫ﺐ إﻟ ْﻴﻚ اﻟﺒﺼﺮ ﺧﺎﺳﺌﺎً‬ ‫ﺎرﺟﻊ اﻟْﺒﺼﺮ ﻫ ْﻞ ﺗﺮى ﻣ ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻓﻄﻮر )‪ْ s(٣‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت ﻓ ْ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬

‫ٌ‬
‫وﻫﻮ ﺣﺴﲑ )‪(٤‬‬
1

7.1 Fragments—Harf of Nasb

We’ve memorized the 17 Harf of Jarr, and today, we have to memorize something else. We’re almost
done memorizing stuff:

‫ﻟ ْﻴﺖ‬ ‫إن‬

‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫أن‬

‫ﻟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻛ ﺄن‬

These are the Harf of Nasb. Their job is to make the ism that comes right after them Nasb. I’ll share their
meanings with you once we start reading Quran. For now, I need you to memorize them. You can take a
look at these excerpts to see the Harf of Nasb at work:

ْ ْ ْ
‫ْﻢ‬ ‫أن اﷲ ﻳﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﰲ أﻧﻔﺴ‬ ‫إن اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﻘﲔ ﰲ ا' ْرك اﻷ ْﺳﻔﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﺎر‬ ٍ ‫إن اﻹ ﺴﺎن ﻟﻔﻲ ﺧ‬

‫ﻟﻌﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﻜﻮن ﻗﺮﻳ ًﺒﺎ‬ ْ ‫ﻦ اﻟﱪ ﻣ‬


‫ﻦ آﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﷲ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ً ‫ﻟ ْﻴﺘﻨﻲ ﻟ ْﻢ أﺗ ْﺨ ْﺬ ﻓﻼﻧًﺎ ﺧﻠ‬
‫ﻴﻼ‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Find the Harf of Nasb in these ayaat. Notice how the word that comes right after them is Nasb.‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫وإن اﻟﻔﺠﺎر ﻟﻔﻲ ﺟﺤ ٍ@ )‪(١٤‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫ْﻢ إ‪ F‬ﻳ ْﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ وﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﺠﻤﻌ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﻤﻴﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﻞ اﷲ ﻳﺤﻴﻴ‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(٢٦‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮن )‪(٥٩‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓ‪Q‬ﺎ وﻟ‬
‫‪.3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻧﻄﻔ ٍﺔ إذا ﺗﻤﻨﻰ )‪(٤٦‬وأن ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ اﻟ‪Z‬ﺸﺄة اﻷﺧﺮى )‪(٤٧‬‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا]ﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﺘﻨﺒﻮن ﻛﺒﺎ^ﺮ اﻹ‪ E‬واﻟﻔﻮاﺣﺶ إﻻ اﻟﻠﻤﻢ إن رﺑﻚ واﺳﻊ اﻟﻤﻐﻔﺮة‪(٣٢) ...‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وأن اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺪﻋﻮا ﻣﻊ اﷲ أﺣ ًﺪا )‪(١٨‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ‪ ْl‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(١٣‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮددﻧﺎه إ‪ F‬أﻣﻪ ﻛ ْﻲ ﺗﻘﺮ ﻋ ْﻴ‪i‬ﺎ وﻻ ﺗﺤﺰن وﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ أن وﻋﺪ اﷲ ﺣﻖ وﻟ‬
‫‪.7‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت وﻧﻌ ٍ@ )‪(١٧‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﰲ ﺟﻨ ٍ‬
‫‪.8‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫‪ْ n‬ﺴﺄﻟﻮﻧﻚ ﻋﻦ اﻷﻫ‪ o‬ﻗﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮاﻗﻴﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺎس واﻟﺤﺞ وﻟ‪s‬ﺲ اﻟﱪ ﺑﺄن ﺗﺄﺗﻮا اﻟﺒﻴﻮت ﻣﻦ ﻇﻬﻮرﻫﺎ‬
‫‪.9‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ْﻢ ﺗﻔﻠﺤﻮن )‪(١٨٩‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ أ ْﺑﻮا‪v‬ﺎ واﺗﻘﻮا اﷲ ﻟﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﻦ اﻟْﱪ ﻣﻦ اﺗﻘﻰ وأﺗﻮا اﻟْﺒﻴﻮت ﻣ ْ‬ ‫وﻟ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ْﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧًﺎ‪(٨١) ...‬‬ ‫ْﻢ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﻨﺰل ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠ ْﻴ‬ ‫وﻛ ْﻴﻒ أﺧﺎف ﻣﺎ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬وﻻ ﺗﺨﺎﻓﻮن أﻧ‬
‫‪.10‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻋﻠ ٍﻢ إن ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮن إﻻ اﻟﻈﻦ وإن اﻟﻈﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻖ ﺷ ْﻴ ًﺌﺎ )‪(٢٨‬‬ ‫وﻣﺎ ﻟ| ﺑﻪ ﻣ‬
‫‪.11‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اب أﻟ ٍ@ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وإذا ﺗﺘ• ﻋﻠﻴﻪ آﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ و‪ F‬ﻣﺴﺘﻜﱪا ﻛﺄن ﻟﻢ ‪n‬ﺴﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧﻴﻪ وﻗ ًﺮا ﻓ•‪€‬ه ﺑﻌﺬ ٍ‬
‫‪.12‬‬

‫ﻳﺐ )‪(١٧‬‬ ‫ﺘﺎب ﺑﺎﻟْﺤﻖ واﻟْﻤﲒان وﻣﺎ ﻳ ْﺪرﻳﻚ ﻟﻌﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺮ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﷲ ا]ي أﻧﺰل اﻟ‬
‫‪.13‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ ﺣﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻌﻨ‪ ْy‬وﻟ‬ ‫ﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺜ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْﻢ رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﻟ ْﻮ ﻳﻄﻴﻌ‬ ‫واﻋﻠﻤﻮا أن ﻓﻴ‬
‫‪.14‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻔﺮ واﻟﻔﺴﻮق واﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎن أوﻟ‪‰‬ﻚ ‪l‬‬ ‫ﻢ اﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ وﻛﺮه إﻟ ْﻴ‬ ‫ﻢ اﻹﻳﻤﺎن وزﻳﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺑ‬ ‫إﻟ ْﻴ‬

‫اﻟﺮاﺷﺪون )‪(٧‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ رﻣﻰ وﻟﻴ ْﺒ‪ Š‬اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻼء ً‬ ‫ﻦ اﷲ ﻗﺘﻠ| وﻣﺎ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ إذ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ وﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻠ ْﻢ ﺗﻘﺘﻠﻮ‪ ْl‬وﻟ‬
‫‪.15‬‬

