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# Structural Theory II

1
DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS

## The deformation of a beam is usually expressed in terms of

its deflection from the original unloaded position. The deflection is measured
from the original nuetral surface of the beam to the nuetral surface of the
deformed beam.The configuration assumed by the deformed beam is known
as the elastic curve.

x
Elastic Curve
y = the deflection of the beam at any distance x

2
DOUBLE INTEGRATION METHOD
y O

ρ

0,0
x
y Elastic Curve
d θ
x s dθ

dx
L
Figure shows the exaggerated view of the elastic curve of a deflected beam. Select
the left support as origin of an x axis directed along the original undeflected position
of the beam and a y axis directed positive upward. The deflections are so small so
that the difference in the original length of the beam and the projection of its
deflected length is negligible. Consequently, the elastic curve is very flat so its
slope at any point is very small. The value of the tan θ = dy/dx maybe set to θ with
minimal error.
3
dy

dx From the derivation of the flexure formula

## Differentiating with respect to x 1 M

 EQ. 4
d d 2 y  EI
 2 EQ. 1
dx dx Equating EQs 3 and 4
Differential length of arc ds d2y
ds = pdθ M  EI 2 EQ. 5
dx
Since elastic curve is very flat
ds = dx
Equation 5 is known as the differential
dx = pdθ EQ. 2
equation of the elastic curve of a beam.
The product EI is called the flexural rigidity
Combining EQs. 1 and 2 which is usually constant along the length
of the beam. M is the moment equation
1 d2y
 EQ. 3 expressed in terms of x.
 dx2

4
Integrating EQ. 5 assuming EI is constant

dy
EI   Mdx  C1 EQ. 6
dx
This is the equation of the slope of the elastic curve or the value of dy/dx
at any point. C1 is a constant of integration to be evaluated from the given

## EIy   Mdxdx  C1 x  C2 EQ. 7

This is the equation of the deflection of the elastic curve the value of y for
any value of x . C2 is another constant of integration to be evaluated

To evaluate C1 and C2
from the given figure of the elastic curve @ x = 0, y = 0
@ x = L, y = 0
5
dy
EI  39 x 2  30{x  2}2  37.5{x  6}2  C1
dx
EIy  13 x 3  10{x  2}3  12.5{x  6}3  C1 x  C2
@ x = 0, y = 0
Neglect Neglect

@ x = 10, y = 0

## EI (0)  13(10)3  10{10  2}3  12.5{10  6}3  C1 (10)  0

0  13000  5120  800  C1 (10)  0 C1  708
Actual equation of deflection
EIy  13 x 3  10{x  2}3  12.5{x  6}3  708 x
EIy  13(5)3  10{5  2}3  12.5{5  6}3  708(5)
@x=5
EIy  1625  270  3540 Neglect
2185
EIy  2185   3
y kN .m
EI
7
Problem
Using double integration method, locate and compute the maximun
deflection of the beam given in the previous problem. Assume constant EI.

60 kN 75 kN

## Point of maximum deflection

Where slope of elastic curve is
zero

2m 4m 4m

x
Equation of slope as derived in the previous problem
dy
EI  39 x 2  30{x  2}2  37.5{x  6}2  C1
dx
Neglect this since the value of x is
Set this to zero
between 2 and 6

## 0  39 x 2  30{x  2}2  708

8
0  39 x 2  30{x 2  4 x  4}  708
0  39 x 2  30 x 2  120 x  120  708
0  9 x 2  120 x  828
 120  (120 ) 2  4(9)( 828)
x
2(9)
x  5.014m  location
Maximum deflection
EIy  13 x 3  10{x  2}3  12.5{x  6}3  708 x
EIy  13(5.014)  10{5.014  2}  708(5.014)
3 3

2185 .02
ymax   kN .m3
EI

9
45 kN

## Problem : Determine the

Slope and deflection under the
45 kN load. EI is constant.
24 kN/m

2m 3m
45 kN

M B 0

## R A (5)  45(3)  24(5) 2.5  0

24 kN/m
A R A  87 kN
B
d2y
EI  M  ML
dx 2
2m 3m
d2y
EI  87 x  45{ x  2}  12 x 2

x dx 2
RA=87

10
dy
EI  43.5 x 2  22.5{x  2}2  4 x 3  C1
dx
EIy  14.5 x 3  7.5{x  2}3  x 4  C1 x  C2
When x=0, y =0
EI (0)  14.5(0)3  7.5{0  2}3  04  C1 0  C2 C2  0
When x=5, y =0

## EI (0)  14.5(5)3  7.5{5  2}3  54  C1 5  0

0  1812 .5  202 .5  625  C1 5  0 C1  197
When x=2, y =?

