Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 23

CIVIL / STRUCTURAL

RIGID FOUNDATIONS SUPPORTING


VIBRATING EQUIPMENT
DESIGN GUIDELINES

CAL-CETG-E03

1 12-NOV-2014 ISSUED FOR IMPLEMENTATION BW GA AN


0 21-MAY-2014 ISSUED FOR IMPLEMENTATION BW GA AN
REV. DATE DESCRIPTION BY CHKD APPR
REVISION HISTORY
Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 GENERAL………..………………………………………………………………….………....... 4
1.1 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE…………………………….……………….………………..…….. 4
1.2 TECHNICAL REFERENCES……………………….…………….…………………………… 4

2.0 INPUT FOR ANALYSIS………………..………….……………………………….……….......5


2.1 GEOTECHNICAL INFORMATION…………..……….……………….………………..…….. 5
2.2 EQUIPMENT INFORMATION…………………………………….………………...………… 6
2.3 FOUNDATION GEOMETRY INFORMATION...………………………….…….…………… 7
2.4 DYNAMIC UNBALANCED FORCES………………………………………………………….9

3.0 DYNA INPUT………………………………...…...……..………………..………………........ 11


3.1 TITLE…………………………………………………….………………….………..………....11
3.2 SETTINGS…………………………..……………………..……….…………………………..11
3.3 FOUNDATION – PILE CAP……………………….…………..…..……...……………….… 11
3.4 FOUNDATION – PILES………….………………………..…..……...………..……..………13
3.5 FOUNDATION – PILE-SOIL…...……………………………..…..……...……..…………… 13
3.6 FOUNDATION – OUTPUT…..………………………………..…..……...………..……....... 14
3.7 LOADS…………………………………………………………………………………………..15

4.0 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS……………………...…...……..………………..………………….....16


4.1 DYNAMIC UNBALANCED FORCES…………………………..……….…………….…….. 16
4.2 RANGE AND VARIATION OF SOIL DYNAMIC PROPERTIES…………..……...……… 16
4.3 COMBINING VIBRATION RESPONSES……………………………..……..…….……..…17

5.0 EVALUATION OF VIBRATION RESULTS......……..………………..……………………..18


5.1 PILE STATIC CAPACITY……….…………………….………………….…………….…..…18
5.2 RESONANCE……………………….……………………..……….……………………….… 18
5.3 MACHINE PERFORMANCE……………………………………………………………..….. 19
5.4 HUMAN PERCEPTION…………………………………………………………………….… 19
5.5 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER CRITERIA……………………………… 20

6.0 DETAIL CONSIDERATION IN FOUNDATION DESIGN…………………….………….....21


6.1 REINFORCEMENT…………………………………….………………….………………..… 21
6.2 GROUT MATERIAL……………………………………………………………..……………. 21
6.3 VOID FORM………………………………………………………………………………….... 21
6.4 POST ANCHORAGE SYSTEMS……………………………………………………………. 21

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 2 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: MACHINE CHARTS…………………………………………………………………..…22


APPENDIX B: HUMAN PERCEPTION CHARTS…………………………………………………..… 23

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 3 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

1.0 GENERAL

1.1 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE

1.1.1 This document provides basic design guides for foundations supporting vibrating equipment
(rotating or reciprocating) such as pumps, compressors, gas turbine and generators, etc.

1.1.2 This design guide is intended to be used in conjunction with Dyna software (by Novak, M., et.al.)
that has the capability of incorporating the soil-pile and soil-foundation interactions for the
dynamic analysis of the foundations.

1.1.3 The objective of the dynamic analysis for foundation / structures supporting vibrating equipment
is to ensure that the level of vibration responses will not interrupt Client’s process operation, does
not cause any detrimental effect to the equipment and does not cause any fatigue for people
working nearby.

1.1.4 For foundations exhibiting certain flexibility characteristics that may affect the vibration
responses, refer to the ‘Design Guide for Flexible Structures Supporting Vibrating Equipment’ for
analysis and design as the Dyna software alone may not be suitable for analysis requiring mass
participation check. Examples of this category are: table top foundations for compressors, steel
skids or modules supporting pumps, etc.

1.2 TECHNICAL REFERENCES

ACI 351.3R-04 Foundation for Dynamic Equipment


API 617 Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for
Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services
ASCE Design of Large Steam Turbine-Generator Foundations
[1] Arya, S.C., O’Neill, M.W., Pincus, G., Design of Structures and
Foundations for Vibrating Machines. Gulf Publishing Co., 1979.
[2] Blake, M.P. New Vibration Standards for Maintenance, Hydrocarbon
Processing & Petroleum Refiner Vol. 43, No. 1, 1964.
[3] Bowles, J.E., Foundation Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill Co. Inc.,
1996.
[4] Novak, M., et.al., Dyna User Manual.
[5] Richart, R.E., Jr., Hall, J.R., Jr., Woods, R.D., Vibrations of Soils and
Foundations. Prentice-Hall, 1970.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 4 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