‫ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ إن اﷲ ‪ٌ Œ‬‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ@ٌ )‪(١٧‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫وإن اﻟﻔﺠﺎر ﻟﻔﻲ ﺟﺤ ٍ@ )‪(١٤‬‬
‫‪.1‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس‬ ‫ْﻢ إ‪ F‬ﻳ ْﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓﻴﻪ وﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﺠﻤﻌ‬ ‫ْﻢ ‪ E‬ﻳﻤﻴﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﻞ اﷲ ﻳﺤﻴﻴ‬
‫‪.2‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(٢٦‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬
‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻨﺎس ﻻ ﻳﺆﻣﻨﻮن )‪(٥٩‬‬ ‫إن اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻵﺗﻴﺔ ﻻ ر ْﻳﺐ ﻓ‪Q‬ﺎ وﻟ‬
‫‪.3‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻧﻄﻔ ٍﺔ إذا ﺗﻤﻨﻰ )‪(٤٦‬وأن ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ اﻟ‪Z‬ﺸﺄة اﻷﺧﺮى )‪(٤٧‬‬ ‫ﻣ‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ا]ﻳﻦ ﻳﺠﺘﻨﺒﻮن ﻛﺒﺎ^ﺮ اﻹ‪ E‬واﻟﻔﻮاﺣﺶ إﻻ اﻟﻠﻤﻢ إن رﺑﻚ واﺳﻊ اﻟﻤﻐﻔﺮة‪(٣٢) ...‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫وأن اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﷲ ﻓﻼ ﺗﺪﻋﻮا ﻣﻊ اﷲ أﺣ ًﺪا )‪(١٨‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ أﻛﺜﺮ‪ ْl‬ﻻ ﻳﻌﻠﻤﻮن )‪(١٣‬‬ ‫ﻓﺮددﻧﺎه إ‪ F‬أﻣﻪ ﻛ ْﻲ ﺗﻘﺮ ﻋ ْﻴ‪i‬ﺎ وﻻ ﺗﺤﺰن وﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ أن وﻋﺪ اﷲ ﺣﻖ وﻟ‬
‫‪.7‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﺎت وﻧﻌ ٍ@ )‪(١٧‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺟ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﲔ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫إن اﻟ‬
‫‪.8‬‬

‫ﻦ ﻇﻬﻮرﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪ْ n‬ﺴﺄﻟﻮﻧﻚ ﻋﻦ اﻷﻫ‪ o‬ﻗ ْﻞ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻮاﻗﻴﺖ ﻟﻠﻨﺎس واﻟْﺤﺞ وﻟ ْ‪s‬ﺲ اﻟْﱪ ﺑﺄ ْن ﺗﺄْﺗﻮا اﻟْﺒﻴﻮت ﻣ ْ‬ ‫‪.9‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻢ ﺗﻔﻠﺤﻮن )‪(١٨٩‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﻟﱪ ﻣﻦ اﺗﻘﻰ وأﺗﻮا اﻟﺒﻴﻮت ﻣﻦ أﺑﻮا‪v‬ﺎ واﺗﻘﻮا اﷲ ﻟﻌﻠ‬ ‫وﻟ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ْﻢ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧًﺎ‪(٨١) ...‬‬ ‫ْﻢ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬ﺑﺎﷲ ﻣﺎ ﻟ ْﻢ ﻳﻨﺰل ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠ ْﻴ‬ ‫وﻛ ْﻴﻒ أﺧﺎف ﻣﺎ أﺷﺮﻛ‪ ْy‬وﻻ ﺗﺨﺎﻓﻮن أﻧ‬
‫‪.10‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻋﻠ ٍﻢ إن ﻳﺘﺒﻌﻮن إﻻ اﻟﻈﻦ وإن اﻟﻈﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻐﻨﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻖ ﺷ ْﻴ ًﺌﺎ )‪(٢٨‬‬ ‫وﻣﺎ ﻟ| ﺑﻪ ﻣ‬
‫‪.11‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫اب أﻟ ٍ@ )‪(٧‬‬ ‫ﺬ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ﱪا ﻛﺄ ْن ﻟ ْﻢ ‪ْ n‬ﺴﻤ ْﻌﻬﺎ ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ و ْﻗ ًﺮا ﻓ• ْ‬
‫‪€‬‬ ‫وإذا ﺗ ْﺘ• ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ آﻳﺎﺗﻨﺎ و‪ F‬ﻣ ْﺴﺘﻜ ً‬ ‫‪.12‬‬
‫ٍ‬
‫ﻳﺐ )‪(١٧‬‬‫ﺘﺎب ﺑﺎﻟْﺤﻖ واﻟْﻤﲒان وﻣﺎ ﻳ ْﺪرﻳﻚ ﻟﻌﻞ اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺮ ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اﷲ ا]ي أﻧﺰل اﻟ‬
‫‪.13‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ ﺣﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ ﻟﻌﻨ‪ ْy‬وﻟ‬ ‫ﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻢ ﰲ ﻛﺜ ٍ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْﻢ رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﻟ ْﻮ ﻳﻄﻴﻌ‬ ‫واﻋﻠﻤﻮا أن ﻓﻴ‬
‫‪.14‬‬

‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻔﺮ واﻟﻔﺴﻮق واﻟﻌﺼﻴﺎن أوﻟ‪‰‬ﻚ ‪l‬‬ ‫ﻢ اﻟ‬ ‫ْﻢ وﻛﺮه إﻟ ْﻴ‬ ‫ﻢ اﻹﻳﻤﺎن وزﻳﻨﻪ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮﺑ‬ ‫إﻟ ْﻴ‬

‫اﻟﺮاﺷﺪون )‪(٧‬‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ اﷲ رﻣﻰ وﻟﻴ ْﺒ‪ Š‬اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﲔ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺑﻼء ً‬ ‫ﻦ اﷲ ﻗﺘﻠ| وﻣﺎ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ إذ رﻣ ْﻴﺖ وﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻠ ْﻢ ﺗﻘﺘﻠﻮ‪ ْl‬وﻟ‬
‫‪.15‬‬

‫ﺣﺴﻨًﺎ إن اﷲ ‪ٌ Œ‬‬
‫ﻴﻊ ﻋﻠ@ٌ )‪(١٧‬‬
1

8.1 Fragments and Pronouns-Status of Attached Pronouns

We’ve done a lot of work so far. Before we go on, I want to share something with you about attached
pronouns:

Remember that the original pronouns are always Raf,’ and the attached versions are either Nasb or Jarr.
An attached pronoun will never, ever be Raf.’ How can you tell if it’s Nasb or Jarr? Let’s take a couple of
examples:

ْ ْ
1. Say we take the word ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬$ . ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬$ means daughter. If we say something like
ْ ْ
' ) ‫ﺑﻨﺘ‬$ , we see that there two words: ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬$ and the attached pronoun, ‫ 'ك‬, from
‫ﻚ‬
ْ
‫أﻧﺖ‬. Together, they mean, ‘your daughter.’ Now, we know that ‫ 'ك‬can only be
' ‫ﻚ‬
' ) ‫ﺑﻨ‬$
‫ﺘ‬
Nasb or Jarr, but how can we tell which one it is? If you think back to the
definition of an ism (a person, place, thing, adjective, adverb, or more), we
Your daughter
ْ ْ
know that ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬$ is a person, so ‫ﺑﻨﺖ‬$ must be an ism. Now here’s something you

can never forget: whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, the ism is a


‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the pronoun is the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. Since the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is always Jarr,

' is Jarr.
the pronoun has to be in Jarr status. So here, ‫ك‬,

2. Let’s take another example. Say I’m looking at the word ‫ﻚ‬
ْ
' ‫ﻣﻨ‬$ . You know that ‫'ك‬ ! Harf of Jarr
ْ
ْ ‫ ﻣ‬is a Harf of Jarr. What does a Harf of Jarr
is an attached pronoun and that ‫ﻦ‬ $ ‫ﻚ‬
' ‫ﻣﻨ‬$
Jarr
ْ ‫ﻣ‬, so ‫ﻦ‬
do? It makes the word after it Jarr. ‫ 'ك‬came after ‫ﻦ‬ ْ ‫ ﻣ‬makes it Jarr.
$ $

There are two reasons for something to be Jarr in Arabic:


1. It’s a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬
2. It came after a Harf of Jarr.
2

3. We learned one more fragment: the Harf of Nasb. ‫ "ن‬# ‫إ‬% is a Harf of Nasb. What’s its

job? Whatever comes after it is in Nasb status. So if we have the word ‫ﻚ‬
! Harf of Nasb
" "‫ﻧ‬# ‫إ‬% ,
‫ﻚ‬
" "‫ﻧ‬# ‫إ‬%
with ‫ "ك‬as an attached pronoun, we know that ‫ "ك‬has to be Nasb here
Nasb
because it’s being beat up by a Harf of Nasb.