## EIy  14.5(2)3  7.5{2  2}3  24  197 (2)  294

y kN .m 3
EI
When x=2, dy/dx =?
dy
EI  43.5 x 2  22.5{x  2}2  4 x 3  C1
dx dy  55
dy  kN .m 2
EI  43.5(2) 2  22.5{2  2}2  4(2)3  197 dx EI
dx
11
Problem
Using double integration method, determine deflection midway between
supports of the overhanging beam shown. Assume constant EI.

600 N

400 N/m
A B C D E

1m 3m 2m 2m
600 N

400 N/m
A B C D E
400 N/m

1m 3m 2m 2m

12
400(7)=2800 600 N
1.5

400 N/m
A B C D E
400 N/m

RD
RA
400(4)=1600
1m 3m 2m 2m

M D 0

## RA (6)  600 (2)  2800 (1.5)  0 R A  500 N

F y 0
RD  1300 N
RD  500  1600  600  2800  0

13
x
x 1 600 N
400{x-1}
2

X-6
400 N/m
A B C D E
400 N/m

RD=1300
RA=500 400{x-4} x4
2
1m 3m 2m 2m

d2y
EI 2  M   M L
dx
d2y {x  4} {x  1}
EI 2  500 x  1300{x  6}  400{x  4}  400{x  1}
dx 2 2
d2y
EI 2  500 x  1300{x  6}  200{x  4}2  200{x  1}2
dx

14
dy 200 200
EI  250 x  650{x  6} 
2 2
{x  4} 
3
{x  1}3  C1
dx 3 3
250 3 650 50 50
EIy  x  {x  6}  {x  4}  {x  1}4  C1 x  C2
3 4

3 3 3 3
At x =0 , y = 0
0  0  0  0  0  0  C2 C2  0
At x =6 , y = 0
250 3 650 50 50
0 (6)  {6  6}  {6  4}  {6  1}4  C1 6  0
3 4

3 3 3 3
800 31250 C1  1308 .33
0  18000  0    C1 6
3 3
250 3 650 50 50
EIy  x  {x  6}  {x  4}  {x  1}4  1308 .33 x
3 4

3 3 3 3
At x =3 , y = ?
 1941 .67
250 3 50 y kN .m3
EIy  (3)  {3  1}4  1308 .33(3) EI
3 3
15
Determine the deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam given in the
previous problem.

At x =8 , y = ?

250 3 650 50 50
EIy  x  {x  6}3  {x  4}4  {x  1}4  1308 .33 x
3 3 3 3
250 3 650 3 50 4 50 4
EIy  (8)  {2}  {4}  {7}  1308 .33(8)
3 3 3 3
128000 5200 12800 120050 31400
EIy     
3 3 3 3 3
 5450
y kN .m3
3EI

16
Determine the maximum deflection of the beam shown in figure.

L/2 L/2

L/2 L/2

wL
RA 
4
17
x

zx x
d2y
2 3 EI 2  M   M L
w dx
z z x
2
d y wL zx x 
EI 2
 x w L
dx 4 2 3
2
L/2 d 2 y wL 2 wxx x 2w
EI  x  z x
wL dx2 4 2L 3 L
RA 
4
d 2 y wL wx3
EI 2
 x
dx 4 3L

dy wL 2 wx 4
EI  x   C1
dx 8 12 L

wL 3 wx5
EIy  x   C1 x  C2
24 60 L
18
wL 3 wx5
EIy  x   C1 x  C2
24 60 L
x=0 , y=0

0  0  0  0  C2 C2  0
x=L/2 , dy/dx=0
dy wL 2 wx 4
EI  x   C1
dx 8 12 L
L 4
w( ) wL3 wL3
wL L 2 2 C 0   C1
0 ( ) 
8 2 12 L
1 32 192
5wL3
C1  
wL 3 wx5 5wL3 192
EIy  x   x
24 60 L 192

At x= L/2 , y =ymax

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Plate No.1 :Beam Deflections by double integration method

## 1. Using double integration method, determine the midspan deflection

of the beam shown. Assume constant EI.

50+2N kN 60+N kN

1m 2m 3m
2. Determine the slope and deflection under the 35+ N kN load. EI is constant.
35+N kN

16 + N kN/m

2m 4m
3. Using double integration method, locate and compute the maximun
deflection of the beam shown . Assume constant EI.

L
AREA MOMENT METHOD O

A C D
B
dθ dt
 AB tB
tangent @B A Elastic Curve
xB ds
tangent @A dθ dt
x
M M
diagram cg
EI EI dx

## Figure shows the magnified view of segment CD. Two adjacent

plane sections of an originally straight beam rotates through the
angle dθ. The arc distance ds measured along the elastic curve
equals ρdθ, where ρ is the radius of curvature of the elastic curve at
the given position. The elastic curve is relatively flat so ds is
assumed to be equal to dx without any serious error.
22
From the derivation of the flexure formula

1 M

 EI

ds = pdθ
M
d  ds but ds = dx
EI
M
d  dx EQ. 1
EI
The tangents drawn to the elastic curve at C and D in figure are
separated by the small angle dθ by which OC and CD rotate relative to
each other. Hence the change in slope between the elastic curve at any
two points A and B will be equal to the sum of such small angles.