2.0 INPUT FOR ANALYSIS

2.1 GEOTECHNICAL INFORMATION

2.1.1 The required soil dynamic parameters for analysis are:


a. Shear wave velocity
b. Poisson’s ratio
c. Damping coefficient

2.1.2 Unless specified in the geotechnical report, shear wave velocity can be calculated from the
[3]
dynamic shear modulus and soil unit weight by using the following relation :
G = .(Vs)2

2.1.3 Geotechnical recommendations shall have the dynamic soil properties for each native soil types
or each soil layers based on depth. The later format is a simplified / generalized format done by
the Geotechnical Consultant and easier to be used or, otherwise, the user has to interpret the
layer depth from the borehole logs. This type of format could be requested in the Geotechnical
Scope of Work.

2.1.4 In addition to the above Section 2.1.3, soil dynamic properties are also required for fill soils
(engineered fill or common fill) and frozen soils as the upper soil layers will almost always consist
of fill soils.

2.1.5 Frozen soil parameters are required for un-heated foundations. The dynamic soil parameters of
fill soils and frozen soils (if applicable) shall be requested / specified in the Geotechnical Scope of
Work.

2.1.6 Because the analysis will require soil properties below the pile bottom tip (if pile foundation),
Geotechnical Scope of Work generally specifies deeper test holes for the seismic cone tests at
the locations of the vibrating equipment (typically up to 30 m unless soil condition does not permit
such as shallow bedrock).

2.1.7 Figure 2-1 shows a sample of input preparation required for dynamic analysis with Dyna
software.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 5 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

Figure 2-1. Sample Input Preparation of Dynamic Soil Parameters for Dynamic Analysis

2.2 EQUIPMENT INFORMATION

2.2.1 The followings are the required equipment information for dynamic analysis:
a. Equipment General Arrangement (GA) drawing showing the equipment layout for
foundation arrangement and dimensions.
b. Break down weight of equipment main components: driver, driven part (pump,
compressor), gear box, base skid, lube oil, etc.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 6 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

c. Weight of the moving parts: driver rotor, pump impeller, gear of the gear box, blades
(turbine), cylinder & crank (reciprocating equipment), etc.
d. Number of cylinders (for reciprocating equipment).
e. Dynamic unbalanced forces. For pumps, many vendors do not usually provide dynamic
forces, in which case, the forces need to be estimated based on the weight of the rotating
parts of the equipment. For reciprocating equipment, primary and secondary forces with
the corresponding frequencies would be required.
f. Machine operating frequencies / speed of the driver and the driven part (pump,
compressor, etc.). For equipment with variable speed (VFD), range of equipment operating
frequencies would be required. If a gear box is present, operating speeds are required for
each part.
g. Equipment ratings (in KW or HP; 1 KW = 1.341 HP).
h. Dimensions indicating machine shaft locations (in plan and elevation).
i. Centre of gravities of equipment main components correspond to the component weight
(Section 2.2.1.b above).

2.3 FOUNDATION GEOMETRY INFORMATION

2.3.1 Size of the concrete block foundation shall be determined based on the equipment general
arrangement and required pile configuration.

2.3.2 The required configuration and number of the pile foundation are determined based on the need,
which means, based on the analysis results. Therefore, it requires trial and error process. The
followings are guidelines in determining the pile configuration and / or foundation size based on
past experience:
a. Use foundation shape as regular and as symmetrical as possible with respect to the
machine shaft and pile center (center of rigidity), such as simple block, or series of simple
blocks arranged in a symmetrical manner. If unsymmetrical shape is unavoidable, minimize
the eccentricity of the block foundation with respect to the machine shaft and pile center.
Ideally, eccentricity of the block foundation should not exceed 5% of the foundation
dimension in the direction of the eccentricity.
b. Piles to be arranged in a symmetrical configuration with respect to the machine shaft.
Minimize any eccentricity.
c. If H is the machine shaft height distance with respect to underside of concrete pile cap, and
A is the center-to-center distance between the outmost piles in the transverse direction
(perpendicular to the machine shaft), then A/H preferably would be greater or equal to 1.5.
Satisfactory vibration responses usually very difficult to achieve when A/H is less than 1.2.
d. If there is a potential that the dimension H in the above Section 2.3.2.c will be very large,
as early as possible it shall be worked out together with the layout / piping group to reduce
the dimension H, otherwise the foundation size would be very wide. This problem often
occurs with vapour compressor due to the elevation of the suction line and gas turbine and
generator due to the elevation of the HRSG.