So…

When a pronoun is stuck to an ism, it becomes a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, and will have Jarr status.

When a pronoun is stuck to a Harf of Jarr, it’s status is Jarr.


When a pronoun is stuck to a Harf of Nasb, it’s status is Nasb.
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪What is the status of each of the attached pronouns‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫‪" .1‬واﻣ "ﺮأ"ﺗ ‪1‬ﻪ ‪1‬‬
‫ﻴﺪ "ﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺟ ‪%‬‬‫‪% .2‬ﰲ ‪%‬‬

‫‪" .3‬ر ‪%#‬ﺑ "‬


‫ﻚ‬

‫ﻛﺎن "ﺗ ‪" #‬ﻮا ًﺑﺎ‬ ‫‪ .4‬إﻧﻪ‬


‫‪" " 1 "# %‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻛ ْﻴﺪ‪ْ%‬‬
‫" " ‪1‬‬
‫ﲔ‬
‫ﻈ "‬‫ﺤﺎ ‪%‬ﻓ ‪%‬‬ ‫‪ .6‬ﻋ "ﻠ ْﻴ) ْﻢ ﻟ‬
‫‪" " 1‬‬ ‫"‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻫ "ﻮ ﻳ‪1‬ﺒ ‪%‬ﺪئ ‪" 1‬و ﻳ‪% 1‬ﻌ ‪1‬‬ ‫‪% .7‬إ ‪#‬ﻧ"ﻪ ‪1 1‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﺖ ﺗ‪1‬ﺮا ًﺑﺎ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪ .8‬ﻟ" ْﻴﺘﻨ‪%‬ﻲ ﻛ‪1‬ﻨ‬
‫"‬ ‫"‬
‫ْ ْ ْ‬
‫ﻚ‬ ‫‪" .9‬واﺻ ‪%‬ﱪ "ﻧﻔ "ﺴ "‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻄﻴﻊ‬ ‫‪ .10‬إﻧﻚ ﻟﻦ ‪9‬ﺴﺘ ‪%‬‬
‫‪" " " " " "# %‬‬
‫ﺎر ‪%‬ﻫﻤﺎ‬ ‫‪ .11‬ءاﺛ‬
‫" " ‪" %‬‬
‫‪% .12‬ﻋﺒﺎ ‪%‬د "ﻧﺎ‬
‫"‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻟ‪%‬ﻨ‪1‬ﺨ ‪%‬ﺮج ‪%‬ﺑ ‪%‬ﻪ‬
‫"‬
‫‪ .14‬إﻧ) ْﻢ ﻇﻠ ْﻤ@ْ أ " ْﻧﻔﺴ)ﻢْ‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪" 1 1 "" 1‬‬ ‫‪"# %‬‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫) ْﻢ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪ .15‬و ‪%‬إذ ﻓ"ﺮﻗﻨ"ﺎ ‪%‬ﺑ‬
‫"‬ ‫"‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ْ F‬ﻢ‬‫ﻮب "ﻋ "ﻠ ‪%‬‬ ‫ﻀ ‪%‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻐ ‪1‬‬ ‫‪.16‬‬
‫"‬
‫) ْﻢ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪ .17‬اﻟﺤ ‪1 #‬ﻖ ‪%‬ﻣﻦ ر ‪%#‬ﺑ‬
‫"‬ ‫"‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬و إﻟﻴﻨﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤ ‪%‬ﺼﲑ ‪1‬‬ ‫" ‪" " "%‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻜ‪J‬‬
‫اﻟﺤ ‪%‬‬ ‫ﻚ أ"ﻧﺖ اﻟﻌ ‪%‬ﻠ‪J‬‬ ‫‪ .19‬إﻧ‬
‫‪1 " 1 " " " "# %‬‬
‫ﻚ‬ ‫‪% .20‬إ ‪" #‬ن "ﺷﺎ ‪%‬ﻧ "ﺌ "‬
4

ANSWER KEY:

1. J
2. J
3. J
4. N
5. J
6. J
7. N
8. N
9. J
10. N
11. J
12. J
13. J
14. 1st word: N; 2nd word: J
15. J
16. J
17. J
18. J
19. N
20. J
1

8.2 Fragments and Pronouns-Status of Attached Pronouns (Review)

In this lesson, I reviewed what I told you about pronouns in the last session. To recap, remember that
there are two kinds of pronouns: independent and attached. Independent ones are always Raf’.
Attached ones are always Nasb or Jarr.

I told you four things (we didn’t go into Raf’ status because independent pronouns are always Raf’ so
these four points were about attached pronouns):

When an Attached Pronoun …Its Status Will Be:


Comes After…
H.N (Harf of Nasb) N
Fi’l N
H.J (Harf of Jarr) J
Ism J

Pronouns can be Nasb for two reasons and Jarr for two reasons:

When are they Nasb?

1. When they come after a Harf of Nasb. A Harf of Nasb likes to beat things up and make them
Nasb. If you take any of the Harf of Nasb and attach a pronoun at the end, that pronoun will be
Nasb.
2. When they are attached to a fi’l. We have not studied fi’l yet, but you still have to remember
this right now. One day, when we learn fi’l, you can have a pronoun attached at the end of
them, and when you do, it’s going to be Nasb.

When are they Jarr?

1. When they come after a Harf of Jarr because a Harf of Jarr likes to beat things up and make
them Jarr. They do this to pronouns, too.
2. When they come after an ism. Why? When an ism and a pronoun come together, it’s a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬situation. The pronoun is the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, and since ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬is always Jarr, the
pronoun has to be Jarr, as well.

These four points have to stick in your head. You’ve memorized the pronouns, know what they mean,
and now, you know their status.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪What is the status of the pronouns in red‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ْ ْ‬


‫ح ﻟﻚ ﺻﺪرك )‪(١‬ووﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻚ وزرك )‪(٢‬ا!ي أﻧﻘﺾ ﻇﻬﺮك )‪(٣‬ورﻓﻌﻨﺎ ﻟﻚ ذﻛﺮك )‪(٤‬ﻓﺈن ﻣﻊ‬