B 1
 AB   d
xB

A
 AB 
EI 
xA
Mdx Theorem 1

23
dt
tan d    dt  xd
x
t B   dt   xd
A
1 xB
tB
A

EI 
xA
x( Mdx) Theorem 2

Theorem 1
The change in rotation between any two tangents drawn at any two
points on a continuous elastic curve is equal to the area of the M/EI
diagram between these two points.

Theorem 2
The deviation of the tangent to the elastic curve at point B with respect
To the tangent drawn to the elastic curve at point A in a direction
perpendicular to the original straight axis of the beam is equal to the
moment of area of the M/EI diagram from A to B about point B.

24
25
Convention of signs

B -θAB
A -tB/A
+θAB +tB/A
A

## MOMENT DIAGRAM BY PARTS

In order to apply the area moment theorems effectively, area of the moment
diagram and locations of the centroids of its area is necessary. However
these is quite complicated since often times moment diagrams consist of
irregular curves which requires integration to compute and locate the centroid
of the area of the moment diagram.
To simply this, a method of dividing the moment diagrams into parts
whose areas and centroids are known will be adopted. This method
is called moment diagram by parts. The basic technique is to draw the
moment diagram of each load separately.

26
The construction of moment diagram by parts are based on the following basic principles.

1. The resultant bending moment at any section caused by any load system is the
algebraic sum of the bending moment caused by each load acting separately.

A
w B
B A
MB=R1L

a
L R1
R1 R2 B
w MB=-wa2/2

R1L a
M-Diagram by parts -wa2/2

Resultant M-Diagram

Conventional M-Diagram

27
2. The moment effect of a single specified load is the variation from the general
equation y = kxn. The graph of the equation is shown in the figure below.

x 1
y = kxn area  bh
h
n 1
c.g

b 1
x b
n2
Where
n =degree of curve
n=0 couple

28
L
L
L
M hM Lh
2
P x
L L

1 L
h  PL Lh
2 3

w L x

wL2 1 L
L h Lh
2 3 4

w x
L

L wL2
1 L
h Lh
6 4 5

x
29
Application of Area – Moment Theorem

## Determination of deflection at known point on a simple beam

General Procedure
Any load 1. Sketch the elastic curve and M/EI
A C Diagram.
c B
2. Draw tangent lines to the elastic
tC tB curve at the supports. Compute
A
D A tB AAB xB
a A
tB 
L
A EI
xC xB 3. By proportion solve for CD.

CD t B A

a L
4. Draw another tangent to the elastic
curve at the point where the deflection
A C B is to be determined. Compute t C
A
M AAC xC
Diagram tC 
EI A EI
5. c = CD - tC
A
30
Problems
1. Compute the midspan deflection of the beam shown below. Assume constant EI.
60 kN 60 kN
2m 4m 2m 4m

20 kN/m 20 kN/m

A C
A C
B
c B
tC
D
A
RA M B 0
3m tB RA (6)  60(4)  20(6)3  0
A
RA  100 kN

A C
B
6m

RA=100 100(6)=600

31
20 kN/m

A C
B
6m

wL2 20(6) 2
  360
2 2
60
-360

4m

A C
B
6m

-60(4)=-240
32
6m 1(600 )(6)
A1   1800
2
x1
1(360 )6
100(6)=600 A2    720
1 3
1
2 A3   (240 )4  480
2
x2
6
-360
x1   2
3
3
1
x 2  ( 6 )  1 .5
-60(4)=-240 4
x3
4m 4
x3 
3
AAB xB
tB 
A EI
A1 x1  A2 x2  A3 x3
tB 
A EI
4
1800 ( 2)  720 (1.5)  480 ( )
3 1880
tB A   kN .m 3
EI EI

CD t B A

a L
CD 1880

3 EI (6)
940
CD  kN .m 3
EI
60 kN
2m
1(300 )(3)
A4   450
20 kN/m 2
A C
1(90)3
A2    90
3
RA=100
1
3m x4 A3   (60)1  30
100(3)=300 2
4 3
5
x4   1
3
x5 wL2 20(3) 2 1
   90 x5  (3)  0.75
2 2 4
6 1
x6 
-60(1)-60 3
x6
AAC xC
tC 
A EI
A4 x4  A5 x5  A6 x6
tC 
A EI
1
450 (1)  90(0.75)  30( )
3 372 .5
tC A   kN .m 3
EI EI

c = CD - tC
A

## 940  372.5 567.5

C   kN .m3
EI EI
Compute the deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
96kN M B 0
48 kN
R A 6  24(1)  24(6)3  96(4)  0
24 kN/m
A C
B

2m 4m 1m

R A  132
tC y
A B
B C

tA 132(6)=792
B

2 4
-24(1)=-24
24(6) 2
  432
2
3
-96(4)=-384 37
3. Compute the slope and deflection at the free end of the cantilever beam.