2.3.3 Figure 2-2a and 2-2b show sample of input preparation of the foundation geometry for dynamic
analysis with Dyna program.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 7 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

4741

8700

9300
2236

3300

4551

4786

6000

7216

8376
600
726
0
0 z (up) 13 y 14 15

pump cg +2115
Discharge

driver cg +2195
base cg +1360
lube oil cg +1655
1000
x 1 2 3 4

1969 7 8

03-P1320
3045 pump / driver 2 1 3015
rotor shaft +2150

4100
5 6 7 8
4121

+1000

5650 16 17

324 dia - 10.3 thk -


18m embedded pile
(typ)

7200
9 10 11 12

7969

03-P1330
9045 9 pump / driver 4 3 10 9015
rotor shaft +2150

1012
1
1030 13 14 15 16
0

11850 18

13400
17 18 19 20

13969

03-P1340
15045 pump / driver 6 5 1501
rotor shaft +2150 5

1612 11 12
1
16500
21 22 23 24

17500 19 20

Figure 2-2a. Sample Input Preparation for Foundation Geometry

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 8 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

INPUT FOR DYNA 6.0 VERSION

Forces

Estimated
Location (IDC) Forces: F*, M*
(mm) Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz
x y z N/sec2 N/sec2 N/sec2 Nm/sec2 Nm/sec2 Nm/sec2
Pump 03-P1320 3045 4786 2115 0.013 0.000 0.013 0.000 0.000 0.000
Motor 03-P1320 3015 7216 2195 0.030 0.000 0.030 0.000 0.000 0.000
Pump 03-P1330 9045 4786 2115 0.013 0.000 0.013 0.000 0.000 0.000
Motor 03-P1330 9015 7216 2195 0.030 0.000 0.030 0.000 0.000 0.000
Pump 03-P1340 15045 4786 2115 0.013 0.000 0.013 0.000 0.000 0.000
Motor 03-P1340 15015 7216 2195 0.030 0.000 0.030 0.000 0.000 0.000

Phase angles, pump 0 0 90 90 0 0


Phase angles, motor 0 0 90 90 0 0

Vendor
Location (IDC) Forces: F*, M*
(mm) Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz
x y z N/sec2 N/sec2 N/sec2 Nm/sec2 Nm/sec2 Nm/sec2
Pump 03-P1320 3045 4786 2115 0.0009 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Motor 03-P1320 3015 7216 2195 0.0003 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Pump 03-P1330 9045 4786 2115 0.0009 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Motor 03-P1330 9015 7216 2195 0.0003 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Pump 03-P1340 15045 4786 2115 0.0009 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Motor 03-P1340 15015 7216 2195 0.0003 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

Phase angles, pump 0 0 90 90 0 0


Phase angles, motor 0 0 90 90 0 0

Coordinates of center of mass wrt. origin (IDC system) Coordinates of pile c.g. wrt. origin (IDC system)
x= 8.778 m x= 8.750 m
y= 4.735 m y= 4.650 m
z= 0.627 m z= 0.000 m

Coordinates of pile c.g. wrt mass center in dyna coordinate system (z pointing down):
x= -0.028 m
y= -0.085 m
z= 0.627 m

Pile coordinates Output nodal coordinates


(IDC) (Dyna) node# (IDC) - mm (Dyna) - m
x (mm) y (mm) x (mm) y (mm) x (m) y (m) x y z x y z
1000 600 -7778 -4135 -7.778 -4.135 1 3045 4786 2115 -5.733 0.051 -1.488
1000 3300 -7778 -1435 -7.778 -1.435 2 3015 7216 2195 -5.763 2.481 -1.568
1000 6000 -7778 1265 -7.778 1.265 3 9045 4786 2115 0.267 0.051 -1.488
1000 8700 -7778 3965 -7.778 3.965 4 9015 7216 2195 0.237 2.481 -1.568
4100 600 -4678 -4135 -4.678 -4.135 5 15045 4786 2115 6.267 0.051 -1.488
4100 3300 -4678 -1435 -4.678 -1.435 6 15015 7216 2195 6.237 2.481 -1.568
4100 6000 -4678 1265 -4.678 1.265 7 1969 726 1000 -6.809 -4.009 -0.373
4100 8700 -4678 3965 -4.678 3.965 8 1969 8376 1000 -6.809 3.641 -0.373
7200 600 -1578 -4135 -1.578 -4.135 9 9045 726 1000 0.267 -4.009 -0.373
7200 3300 -1578 -1435 -1.578 -1.435 10 9045 8376 1000 0.267 3.641 -0.373
7200 6000 -1578 1265 -1.578 1.265 11 16121 726 1000 7.343 -4.009 -0.373
7200 8700 -1578 3965 -1.578 3.965 12 16121 8376 1000 7.343 3.641 -0.373
10300 600 1522 -4135 1.522 -4.135 13 0 0 1200 -8.778 -4.735 -0.573
10300 3300 1522 -1435 1.522 -1.435 14 0 4786 1200 -8.778 0.051 -0.573
10300 6000 1522 1265 1.522 1.265 15 0 9300 1200 -8.778 4.565 -0.573
10300 8700 1522 3965 1.522 3.965 16 5650 0 1200 -3.128 -4.735 -0.573
13400 600 4622 -4135 4.622 -4.135 17 5650 9300 1200 -3.128 4.565 -0.573
13400 3300 4622 -1435 4.622 -1.435 18 11850 4786 1200 3.072 0.051 -0.573
13400 6000 4622 1265 4.622 1.265 19 17500 0 1200 8.722 -4.735 -0.573
13400 8700 4622 3965 4.622 3.965 20 17500 9300 1200 8.722 4.565 -0.573
16500 600 7722 -4135 7.722 -4.135
16500 3300 7722 -1435 7.722 -1.435
16500 6000 7722 1265 7.722 1.265
16500 8700 7722 3965 7.722 3.965