‫ﺐ )‪(٧‬وإ< رﺑﻚ ﻓ ْ‬
‫ﺎرﻏ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎﻧﺼ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺐ )‪(٨‬‬ ‫‪1‬ا )‪(٦‬ﻓﺈذا ﻓﺮﻏﺖ ﻓ‬
‫‪1‬ا )‪(٥‬إن ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻳﺎ أ ‪@2‬ﺎ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻤﺰﻣ ‪2‬ﻞ )‪(١‬ﻗ‪2‬ﻢ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ إﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٢‬ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ‪ 2‬أو اﻧﻘ‪ْ 2‬ﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٣‬أ ْو زد ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ ورﺗﻞ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻘ ْﺮآن ﺗ ْﺮﺗﻴﻼ‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫)‪(٤‬إﻧﺎ ﺳﻨﻠﻘﻲ ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻚ ﻗ ْﻮﻻ ﺛﻘﻴﻼ )‪(٥‬إن ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ أﺷ ‪2‬ﺪ وﻃ ًﺌﺎ وأﻗﻮم ﻗﻴﻼ )‪(٦‬إن ﻟﻚ ﰲ اﻟ‪X‬ﺎر ﺳ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺗﺨﺬه وﻛﻴﻼ )‪(٩‬‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫إ‬ ‫_‬‫إ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫^‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ق‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺒ‬‫اﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ وﺗﺒﺘ ْﻞ إﻟ ْﻴﻪ ﺗ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اذﻛﺮ ْ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻼ )‪(٧‬و‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﺪو ﻣﺒﲔ )‪(٥‬وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺎن‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴﺪوا ﻟﻚ ﻛ ْﻴ ًﺪا إن اﻟﺸ ْﻴﻄﺎن ﻟﻺ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻳﺎ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺼ ْﺺ رؤﻳﺎك ﻋ‪ f‬إﺧﻮﺗﻚ ﻓﻴﻜ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﺗﺄوﻳﻞ اﻷﺣﺎدﻳﺚ وﻳ‪2 u‬ﻧﻌﻤﺘﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻚ وﻋ‪ f‬آل ﻳﻌ ‪2‬ﻘﻮب ﻛﻤﺎ أﺗﻤﻬﺎ ﻋ‪ f‬أﺑﻮ ْﻳﻚ‬‫ﻳﺠﺘﺒﻴﻚ رﺑ‪2‬ﻚ وﻳﻌﻠ ‪2‬ﻤﻚ ﻣ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻦ ﻗ ْﺒ ‪2‬ﻞ إ ْﺑﺮاﻫ‪ v‬وإ ْﺳﺤﺎق إن رﺑﻚ ﻋﻠ‪ ٌv‬ﺣﻜ‪(٦) ٌv‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎن ﰲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ وإﺧﻮﺗﻪ آﻳﺎت ﻟﻠﺴﺎ‪y‬ﻠﲔ )‪(٧‬‬
‫ﻣ ْ‬
‫‪2 2‬‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫أﻟ ْﻢ ْ ْ‬


‫ح ﻟﻚ ﺻﺪرك )‪(١‬ووﺿﻌﻨﺎ ﻋﻨﻚ وزرك )‪(٢‬ا!ي أﻧﻘﺾ ﻇﻬﺮك )‪(٣‬ورﻓﻌﻨﺎ ﻟﻚ ذﻛﺮك )‪(٤‬ﻓﺈن ﻣﻊ‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ﺐ )‪(٧‬وإ< رﺑﻚ ﻓ ْ‬
‫ﺎرﻏ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﺎﻧﺼ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﺐ )‪(٨‬‬ ‫‪1‬ا )‪(٦‬ﻓﺈذا ﻓﺮﻏﺖ ﻓ‬
‫‪1‬ا )‪(٥‬إن ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫اﻟﻌ‪ً 2 4 1‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻳﺎ أ ‪@2‬ﺎ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻤﺰﻣ ‪2‬ﻞ )‪(١‬ﻗ‪2‬ﻢ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ إﻻ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٢‬ﻧﺼﻔﻪ ‪ 2‬أو اﻧﻘ‪ْ 2‬ﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻗﻠﻴﻼ )‪(٣‬أ ْو زد ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻪ ورﺗﻞ اﻟ ‪2‬ﻘ ْﺮآن ﺗ ْﺮﺗﻴﻼ‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫)‪(٤‬إﻧﺎ ﺳﻨﻠﻘﻲ ﻋﻠ ْﻴﻚ ﻗ ْﻮﻻ ﺛﻘﻴﻼ )‪(٥‬إن ﻧﺎﺷﺌﺔ اﻟﻠ ْﻴﻞ ﻫﻲ أﺷ ‪2‬ﺪ وﻃ ًﺌﺎ وأﻗﻮم ﻗﻴﻼ )‪(٦‬إن ﻟﻚ ﰲ اﻟ‪X‬ﺎر ﺳ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻓﺎﺗﺨﺬه وﻛﻴﻼ )‪(٩‬‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫إ‬ ‫_‬‫إ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫^‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ق‬
‫ْ ْ‬
‫ﻤ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ر‬ ‫‪٨‬‬ ‫ﻴﻼ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺒ‬‫اﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ وﺗﺒﺘ ْﻞ إﻟ ْﻴﻪ ﺗ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫اذﻛﺮ ْ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻼ )‪(٧‬و‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫(‬ ‫)‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪R‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻳﺎ ﺑﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺗ ْﻘﺼ ْ‬


‫ﺪو ﻣﺒﲔ )‪(٥‬وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺎن‬‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻺ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎن‬‫ﻄ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺧﻮﺗﻚ ﻓﻴﻜﻴﺪوا ﻟﻚ ﻛ ْﻴ ًﺪا إن اﻟﺸ ْ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫‪f‬‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ك‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ؤ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ﺺ‬
‫‪2 2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻳﺠﺘﺒﻴﻚ رﺑ‪2‬ﻚ وﻳﻌﻠ ‪2‬ﻤﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄوﻳﻞ اﻷﺣﺎدﻳﺚ وﻳ‪2 u‬ﻧﻌﻤﺘﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻋﻠﻴﻚ وﻋ‪ f‬آل ﻳﻌ ‪2‬ﻘﻮب ﻛﻤﺎ أﺗﻤﻬﺎ ﻋ‪ f‬أﺑﻮﻳﻚ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬


‫ﻦ ﻗ ْﺒ ‪2‬ﻞ إ ْﺑﺮاﻫ‪ v‬وإ ْﺳﺤﺎق إن رﺑﻚ ﻋﻠ‪ ٌv‬ﺣﻜ‪(٦) ٌv‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎن ﰲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ وإﺧﻮﺗﻪ آﻳﺎت ﻟﻠﺴﺎ‪y‬ﻠﲔ )‪(٧‬‬
‫ﻣ ْ‬
‫‪2 2‬‬
‫‪J‬‬ ‫‪J‬‬
1

8.3 Fragments—Idhafah (Special Mudafs)

Okay, there’s one last little bit about ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬that you have to know. Here is a list of words
we went over today in class:

ْ ْ ْ
‫وراء‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻗ ْﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻓ ْﻮق‬
Behind Behind After Before Below Above

ْ ْ ْ
‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫!ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺣ ْﻮل‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬
$
With Has, with, Besides, other Without, non Around Between
nearby than
ْ ْ
‫ﻞ‬$ + $‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﺾ‬
$ ‫ﺑﻌ‬ ‫ي‬
$+ ‫أ‬ ‫ن‬0
$
All of Some of Which Especially from

All of these are isms. Remember the definition of an ism is a person, place, thing, adjective, adverb, and
more. Is ‘above’ a person? No. A place? No. A thing? No. An adjective? No. An adverb? More? Maybe.
Some words can’t be put under person, place, etc., so this is the ‘more’ list. I like to call these words
special ‫'ﻣﻀﺎف‬s. Here’s why:

1. Notice that I made all of them light without ‫ال‬. That’s because whenever you use them in Arabic,

they’re usually playing the role of a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬, so there’s no point in making them heavy to begin
with, even though it’s not impossible to make them heavy. A lot of times, you have to look and
see if the first word is light, no ‫ ال‬and the second word is Jarr to see if you have a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and

‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬going on. Since these guys come as ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬anyway, I can automatically spot a ‫ﻣﻀﺎف‬

and ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬without having to think about it.

