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Stone crushing machine were essential for construction and road works because of its crushed

stones that would serve as foundation with the cement. Many crushing machine were made
over the past few years that gives contribution in many fields. The study of Okechukwu et al
(2017) "Design and Operations Challenges of a Single Toggle Jaw Crusher", the feed supplied to
a single toggle jaw crusher through its gape, is crushed by the compression of the feed by the
movable jaw against the fixed or stationary jaw. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled at
the top by an eccentric shaft, which is driven by a pulley whose weight is counter-balanced by a
flywheel at the opposite end of the eccentric shaft. The major challenges faced by the single
toggle jaw crusher emanate from the nature of the material to be crushed, angle of nip and
components design. Strength and toughness of a rock are directly proportional to the
comminution energy; hence, a rock particle with higher strength and toughness will require
more time and energy to break under the influence of a jaw crusher. The study of Egbe and
Olugboji (2016) "Design and Fabrication of a Double Roll Crusher", the old ways of stone
crushing by hand is still being practiced in several villages and towns in Nigeria. The old ways of
crushing is stressful, less efficient, and less productive, leading to poor size reduction and non
uniformity of products. There are primary and secondary crushers. A primary crusher reduces
large particles into smaller sizes for further crushing by the secondary crusher. Examples of
crushers include jaw crusher, gyratory crusher and roll crusher. A double roll crusher consists of
two rolls. Crushing takes place between two cylindrical rolls with each rotating about a
concentric horizontal shaft in opposite directions. This is the most common of all roll crushers.
The theoretical efficiency of the crusher was based on the ratio of actual size reduction to the
total number of particles that passed through the sieve. Efficiency in Crushing limestone was
found to while that of kaolin was 80%. Nowadays in India, recycling is one of the areas which
are rapidly increasing day by day. The amount of waste coming is in a tremendous quantity,
Prashanth et al (2017) "Design and Fabrication of Water Bottle Crusher". In the operation of
crushing there are two rollers which are rotating in opposite direction. These rollers are driven
by gears; the rollers are attached with gears at the one end of the shaft. Both rollers are driven
at the right end. Out of two rollers, one roller is directly connected to the driven shaft through
belt; and two gears of same diameter and same number of teeth. The two rollers should rotate
in opposite direction in order to crush the bottle, to perform this action the gears are meshed
externally. The volume of the bottle and tin is reduced to 60-70 % and the transportation charge
is reduced due to the reduction of volume of bottle. Another kind of crushing machine is tackled
in the study of Darshan and Gururaja (2017) "Design and Fabrication of Crusher Machine for
Plastic Wastes". Today most of the world’s plastic waste still goes to landfill. Plastic waste
disposal is one of the cumbersome process which is very less efficient. In most of the functions,
parties, events etc, water has been served in bottles of different sizes. These used bottles
occupy very large disposal space which usually overflows the dustbins provided at these places
and are mostly goes to landfill. Used Plastic bags, pieces of plastic sheets and bottles of diverse
sizes, colors and textures are found flying around freely, scattered in the streets, swimming in
the gutters, posing a serious environmental threat. These keep the environment dirty and cause
blockages to our sewer system. The machine helps in increasing the volume of transportation by
reducing the volume of plastic bottles by shredding them into pieces. This helps in reducing the
emissions at the time of transportation and also used to recycle plastic wastes. The study of
Olawale and Ibitoye(2018) "Failure Analysis of a Crusher Jaw", reports the outcome of an
investigation made to uncover the premature failure of crusher jaws produced in a local
foundry. The locally produced crusher jaws failed because of the presence of large carbides at
the grain boundaries and in the grains. There was no uniform plastic flow when crusher jaws
under investigation work hardened because they did not possess the optimal hardness and
toughness required for crushing. In hardening and martempering conditions austenitic
manganese steel was free from carbides both at the grain boundaries and in the grains. Hence,
the crusher jaws produced with austenitic manganese in these conditions eradicated brittle
failure experienced in locally produced crusher jaws. Hardening followed by tempering
precipitated carbide at the grain boundaries and in the grains instead of reducing the residual
stress associated with hardening. The volume fraction of these carbides, however, increased
with tempering temperature. In martempering conditions austenitic manganese steel had
better plastic flows due to a decrease in overall thermal gradient and reduction in residual
stresses associated with heat-treatment operations. This gave a better combination of hardness
and toughness than austenitic manganese steel in hardening conditions used for the production
of imported crusher jaws. Due to the premature failure of the locally produced crusher jaws,
their use in the quarry industry over a given period of time translates to incurring expenses of
about 150% more than expected. The study of Johansson et al (2017) "A Fundamental Model of
an Industrial-Scale Jaw Crusher", jaw crushers were previously modelled in regard to certain
aspects, for example, energy consumption (Legendre and Zevenhoven, 2014) or kinematics
(Oduori et al., 2015). Approaches to date have been mainly property specific. To achieve a
model using physical modelling techniques, the machine of interest, a jaw crusher in this case,
were brokendown into smaller subsystems and modelled separately. The modelling approach is
similar to the approach used by Evertsson (2000) when developing an analytical model for a
cone crusher.A framework has been developed for modular-based fundamental
modelling,where each module has been developed separately and testedbefore being used in a
full simulation.