8750 4650 -28 -85 -0.028 -0.085


no of piles = 24

W c.g. coordinates (mm)


(kN) x y z W.x W.y W.z
Pump 22.00 3045 4786 2115 66990 105292 46530
Motor 49.80 3015 7216 2195 150147 359357 109311
Total 71.80 217137 464649 155841
Combined c.g. 3024 6471 2170

Figure 2-2b. Sample Input Preparation for Foundation Geometry.

2.4 DYNAMIC UNBALANCED FORCES

2.4.1 Although equipment vendor provides the dynamic unbalanced forces, it is a good practice to
check and compare the forces with own estimated forces as the vendor provided forces may only
consider a new condition of equipment. Once the equipment has been put in service for several
years, the unbalance forces may increase due to the worn-out of the rotating parts and/or the
shaft bearings of the equipment.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 9 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

2.4.2 For centrifugal equipment, ACI 351.3R-04 provides the following formula to estimate the
amplitude of the unbalanced dynamic forces (amplitude of the excitation), Fo:
Fo = Wr.fo / 6000
where, Wr = weight of the rotating part (N)
fo = machine operating speed (RPM)
The above formula had incorporated a service factor of 2.5.

2.4.3 For preliminary analysis (prior to final equipment vendor information) and checking of the vendor
information, the followings are typical ranges for the weight of the rotating parts of the equipment:
Driver / Motor Rotating Parts 15% - 30% of the driver / motor total weight
Pump / Compressor Rotating Parts 10% - 20% of the driven part (pump, compressor,
etc.) total weight

2.4.4 Figure 2-3 shows a sample of input preparation of the required masses and dynamic unbalance
forces for dynamic analysis with Dyna program.
HP BFW Pump Foundation 03-P1320 / P1330 / P1340
Estimated Dynamic Forces
Pump motor rating 1650 HP

Weigth of Driver 49.80 kN


Weight of Pump 22.00 kN
Weight of gear unit 0.00 kN
Weight of base plate etc 63.70 kN
Weight of lube console 4.45 kN full weight + base

Driver Rotor weight 7.02 kN 14.1 % of Driver total weight


Pump Rotor weight 3.07 kN 13.9 % of pump total weight
Gear unit rotating part weight 0.00 kN % of Unit total weight - assumed
Mass of Driver Rotor 716 N.sec^2/m
Mass of Pump Rotor 313 N.sec^2/m
Mass of gear unit 0 N.sec^2/m

Motor operating speed 3560 rpm Based on API 617 & API 684
372.8 rad/sec motor allowable eccentricity 0.00178 mm
59 Hz pump allowable eccentricity 0.00178 mm
Compressor operating speed 3560 rpm Based on ANSI/ASA S2.19, Grade G6.3
373 rad/sec motor allowable eccentricity 0.0338 mm
59 Hz pump allowable eccentricity 0.0338 mm

Estimated dynamic forces: (Fo = m.e.^2; Fo* = Fo/^2)

Based on ACI 351.3R-04: Fo* Fo Fo*


At Driver c.g. 0.030 N.sec^2 4.16 kN
At Pump c.g. 0.013 N.sec^2 1.82 kN
At Gear unit c.g. 0.000 N.sec^2 0.00 kN
Based on API 617
At Driver c.g. 0.033 N.sec^2 4.63 kN
At Pump c.g. 0.015 N.sec^2 2.02 kN
Based on ANSI/ASA S2.19, Grade G6.3 Mo*
At Driver c.g. 0.024 N.sec^2 3.36 kN
At Pump c.g. 0.011 N.sec^2 1.47 kN
Based on Vendor info:
Fo*
At Driver c.g. 0.0003 N.sec^2 0.04 kN
At Pump c.g. 0.0009 N.sec^2 0.12 kN

Forces used for Dyna analysis:


At Driver c.g. 0.030 N.sec^2 0.03 kN
At Pump c.g. 0.013 N.sec^2 0.01 kN
At Gear unit c.g. 0.000 N.sec^2 0.00 kN

Masses:
Mass of Driver 5082 N.sec2/m
Mass of Pump 2245 N.sec2/m
Mass of gear unit 0 N.sec2/m
Mass of base plate etc 6500 N.sec2/m
Mass of lube console 454 N.sec2/m

Figure 2-3. Sample Input Preparation for Unbalanced Dynamic Forces and Masses

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 10 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

3.0 DYNA INPUT

There are two separate input files to be generated for the analysis, (a) the main general input,
and (b) the special input to calculate geometrical parameters and combining masses and forces
which will be fed automatically into the main general input by the program (historically, in the
older versions of Dyna there were two separate independent programs to generate these two
input). As the intention of this document is to provide technical guidelines for analysis and design
of the foundation rather than as a user manual for Dyna program, subsections below highlights
only the important technical input for Dyna.