2. Why am I calling them ‘special’ ‫’ﻣﻀﺎف‬s? Well, when we translate Idhafah, the word ‘of’ usually
ْ
goes between the ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and the ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬. But if were to say 1! ‫ ْﺮ‬3‫اﻟ‬
$ ‫( ﺗﺤﺖ‬1! ‫ ْﺮ‬$‫ ﻛ‬means
‘chair’), that means ‘under the chair,’ not ‘under of the chair.’ In other words, when you try to
2

figure out the meaning, even though it’s a ‫ ﻣﻀﺎف‬and ‫ﻣﻀﺎف إﻟﻴﻪ‬, you don’t necessarily need an
‘of.’
3. Lastly: I made some of them Nasb, and some of them Raf,’ It’s not a rule or anything, but when
you’re reading Quran, you’ll find that they happen to be Nasb. That’s only because they happen
to be details most of the time. ‘I was sitting.’ Where? ‘On top of the chair.’ ‘On’ gives me details
about where I was sitting. That’s why I’d find it Nasb. You can find them as Raf’, and even Jarr
sometimes, but normally, you’ll find them as Nasb.

I’m not making you memorize these words, but you are expected to know them.
3

EXERCISES:

Fill in the blanks with the correct meanings:

ْ
_________ the right/justification/truth/evidence ‫ !ﻖ‬+ ‫ﲑ اﻟﺤ‬
! ‫ !ﺑﻐ‬.1

_________ all of you ‫ ْﻢ‬3 $ 7‫آ‬


! ‫ ور‬.2
ْ ْ
_________ them 9! ‫ ﺧﻠ !ﻔ‬.3
ْ ْ
_________ them 9! ‫ ﻗﺒ !ﻠ‬.4
ْ
_________ you all ‫ ْﻢ‬3 $ ‫ﻀ‬ $ ‫ ﺑﻌ‬.5

_________ us ‫ ﺑ ْﻴﻨﻨﺎ‬.6

‫; ْﻢ‬$ + ‫ أ‬.7
_________ them $
ْ ْ ْ
_________ two sisters ‫ﲔ‬
! ‫ﺧﺘ‬$‫ ﺑﲔ اﻷ‬.8
‫ﻧﺎ‬+ 0 .9
_________ us $
ْ
_________ the obligation ‫ ﺑﻌ !ﺪ اﻟﻔ !ﺮﻳﻀ !ﺔ‬.10

‫ دون ذﻟ!ﻚ‬.11
_________ that $
ْ
You _________ ‫ !ﻋﻨ !ﺪك‬.12

_________ her/it ‫ ﻓ ْﻮﻗﻬﺎ‬.13


ْ
_________ the tree ‫اﻟﺸﺠﺮ !ة‬
+ ‫ ﺗﺤﺖ‬.14

_________ both of them ‫ﻤﺎ‬$I‫ ﺑ ْﻴ‬.15


4

ANSWER KEY:

1. Without
2. Behind
3. Behind
4. Before
5. Some of
6. Between
7. Which
8. Between
9. Especially from
10. After
11. Other than
12. Have
13. Above
14. Under
15. Between
1

9.1 Fragments—Introduction to Mawsoof Sifah

Today, we’re starting our next fragment: they’re two words called ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬. In English, when

we say, ‘beautiful car,’ we’re describing something. If I want to describe lots of cars, I don’t say,
‘beautifuls cars.’ I say, ‘beautiful cars.’ I didn’t make the ‘beautiful’ plural even though the ‘cars’ are
plural. Similarly, if I say ‘smart boy,’ I don’t change it to ‘smart-ette’ when I want to talk about a girl. That
would be weird. But in Arabic, they do that.

In English, you have nouns and you have adjectives. They’re two separate things. In Arabic, nouns and
adjectives are part of the same family. They’re not separate. Why not? Because we say, an ‘ism is a
person, place, thing, idea, (so far, that’s like saying that an ism is a noun), we go on and say ‘adjective,
adverb, and more.’ So, in Arabic, nouns and adjectives are part of the same category. Now, an ism has
four properties, right? That means that every noun has status, number, gender, and type. It also means
that every adjective has status, number, gender and type, as well. So there is such a thing as ‘beautifuls’
and ‘smartette’ in Arabic. Just like you give nouns a number, you have to give adjectives a number. Just
like you give nouns a gender, you have to give adjectives a gender. The same goes for status and type.

Now, watch this:

ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ ذﻛ‬
‫ﻲ‬
R, S, M, C = R, S, M, C

ٌ ‫ ذﻛ‬is also Raf’, singular, masculine, and common. You


‫ ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ‬is Raf’, singular, masculine, and common. ‫ﻲ‬
have two words that came together and match in all four properties. When that happens, you call the
first one ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and the second one ‫ﺻﻔﺔ‬. Now, when you translate it, you have to know that ‫ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬

and ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ‬work backwards. In English, the description comes first (intelligent) and the thing you’re

describing comes second (boy) so it looks like ‘intelligent boy.’ But in Arabic, it’s switched around. The
noun, boy, comes first. The adjective, intelligent, comes second. You won’t say, ‘Muslim intelligent’—
that’s bad English. Instead, you would say, ‘An intelligent Muslim.’

ٌ ‫ﻣ ْﺴﻠ ٌﻢ ذﻛ‬
‫ﻲ‬
intelligent Muslim = An intelligent Muslim
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫‪Tell whether each of the following is a case of Mawsoof and Sifah or not.‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻛﻼم اﷲ‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺛﻤﻨًﺎ ﻗﻠ ً‬
‫ﻴﻼ‬

‫‪ .3‬و ﻧﻔﺼﻞ اﻵﻳﺎت‬

‫‪ .4‬رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬

‫‪ .5‬اﻟﻤ ْﺴﺠﺪ اﻟﺤﺮام‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬أﻋﻈﻢ درﺟ ٍﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫ﻮل‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﻌﺼ ٍﻒ ﻣﺄﻛ ٍ‬
‫‪ is a collective plural word‬ﻗ ْﻮم ‪Note: the word‬‬ ‫‪ .8‬اﻟﻘﻮم اﻟﻔﺎﺳﻘﲔ‬
‫‪(nation) that is given plural, masculine adjectives‬‬
‫‪ .9‬إ‪ً 9‬ﺎ واﺣ ًﺪا‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .10‬ﺟﻨﺘﺎن ﻣﺪﻫﺂﻣﺘﺎن‬

‫‪ .11‬ﻳ ْﻮم ا‪A‬ﻳﻦ‬

‫‪ .12‬ﻋ ْﻴﻨﺎن ﻧﻀﺎﺧﺘﺎن‬

‫‪ .13‬ﻧﺎ ًرا ﺣﺎﻣﻴ ًﺔ‬

‫‪ .14‬اﻟﺼﺮاط اﻟﻤ ْﺴﺘﻘ‪D‬‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .15‬ﺑﲔ اﻟﺼﻠﺐ‬

‫‪ .16‬ا ْﺳﻢ رﺑﻚ‬

‫‪ .17‬ﻏ ْﻴﻆ ﻗﻠﻮ‪ْ I‬ﻢ‬


‫‪ .18‬ﻋﺬ ٌ‬
‫اب أﻟ‪ٌD‬‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .19‬ﻧﺬ ٌ‬
‫ﻳﺮ ﻣﺒﲔ‬

‫‪ .20‬ﻋ‪ O‬اﷲ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. No
2. Yes
3. No
4. No
5. Yes
6. No
7. Yes
8. Yes
9. Yes
10. Yes
11. No
12. Yes
13. Yes
14. Yes
15. No
16. No
17. No
18. Yes
19. Yes
20. No
1

9.2 Fragments—Mawsoof Sifah

I just have to tell you a few more things about ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and ‫ ﺻﻔﺔ‬and we’ll be good to go. Here’s what

we know so far:

1. Noun comes first, adjective comes second


2. There may be lots of adjectives for one noun, for example: cold, hard, delicious chocolate
3. 4 properties of noun = 4 properties of adjective (their properties match)
4. Broken plurals are treated like a girl. So when you want to give broken plurals an adjective, you
have to give them an adjective as though you’re giving a girl an adjective. This holds true for
words that are feminine because the Arabs said so. When you give those words an adjective,
you have to give those words a feminine adjective because the Arabs think that what you’re
talking about a feminine.