3.1 TITLE

3.1.1 Input job title in Dyna program to identify the equipment identification and the specific case being
considered as they will be few cases that need to be considered in the analysis. The analysis
cases that need to be considered are described in Section 4.0, Analysis.

3.2 SETTINGS

3.2.1 One important technical aspect in this section is the Damping Safety Factor. Damping Safety
Factor of 2.0 is recommended (see Fig. 3-1). The factor will factored down the damping
coefficient, and therefore, the vibration responses will be more ‘un-damped’, thus more
conservative. By setting a higher factor, it will make it easier to detect resonant locations in the
vibration responses (the peak response will be sharper and higher).

Figure 3-1. Dyna 6 – Settings Input

3.3 FOUNDATION – PILE CAP

3.3.1 This is the part of the Dyna input that calculates the geometrical properties of the foundation.
Separate input file will be generated, and need to be saved and included as part of the
engineering calculation.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 11 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

3.3.2 There are two coordinate systems used in Dyna: (a) user coordinate system and (b) Dyna
coordinate system.

User coordinate system is the coordinate system with respect to the origin (zero point) that the
user selected. All Dyna input is to be made with respect to the user coordinate system.

Dyna coordinate system is the coordinate system with respect to the center of gravity, i.e., center
of mass of the foundation including all the lump masses added. Dyna will perform the coordinate
transformation from the user coordinate system to the Dyna coordinate system once the center of
mass location has been calculated by Dyna based on the input in this section.

3.3.3 Under the RBC (Rectangular Base Center) section of the input, the size and center of the base
are required input. The X and Y lengths input are generally the base dimensions of the pile cap.
The base center (X, Y, and Z) is the center of rigidity of the foundation, which is the center of the
piles (in plan), if the foundation is supported on piles, otherwise, the center of the foundation
bearing base.

3.3.4 Amplitudes of the dynamic unbalanced forces are to be entered to Dyna at the center of mass of
each component that generates forces, typically the driver and the driven component (pumps,
compressors, etc.).

3.3.5 For a typical foundation analysis and design using ‘Quadratic – Harmonic’ analysis, the force
values for input need to be converted into Force divided by the squared of the angular frequency
of the excitation, Fo*:
Fo* = Fo / 2
where, Fo = amplitude of the excitation force (N)
 = angular frequency of the excitation (rad/sec)

3.3.6 With the ‘Quadratic – Harmonic’ choice, Dyna will perform analysis for a range of frequency
values for a prescribed step of frequency. For a ‘Non-Quadratic Harmonic’ analysis, the analysis
will be done only for a single frequency value.

3.3.7 Always perform check on the foundation geometry once all input is completed by displaying it
graphically. Check the correctness of the block geometry and relative locations of the lump
masses.

3.3.8 Once all the input is completed and checked graphically, always perform calculation to update the
calculated values by pressing the ‘calculate’ button.

3.3.9 Save the geometry input file (to be archived as part of the native files of the engineering
calculations) prior to exit and return to Dyna main program. Input made in this section will update
the footing base dimensions and data (see Figure 3-2).

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 12 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

User Coordinate System: coordinate system


with respect to user selected origin.

Dyna Coordinate System: coordinate system


with respect to center of mass.

Figure 3-2. Dyna 6 – Footing Base Dimensions and Data

3.4 FOUNDATION – PILES


[4]
3.4.1 Some values recommended in Dyna manuals for pile material properties:
Rigidity Coefficient: 1.11 for solid circular sections
1.20 for solid rectangular sections
For slender piles, the rigidity coefficient does not play any important role. Therefore, use 1.11 for
pipe piles as the steel pipe piles are typically slender.

3.4.2 Use the following damping coefficient values for piles:


Concrete 0.020
Steel 0.015
(Range of damping values recommended in Dyna manuals: 0.020 – 0.100)

3.4.3 Use Poisson’s ratio of 0.3 for steel piles and 0.2 for concrete piles.

3.4.4 Always check the pile configuration graphically in Dyna after completing the input.

3.5 FOUNDATION – PILE-SOIL

3.5.1 Total depth of layers in this section of input has to match exactly with the pile length value
entered in the ‘Pile’ input section, otherwise the program will display error messages.

3.5.2 Design engineer may model the void form as a soil layer in the ‘soil element’ input section by
using a relatively high shear wave velocity with a relatively low damping coefficient assuming that
the void form may transmit and reflect more vibrations and not to provide any contribution in
damping the vibration (conservative).

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 13 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

3.6 FOUNDATION – OUTPUT

3.6.1 The followings are output locations requiring evaluations of the vibration responses:
a. Shaft bearing locations of the Driver (for machine performance check).
b. Shaft bearing locations of the Driven Part (for machine performance check).
c. Equipment base (for machine performance check and human perception check if any steel
platform attached to the concrete pedestal).
d. Top of pile cap (for human perception check).

3.6.2 For concrete block foundation on piles that does not require additional modal time history
analysis by other software, output for pile stiffness is typically not required. In the event that pile
stiffness is required, check the ‘Print Distribution’ box to obtain dynamic pile stiffness at each pile
location in three translational directions (see Figure 3-3).

Figure 3-3. Dyna 6 – Check ‘Print Distribution’ to obtain individual pile stiffness.

3.6.3 To obtain the resultant of all the pile stiffness resultants at the center of gravity in 6 degree of
freedoms (three translational and three rotational), check the ‘Stiffness/Damping Matrices’ box
option in the ‘Project Settings’ input section (see Figure 3-4).

Figure 3-4. Dyna 6 – Check ‘Stiffness/Damping Matrices’ to obtain pile stiffness at CG.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 14 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

3.6.4 Note that the pile dynamic stiffness is not a material property of the pile, but rather a property of
the interaction of the pile and soil, in which under dynamic loads (repeated - very short duration of
loads), the soil exhibits a ‘stiffer’ behaviour. Therefore, the dynamic stiffness of the pile is much
higher than the static stiffness calculated from the pile static parameters as provided in the
geotechnical report.

3.7 LOADS

3.7.1 As described earlier, for a typical foundation analysis and design, the ‘Quadratic – Harmonic’
option of analysis is to be selected.

3.7.2 Always check that the resultant of forces displayed under ‘Amplitude of Forces’ match with the
force resultants at the center of mass calculated by Dyna in the ‘Pile Cap’ section of the input
(see Figure 3-5).

Figure 3-5. Comparison of the forces displayed under ‘Load’ input section and the calculated
forces under ‘Pile Cap Footing Base Dimensions and Data’ input section.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 15 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

4.0 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS


4.1 DYNAMIC UNBALANCED FORCES

4.1.1 For the dynamic analysis, use the higher set of forces between the manufacturer provided forces
and the estimated forces. If the governing forces cannot be determined easily by inspection
(example of such occasion: in one set of forces, the driver force is higher and the pump force is
lower than the other set of forces), then dynamic analyses need to be performed separately for
each set of forces.

4.1.2 In the event that the manufacturer specifies to consider all possible phase angle differences
between forces of the Driver and forces of the Driven Part of the equipment, a simplified solution
by running analyses for the Driver and the Driven Part separately may be chosen. Resultants of
the separately obtained responses may be formed by using methods described in Section 4.3,
Combining Vibration Responses.

4.1.3 Dyna program offers some variety of dynamic load functions other than harmonic functions. In the
event that the actual force function does not match with the available options in Dyna, the
following alternate approaches may be selected based on engineering judgment:
a. Select an available Dyna function that can closely represent the actual force function, or,
b. Transform the function to series of harmonic functions by using Fourier series and run each
harmonic function separately.

4.2 RANGE AND VARIATION OF SOIL DYNAMIC PROPERTIES

4.2.1 The soil dynamic properties are typically provided in a range of values. This is due to the variation
of soils from one test hole to the other as well as variation through layer’s depth. Additionally, the
Geotechnical Engineer needs to exercise some level of precautions due to the fact that the site
tests are usually based on the selected test hole locations which concentrated at few locations,
therefore, they are not uniformly representing the entire site.

4.2.2 Due to the reasons described above, dynamic analysis needs to be performed few times for
different soil parameters to capture the spectrum of the soil parameters within the range
recommended by the Geotechnical Engineer. As a minimum, three cases to be considered:
a. Soil parameters correspond to the average shear wave velocities. All other parameters
(unit weight, Poisson’s ratio and damping coefficient) shall be the average values as well.
b. Soil parameters correspond to the upper-bound of the shear wave velocities (denser soil).
In this case, use the upper-bound values for the unit weight and lower-bound values for the
damping coefficients and Poisson’s ratios.
c. Soil parameters correspond to the lower-bound of the shear wave velocities. In this case,
use the lower-bound values for the unit weight and upper-bound values for the damping
coefficients and Poisson’s ratios.

4.2.3 Additional analyses need to be performed for equipment and foundation located in unheated
areas (outside heated building) subject to frozen ground. For the case with frozen ground, soil
parameters for frozen soils shall be applied for the side layers and all layers of soil within the frost
depth. The soil parameters may be gradually varied through depth from complete frozen at the
surface to complete unfrozen at the frost depth.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 16 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

4.3 COMBINING VIBRATION RESPONSES

4.3.1 Dyna program can only consider one running speed of machine within each analysis. Therefore,
in the event where the Driver and the Driven Part of the equipment are having different running
speeds, the analysis may need to be split into two separate analyses, each with only one part
running. In each analysis, the vibration responses shall be requested at all locations that need
evaluations.