Just run through some more practice problems so that you become more familiar with how ‫ ﻣﻮﺻﻮف‬and

‫ ﺻﻔﺔ‬work.
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫?‪ cases‬ﺻﻔﺔ ‪ and‬ﻣﻮﺻﻮف ‪Are these‬‬

‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺳﺤ ٌﺮ ﻣﺒﲔ‬

‫‪ .2‬إ ﻳ ْﻮم اﻟﻘﻴﺎﻣﺔ‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻳﻮ ٍم ﻋﻈ ٍ‬
‫‪ .4‬اﻟﻔ ْﻮز اﻟﻤﺒﲔ‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻋ" ﻛﻞ ْ‬
‫& ٍء ﻗﺪ ٌ‬
‫ﻳﺮ‬

‫‪ .6‬أﺳﺎﻃﲑ اﻷوﻟﲔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻨﺎ ا‪/‬ﻧﻴﺎ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﺤﻴﺎة ا‪/‬ﻧﻴﺎ‬

‫‪ .9‬إن اﷲ ﻗﺎد ٌر‬

‫‪ .10‬رب اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ‬

‫‪ .11‬اﻟﻘ ْﻮم اﻟﻈﺎﻟﻤﻮن‬


‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ ٌ‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻋﲔ ﺟﺎرﻳﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻛﺎﻟﻔﺮاش اﻟﻤ ْﺒﺜﻮث‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .14‬ﻣﺜﻘﺎل ذر ٍة‬

‫‪ .15‬ﻋ‪B‬ﺸ ٍﺔ راﺿﻴ ٍﺔ‬


‫‪ .16‬واﻟﻌﺎدﻳﺎت ﺿ ْﺒ ً‬
‫ﺤﺎ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .17‬ﻧ ٌ‬
‫ﺎر ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬ﻛﺎﻟﻌﻬﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﻔﻮش‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .19‬ﻟﺤﺐ اﻟﺨﲑ ﻟﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .20‬ﻛﺘ ٌ‬
‫ﺐ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬
3

ANSWER KEY:

1. Yes
2. No
3. Yes
4. Yes
5. No
6. No
7. Yes
8. Yes
9. No
10. No
11. Yes
12. Yes
13. Yes
14. No
15. Yes
16. No
17. Yes
18. Yes
19. No
20. Yes
1

10.1 & 10.2 Fragments--Pointers

Today we’re going to use pg. 30 to start our next fragment: pointing words. We went over these words
in class:

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬان‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬


these these two this

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬


these these two (fem.) this (fem.)

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذاﻧﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬


those both of those that
ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬
those both of those (fem.) that (fem.)

It might seem a bit hard to keep the meanings straight, but if you look at the list, you’ll notice that all the
ones that begin with ‘ha’ refer to something that’s nearby (this, these two, these), and the ones that end
with a ‘kaaf’ are far (that, those two, those). You need to memorize these words and know what they
mean.

We took a few notes on pointing words on pg. 30:

ْ
1. Pointing words are known as ‫أ ﺂء اﻹﺷﺎرة‬
2. They are all non-flexible, except for their pairs.
a. Non-flexible words look the same in Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr status. So, the Raf’ version of
‫ ذﻟﻚ‬is ‫ذﻟﻚ‬, the Nasb version is ‫ذﻟﻚ‬, and the Jarr version is ‫ذﻟﻚ‬. They all look the same.
Now, when you look at the pairs, that’s when you’ll see something different—they are
flexible. So if you took ‫( ﻫﺬان‬the Raf’ version), its Nasb version would look like ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬, and

its Jarr version would look like ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬, too. The chart below shows you what each of the
pointing words looks like in Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr (the grayed-out words are non-flexible):

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬان‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ Raf’

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ Nasb

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺬ ْﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا‬ Jarr


2

‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ Raf’


ْ
‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ Nasb
ْ
‫ﻫﺆﻵء‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬه‬ Jarr

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذاﻧﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ Raf’

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذ ْﻳﻨﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ Nasb

‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ذ ْﻳﻨﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ Jarr

ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ Raf’
ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﻴﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ Nasb
ْ
‫أوﻵ ﻚ‬ ‫ﺗ ْﻴﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ Jarr

3. Pointing words are always proper.


4. Pointing words can be used to make sentences or fragments.
a. If the word after the pointing word has ‘al’ (alif-laam), then it makes a fragment:
‫ﺒﻲ‬#‫ = ﻫﺬا اﻟﻨ‬This prophet (a fragment because the word after ‫ ﻫﺬا‬has an ‘al’ on it)
#
b. If the word after the pointing word does NOT have an ‘al’ after it, then it makes a
sentence. So ‫ﻲ‬ ٌ ‫ = ﻫﺬا ﻧﺒ‬This is a prophet. The ‘is’ comes about because you are now
#
looking at a sentence, not a fragment.

**Note: Points a and b only apply to pointing words, not every time an ‘al’ comes up in the
Quran.
ْ
5. ‫ ﻫﺬه‬or ‫ ﺗﻠﻚ‬could be talking about a broken plural. If this is the case, then it does not mean ‘this’
or ‘that.’ Since you’re talking about a plural, it’ll be translated as ‘those’ or ‘these,’ instead.
3

EXERCISES

Are the following sentences or fragments? Try translating them as you go along (some vocabulary has
been provided for you to help you piece things together).