4.3.2 For evaluation of the vibration responses, the two separate responses shall be combined. Two
methods of combining the responses:
a. Direct sum of the amplitudes. This is the simplest method but more conservative as it does
not consider the time offset between the amplitudes of vibrations with different frequency.
d = d1 + d2
where, d = combined maximum amplitude of vibrations
d1 = maximum amplitude of vibration due to the Driver forces
d2 = maximum amplitude of vibration due to the Driven Part forces
b. Square root of the sum of the squares. This is a probabilistic approach that is very
commonly used in dynamic analysis. Instead of direct sum, the approach uses the square
root of the sum of the squares of each side of the response:
d = square root of [ (d1)2 + (d2)2 ]

4.3.3 Note that in combining the two responses, the two frequencies may be correlated proportionally.
If A is the operating frequency of the Driver and B is the operating frequency of the Driven Part,
then d(x%) corresponds to d1(x%) and d2(x%), where x% is the percentage of the operating
speed. For example, at 80% of the operating speed, using the direct sum method:
d(at 80% operating speed) = d1(at 80% of A) + d1(at 80% of B)

4.3.4 There will be two resonant areas to avoid if the Driver and the Driven Part are operating at two
different frequencies. See Section 5.2 for more descriptions on the resonance criteria.

4.3.5 Based on the above item 4.3.4, it is not recommended to have two or more different equipment
with different operating speeds on a common foundation as it will make it difficult to avoid the
resonant areas, due to more limited available areas.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 17 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

5.0 EVALUATION OF VIBRATION RESULTS

This section provides the minimum criteria to check and satisfy for the foundation based on the
dynamic analysis results.

5.1 PILE STATIC CAPACITY

5.1.1 Although the pile static capacity criterion is not related to the dynamic analysis, it forms part of the
entire set criteria for the foundation supporting vibrating equipment.

5.1.2 Typical geotechnical recommendation limits the utilization of the pile not to exceed 50% - 75% of
the pile capacity for vibrating equipment.

5.2 RESONANCE

5.2.1 Resonance is a dynamic phenomenon which occurs when frequencies of two or more vibrating
items / parts coincide. When it happens, the vibration responses will be amplified, theoretically, to
a value without limit. In the case of the foundation supporting vibrating equipment, when the
equipment is in operation, both the machine and the foundation are in vibration. Therefore, the
foundation frequencies have to be adequately separated from the operating frequency of the
equipment. Typical acceptable separation is +/- 20% of the machine operating frequency. Some
manufacturers specify up to +/- 30% separation.

5.2.2 Any large structure and / or sensitive equipment is not recommended to be supported on
common foundation with the vibrating equipment, or otherwise, dynamic analysis will be required
for the structure to ensure that the frequency of the structure is adequately separated from the
machine operating frequency.

5.2.3 Generally, the foundation supporting large vibrating equipment needs to be isolated from the rest
of the floor slab and other structures as the floor and structures may transmit the vibrations

5.2.4 If the frequencies of the foundation are lower than that of the machine (low tuned), then during
machine start-up when the machine is gathering its speed from 0 to the specified operating
speed, at some point in between, for a brief moment the machine speed will be passing through
the foundation frequency. Some level of resonance may occur for a brief moment and then
disappear. This is usually the case for steel structures or steel foundations as they are much
more flexible than concrete.

5.2.5 Frequency of a system, f, is a function of stiffness and mass of the system:


f = fn(k/M),
where, fn denotes function of
k = stiffness of the system
M = mass of the system

5.2.6 Based on the above Section 5.2.5, if the results of the analyses show that the foundation
frequencies are within the resonant area, two options may be taken:
a. Lower foundation frequency by reducing foundation stiffness, k. This may be done by
reducing the number of piles or using a smaller pile size. However, the pile load has to be
maintained not to exceed the limits specified in the geotechnical recommendations (refer to
Section 5.1).

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 18 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

b. Increase foundation frequency by increasing foundation stiffness. This may be done by


adding the pile number or using larger pile size. However, adding pile number may require
larger pile cap size which in turns will increase the mass that will pull back the frequency to
a lower value.

5.3 MACHINE PERFORMANCE

5.3.1 High vibration responses may adversely affect the machine performance. With respect to the
machine performance, the level of the vibration responses shall be limited within the
recommended zone in the machine charts. The commonly used machine chart for vibration check
[2] [5] [1] [5]
is the one developed by Blake , and subsequently modified by Arya, O’Neil and Pincus
(provided in Attachment A of this Design Guide).

5.3.2 Machine performance checks shall be performed for the machine bearing locations. A good
design shall stay within zone A – ‘No faults’ of the machine chart within the +/- 20% of the
machine operating speed.
5.3.3 Some manufactures added criterion to limit the foundation velocity. Typical velocity limit is 1.5
mm/sec. This shall be the velocity of the concrete pedestal at the interface with the base of the
equipment.

5.3.4 For harmonic functions, velocity is the first derivative of the displacement, and acceleration is the
second derivative of the displacement. Therefore, to obtain velocity or acceleration from the
displacement the following equations may be used to correlate displacement, velocity and
acceleration (only absolute values are shown below):
Displacement  y = A sin(t)
Velocity  y’ = A cos(t)
Acceleration  y’’ = A2 sin(t)
Where, A is the amplitude of the displacement, A is the amplitude of the velocity and A2 is the
amplitude of the acceleration.

5.3.5 Major important equipment is usually equipped with automatic shut-down system. Examples of
such equipment are: gas turbine and generators, large compressors, large pumps such as high
pressure boiler feed water pumps, etc. The automatic shut-down system is triggered by certain
level of vibration at the bearings. Typically there are two vibration levels considered, the lower
one will set off the alarm, and the higher one will trigger the automatic shut-down. Although the
vibration level for the alarm is usually much higher than the limits set by the machine charts, it is
a good practice to check the vibration with respect to the alarm limits (if applicable).

5.4 HUMAN PERCEPTION

5.4.1 People may experience fatigue when subjected to vibrating environment after certain duration of
time. Therefore, the vibration level needs to be checked against human perception. Chart for the
human perception is attached in Attachment B of this Design Guide.

5.4.2 Vibration level checks for human perceptions shall be performed at locations where person(s)
may present doing work. Typical locations are: top of pile cap where concrete slab may be resting
above it or top of pedestal when a working platform is attached to it, etc. A good design shall
avoid the ‘Troublesome to Persons’ area.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 19 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

5.5 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER CRITERIA

5.5.1 Equipment manufacturer may impose additional criteria to be met depending on the sensitivity of
the equipment. Some equipment is sensitive to differential settlement such as Gas Turbine and
Generator with rigid coupling connection system. Some are sensitive to ‘warping’ settlement
(differential settlement that causes a flat plane to warp), such as Drum Breaker that rests and
rotates on four trunnions. If any of the trunnion displaced out of plane, then wearing on the
trunnion will occur at a faster rate.

5.5.2 Design Engineer needs to check all the manufacturer requirement in the design of the foundation,
including the equipment installation manual that typically contain the bolt tightening and grouting
requirement.

5.5.3 Design Engineer shall check with the Mechanical Engineer if the manufacturer requires the
equipment skid to be filled with grout. Requirement for the equipment manufacturer to design
their equipment skid rigid enough without infill grout is typically stated in the MR (Material
Requisition) prepared by the Mechanical Engineer.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 20 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

6.0 DETAIL CONSIDERATION IN FOUNDATION DESIGN


6.1 REINFORCEMENT

6.1.1 To avoid fatigue cracking due to vibration, the followings are guidelines on minimum concrete
reinforcement based on ASCE Design of Large Steam Turbine-Generator Foundation:
a. For pile cap and block pedestals, minimum reinforcement on each face of concrete shall be
0.1% of gross concrete area each way.
b. All faces of concrete shall be reinforced with bar spaced not more than 300 mm on center.

6.2 GROUT MATERIAL

6.2.1 Typical grout material for vibrating equipment is Epoxy grout. However, some equipment
generates high heat that exceeds the thermal limits of epoxy materials, such as Gas Turbine and
Generator, volute of Vapour Compressors, etc. If the equipment support is relatively short such
that the heat may not be dissipated enough before it reaches to the foundation level, then
cementitious grout may be the suitable choice.

6.2.2 Allow adequate grout thickness for the grout material to flow properly under the equipment. The
followings may be used as guidelines:
Grout flows up to 600 mm, use 25 mm thickness
Grout flows up to 1200 mm, use 40 mm thickness
Grout flows over 1200 mm, use 50 mm thickness

6.3 VOID FORM

6.3.1 Do not use void form under the foundation for concrete foundations intended for direct bearing
with soil (no piles). Lean concrete may be specified to provide good working surface.

6.4 POST ANCHORAGE SYSTEMS

6.4.1 For post anchorage systems, Design Engineer to select product compatible with the vibrating
nature of the foundation (high frequency vibration). Some adhesives may experience fatigue
failure due to vibration.

6.4.2 For Hilti products, Hilti HVA adhesive system is designed to withstand better in vibrating
environment.

6.4.3 Do not use mechanical anchorage system for outdoor use for locations subject to frost such as
Canada. Moisture may be trapped and may cause concrete to crack.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 21 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

APPENDIX A: MACHINE CHARTS

Figure A-1. Machine Charts (Blake 1964, modified by Arya, O’Neil and Pincus 1979) –
Figure taken from ACI 351.3R-04 Foundations for Dynamic Equipment.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 22 of 23 Revision: 1


Rigid Foundations Supporting Vibrating Equipment Design Guidelines

APPENDIX B: HUMAN PERCEPTION CHARTS

Figure B-1. Human Perception Charts – Figure taken from ACI 351.3R-04 Foundations
For Dynamic Equipment.

Guideline No: CAL-CETG-E03 Page: 23 of 23 Revision: 1