‫ ذﻟﻚ اﻟ)ﺘﺎب‬.1
book

Knowledgeable magician ٌ*‫ﻫﺬا ﻟﺴﺎﺣ ٌﺮ ﻋﻠ‬# .2

‫اﻟﺸﺠﺮة‬
# ‫ﻫﺬه‬# .3
Tree

ْ
1‫ ذﻟﻚ أد‬.4
Closer

ْ
‫ﻧﻴﺎ‬3‫ا‬# ‫ ﻫﺬه‬.5
Inferior, lower thing

ْ
‫ار‬3‫ا‬ # ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺗ‬.6

‫ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻘ ْﺮﻳﺔ‬.7


Town

‫ﺎر‬#‫ﻚ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨ‬8‫ أوﻟ‬.8


Companions of the fire

ٌ ْ
‫ ذﻟﻚ ﺧﲑ‬.9
Better

‫ا<ي‬# ‫ﻫﺬ ا‬# .10


The one who

Country ً ‫ ﻫﺬا ﺑ‬.11


‫>ا‬
ٌ ْ
‫ﻣﺔ‬# ‫ ﺗﻠﻚ أ‬.12
Nation

‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘ ْﺮآن‬.13

‫ ﻫﺆﻵء ﺷﻔﻌﺎؤﻧﺎ‬.14
Intercessors

E# ‫ ﻫﺬا ر‬.15
Master

ٌ
‫ ﻫﺬا ﺻﺮاط‬.16
Path

‫ ﻫﺬه ﺑﻀﺎﻋﺘﻨﺎ‬.17
Goods/merchandise

Cattle ٌ ‫ ﻫﺬه أ ْﻧﻌ‬.18


‫ﺎم‬

‫ ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬.19
Arguers

‫اﷲ‬
# ‫ ﻫﺬه ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬.20
She-camel
4

ANSWER KEY

S = sentence, F = fragment

‫ ذﻟﻚ اﻟ)ﺘﺎب‬.1
F That book

S This is certainly, a knowledgeable magician ٌ*‫ﻫﺬا ﻟﺴﺎﺣ ٌﺮ ﻋﻠ‬# .2

‫اﻟﺸﺠﺮة‬
# ‫ﻫﺬه‬# .3
F This tree

ْ
1‫ ذﻟﻚ أد‬.4
S That is closer

ْ
‫ﻧﻴﺎ‬3‫ا‬# ‫ ﻫﺬه‬.5
F This inferior, lower thing

ْ
‫ار‬3‫ا‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺗ‬.6
F That house
#
‫ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻘ ْﺮﻳﺔ‬.7
F This town

‫ﺎر‬#‫ﻚ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨ‬8‫ أوﻟ‬.8


S Those are the companions of the fire

ٌ ْ
‫ ذﻟﻚ ﺧﲑ‬.9
S That is better

‫ا<ي‬# ‫ﻫﺬ ا‬# .10


S This is the one who (there is an ‘al’ next, but this is an
exception to the rule…more about this later)
S This is a country ً ‫ ﻫﺬا ﺑ‬.11
‫>ا‬
ٌ ْ
‫ﻣﺔ‬# ‫ ﺗﻠﻚ أ‬.12
S That is a nation

‫ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻘ ْﺮآن‬.13


F This Quran

‫ ﻫﺆﻵء ﺷﻔﻌﺎؤﻧﺎ‬.14
S These are our intercessors

E# ‫ ﻫﺬا ر‬.15
S This is my Master

ٌ
‫ ﻫﺬا ﺻﺮاط‬.16
S This is a path

‫ ﻫﺬه ﺑﻀﺎﻋﺘﻨﺎ‬.17
S These are our goods/merchandise

S These are cattle ٌ ‫ ﻫﺬه أ ْﻧﻌ‬.18


‫ﺎم‬

‫ ﻫﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬.19
S These two are arguers

‫اﷲ‬
# ‫ ﻫﺬه ﻧﺎﻗﺔ‬.20
S This is the she-camel of Allah
1

11.1 Sentences

We finished talking about the fragments and now we start the exciting step of making sentences! Before
we do that, please review the 5 fragments (more than a word but less than a sentence):

1. Idhaafah
2. Mawsoof/Sifah
3. Harf of Jar
4. Harf of Nasb
5. Pointers with Al

We learned there are 2 kinds of sentences:

ْ ْ ): what we’ve been learning about


1. Ism based (‫ا ﻴﺔ‬
ْ
2. Fi’l based ( ‫) ْ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﺔ‬

ْ ْ
Our first job in understanding a ‫ا ﻴﺔ‬ is to find the invisible “is”, here ar tips to do that:

ْ
1. Proper followed by common: ‫ اﷲ أﻛﱪ‬Allah IS greater
2. Harf of Nasb + it’s victim:
o The invisible “is” is right after the harf & it’s victim ….. IS ‫إن اﻹ ﺴﺎن‬
o Remember that the victim of a harf of nasb can be far away from the harf but we still
translate them together
3. Raf’ pronouns: ‫ ﻫﻮ‬isn’t just “he” but “he is…”
4. Pointers + no AL: review the lesson on pointers
5. Break in the chain
o when you can’t connect a bunch of isms together by applying what you learned of the 5
fragments, you will find the invisible “is” where the connection is lost
ْ
‫اﻟﺤﻤﺪ | ﷲ رب اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﲔ‬
ٌ ‫ﻢ | ﻣﺮ‬$‫ﰲ ﻗﻠﻮ‬
‫ض‬ ْ
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪EXERCISES:‬‬

‫? ”‪Where is the invisible “is‬‬

‫ْ ٌ‬
‫‪ .1‬إ‪ْ ,‬ﻢ ﻓﺘﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ .2‬رﺑﻨﺎ رب اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻠﻚ آﻳﺎت اﻟ‪1‬ﺘﺎب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﰲ اﻷ ْرض ﻗﻄ ٌﻊ ﻣﺘﺠﺎورات‬

‫‪ .5‬أوﻟ ٰـ;ﻚ أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﺎر‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬اﻷﻧﻔﺎل ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺄﻧﻚ ﺣﻔ ٌ‬
‫ﻲ‬

‫ﲔ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﻈﺎﻟﻤﻮن ﰲ ﺿﻼ ٍل ﻣﺒ ٍ‬
‫‪ .9‬إن اﷲ ﻗﺎد ٌر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻟ ٰـﻜﻨﻲ رﺳﻮل‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬أﻧ‪ ْO‬ﻗ ْﻮ ٌم ﻣ‪M‬ﻓﻮن‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻣﻦ ﻃ ْﻠﻌﻬﺎ ﻗﻨْﻮ ٌ‬
‫ان داﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ وﻗﺮً ا‬

‫‪ .14‬ﻫ ٰـﺬان ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬


‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .15‬اﻟﻨﺠﻮم ﻣﺴﺨﺮات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﺑﻌﻀ‪ Z‬أ ْوﻟﻴﺎء ﺑﻌ ٍﺾ‬
‫‪ .17‬إن ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﻣﻔ ً‬
‫ﺎزا‬
‫ٌ ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬اﻟﻠـﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟ‪1‬ﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .19‬أ ْﺑﺼﺎرﻫﺎ ﺧﺎﺷﻌﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬أن اﻟﻘﻮة ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
‫‪3‬‬

‫‪ANSWER KEY:‬‬

‫ْ ٌ‬
‫‪ .1‬إ‪ْ ,‬ﻢ | ﻓﺘﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ .2‬رﺑﻨﺎ | رب اﻟﺴﻤﺎوات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺗﻠﻚ | آﻳﺎت اﻟ‪1‬ﺘﺎب‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .4‬ﰲ اﻷ ْرض | ﻗﻄ ٌﻊ ﻣﺘﺠﺎورات‬

‫‪ .5‬أوﻟ ٰـ;ﻚ | أ ْﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻨﺎر‬


‫ْ‬
‫‪ .6‬اﻷﻧﻔﺎل | ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻛﺄﻧﻚ | ﺣﻔ ٌ‬
‫ﻲ‬

‫ﲔ‬
‫‪ .8‬اﻟﻈﺎﻟﻤﻮن | ﰲ ﺿﻼ ٍل ﻣﺒ ٍ‬
‫‪ .9‬إن اﷲ | ﻗﺎد ٌر‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻟ ٰـﻜﻨﻲ | رﺳﻮل‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .11‬أﻧ‪ | ْO‬ﻗ ْﻮ ٌم ﻣ‪M‬ﻓﻮن‬
‫ٌ‬ ‫‪ .12‬ﻣﻦ ﻃ ْﻠﻌﻬﺎ | ﻗﻨْﻮ ٌ‬
‫ان داﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .13‬ﻛﺄن ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ وﻗﺮً ا )ﻛﺄن وﻗﺮا ً| ﰲ أذﻧ ْﻴﻪ (‬

‫‪ .14‬ﻫ ٰـﺬان | ﺧ ْﺼﻤﺎن‬


‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .15‬اﻟﻨﺠﻮم | ﻣﺴﺨﺮات‬
‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫ْ‬
‫‪ .16‬ﺑﻌﻀ‪ | Z‬أ ْوﻟﻴﺎء ﺑﻌ ٍﺾ‬
‫ْ‬ ‫‪ .17‬إن ﻟ ْﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ ﻣﻔ ً‬
‫ﺎزا )إن ﻣﻔﺎزا ً| ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻘﲔ (‬
‫ٌ ْ‬
‫‪ .18‬اﻟﻠـﻪ | ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟ‪1‬ﺎﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ٌ‬
‫‪ .19‬أ ْﺑﺼﺎرﻫﺎ | ﺧﺎﺷﻌﺔ‬
‫ْ‬
‫‪ .20‬أن اﻟﻘﻮة | ﻟﻠـﻪ‬
Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Name of Student: _______________________________ Date:__________ Location_____________________

Section 1: Circle R, N or J in each cell below. If two answers are possible, circle both. 5points
ْ ْ
َ‫ كا ِذ ِب ن‬R N J
‫ي‬ َ‫سائحات‬
ِ َ ‫ ِف ْرع ْو‬R N J
‫ن‬ ‫ نث ُم ْو َد‬R N J َ‫مش ِف نق ْي‬
‫ن ن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ
R N J R N J

Section 2: Circle P for Proper and C for Common in each of the following. 5points
ْ ْ
َ ‫ َ َ أنن‬P
‫ت‬ َ‫ َ َ بُْشى‬P َ ‫اّل ْي‬
‫ن‬ ِ ‫ َ َ َن‬P َ‫د ْور َ نَق ْوم‬ ‫ ص‬P ‫ َ َ هـذا‬P
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ُ ُ ن‬
C C C C C

Section 3: Circle M for Masculine and F for Feminine for each of the following. 5points
ْ ْ
‫طلح نَة‬ ‫ن‬ ََM ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ أ ُ ََم‬M F َ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ننفس‬M F َ‫ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ب ْيت‬M F َ‫ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ صالة‬M
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
F F

Section 4: Circle 1 for Singular, 2 for Pair and Pl for Plural. 5points
ْ
َِ ‫ َ َ جنَ ن‬1 2 Pl
‫تان‬ َ ْ ‫ َ َ م ْس ِلم‬1 َ2 Pl
‫ي‬ ‫ َ َ َ َ َ قا ِنتُو‬1 َ 2 َ َ Pl َ‫َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ر ْيب‬1 2 Pl َ‫ َ مخت ِل نفة‬1
‫ن‬ ‫ُ ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ُ ن‬
2 Pl

Section 5: Is each of the following a case of Mowsoof-Sifah? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points

َ ْ‫ظ‬
‫ي‬ ِ ‫كتابَ َ نَع‬ ِ َ Y N َ‫أ ن نش َ ُدَ ََق ُ َ نوة‬ َ ِ ‫َالغ ْي‬
‫ب‬ ‫ عالِ ُم َ ن‬Y N َ‫شاِبات‬ ِ ‫ آياتَ ََمُت ن‬Y N ‫ي‬ َ ‫َ َ هـذاَ ََالنَ ن ِب‬ َ َY
َُ
Y N N

Section 6: Is each of the following a mudhaf and mudhaf ilayh? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points

َ ِ ِ‫د ْون َ ََالخال‬ َ‫ صالة َ ََرس ْول‬Y N َْ ‫ك‬ َ ِ ‫حسنَ ََالح ِد ْي‬ ْ ‫ أ‬Y N ‫ك َة‬
‫ق‬
‫ن‬ ُ ‫عاب‬
ِ Y N
ُ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
‫م‬ ُ ُ
‫كتاب‬ ِ Y N ‫ث‬
‫ن ن ن ن‬ ‫ساج نداَ َ نَم َ ن ن‬
ِ ‫م‬
‫ن‬
Y N

Section 7: Is each of the following a sentence? Circle Y for Yes and N for No. 5points
ْ
ِ‫َِل‬
َ ‫دَ َ ِ َ ن‬ ُ ‫الحم‬ َ‫هـذا ََبيان‬ َ‫ِإ َ نّن ْم َ نَق ْوم‬ ِ َ ‫كتاب َ َ َ ن‬
‫َاِل‬ ِ َ َ ‫َاِلِ َ ََح‬
‫ق‬ ‫ن‬ َ َ ‫ِد ْين‬
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ُ ُ ‫ن‬ ُ
Y N Y N Y N Y N Y N

Bayyinah Institute Fundamentals of Classical Arabic – Exam 1 Page 1


Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Section 8: Tell the status of the pronouns (R, N or J). 20points


ْ ‫(إ‬their faith) R N J ‫ت‬ ْ
َ‫ك َن‬
‫ن‬ ُ ‫ ِب‬R N J َ ْ ‫ماّن‬
‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ِ َ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫ أن‬R ‫ِإ َنننا‬ َ‫ك ْم‬
ُ ‫لن نعلَ ن‬
ُُ
N J R N J R N J

ْ
َ ‫ه‬
‫و‬ َْ ‫ك‬
‫م‬ ‫ ِف ْي‬R N J َ ‫ ننصر ن‬R
‫ك‬ ‫كتابنا‬ َ ‫ ننح‬R
‫ن‬
ُ ِ
ُ‫ن‬ َََ R ُ ‫ن ن‬ ُ
N J N J R N J N J
(he helped you)
Section 9: Match these fragments with their correct label 15points
ْ َ َ‫هـذا‬
a. ‫ََش َء‬
‫ن‬
b. َ‫ذلكَ ََالرج ُل‬
1. ______________ Idafah
ُ ‫ن َن‬
c. َ‫َشء ََع ِج ْيب‬ ْ
2. ______________ Mowsoof & Sifah
‫ن‬ ‫ن‬
َ ْ ‫ِإ َ نّن‬
3. ______________ Harf of Jarr
d. ‫م‬
4. ______________ Harf of Nasb
ُ
e. َِ‫اِل‬
‫ِب َ ن‬
5. ______________ Ismul Isharah & Musharun Ilayh
f. ُ َ‫نهـ ِذ ِهَ ََفا ِطمة‬
‫ن‬
g. َ‫دُعاء َ َالر ُس ْو ِل‬
6. ______________ Sentence

‫ن َن‬

Bayyinah Institute Fundamentals of Classical Arabic – Exam 1 Page 2


Fundamentals of Classical Arabic Exam 1 - Ism and Fragments ‫ بينة‬Bayyinah Institute

Name of Student: _______________________________ Date:__________ Location_____________________

Section 1: Circle R, N or J in each cell below. If two answers are possible, circle both. 5points
ْ ْ
َ‫ كا ِذ ِب ن‬R N J
‫ي‬ OO
َ‫سائحات‬
ِ َ ‫ ِف ْرع ْو‬R N J
‫ن‬ ‫ نث ُم ْو َد‬R N J