45 kN wL2 15(3) 2
15 kN/m
  22.5
6 6
45(1)  45
A
B t
A  A B
3m 1m 1m
AAB x A
t  AB A 
A  A B
EI
A 1 4 1 1
(22.5)3( )3  (45)1[3  ]
A  4 5 2 3
EI
115 .5
A  kN .m 3
22.5
EI
1 1
(22.5)3  (45)1
A  4 2
45 EI
39.375
A  kN .m 2
EI 38
Location of maximum deflection
Note : at point of maximum deflection
Any load Slope of the elastic curve is zero.
A C Tangent at this point is horizontal
tA θA  max B so θA = θAC gives the location of the
C Maximum deflection.
θAC tB
A Likewise,
x tB
tan d A   A  A
L L
xA xB
AAB xB
tan d A   A 
EIL
AAC
 AC 
A C B EI
AAC x A
 max  t A 
C EI

39
Problem:
Locate and compute the maximum deflection of the beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
50 kN 75 kN M B 0
RA (5)  75(1)  50(4)  0
RA  55kN
RA=55
tB
A
1m 3m
C
1m
tan d A   A  A
tA θA  max B L
C
θAC tB AAB xB
A
A 
EIL
x

L
55(5)=275
1 5 1 4 1 1
(275)5( )  (200 )4( )  (75)(1)( )
A  2 3 2 3 2 3
EI (5)
-50(4)=-200 120
A   EQ.1
-75(1)=-75 EI
40
AAC
50 75  A   AC 
A
EI
C
1 1
(55 x) x  (50)( x  1)( x  1)
1m 3m 1m
A  2 2
EI
x
RA=55 55x 27.5 x 2  25( x  1) 2
A 
EI
27.5 x 2  25( x 2  2 x  1)
A 
EI
-50(x-1)
2.5 x 2  50 x  25
A   EQ.2

## x  2.57m 120  2.5x 2  50 x  25

0  x  20 x  58
2

41
55x=55(2.57)=141.35

A C

## -50(x-1)=- 50(2.57-1)=- 78.5

1.57
AAC x A
2.57  max  t A 
C EI

1 2 1 2
(141.35)2.57( )2.57  (78.5)(1.57)[1  (1.57)]
 max 2 3 2 3
EI

185 .08
 max  kN .m 3
EI

42
Problem:
Locate and compute the maximum deflection of the beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
50 kN 75 kN

1m 3m 1m

## Non Prismatic Beams ( Beams with variable I)

Problem
A cantilever beam of Length L with stepwise cross section carries a vertical load P
at its free end. The section of the beam changes midway along its length so that
its second moment of area is reduced by half. The smaller section is towards the
free end. If E is constant, determine the deflection at the free end.

43
P

L/2 L/2

A B
I
2I

 A  tA
B

PL
4 EI
PL
PL
2 EI
2 EI

44
L 1L 3
  L A2
2 2( 2) 4

A PL 1PLL PL2
A1  
4 EI 2( 2 EI ) 2 8 EI
2L L
 PL 1PLL PL2
3(2) 3 A1 PL A2  
2 EI A3 ( 4 EI ) 2 8 EI
2 EI
1PLL PL2
L 2L 5 A3  
  L 2(4 EI )2 16 EI
2 3(2) 6
t
A  A  A1 x1  A2 x2  A3 x3
B
PL2 L PL2 3L PL2 5 L
A   
8 EI 3 8 EI 4 16 E1 6

## PL3 3PL3 5 PL3 3PL3

A    
24 EI 32 EI 96 E1 16 EI 45
Conjugate Beam Method
an imaginary beam with span equal to the span of the real beam. Loading
consists of the M/EI diagram of the real beam. Positive M/EI represents

## Real Beam The clockwise rotation of the

Any load tangent at any point on the
elastic curve of the real beam is
 c
equal to the positive shear about
the same point on the conjugate
C
L
c beam
c V =
C

## The downward deflection at any

Conjugate Beam point on the elastic curve of the
M real beam is equal to the positive
VC MC EI moment about the same point on
the conjugate beam
C
L
 c
= MC

46
Other properties of the conjugate beam
 A fixed end for a real beam becomes free end for the conjugate beam.
 A free end for a real beam becomes fixed end for the conjugate A
simple support for the real beam remains a simple support for the
conjugate beam.
 An interior support of the real becomes an internal hinge for the
conjugate beam and conversely.
 The conjugate beam of the real beam is always determinate.

ILLUSTRATION
Real Beam Real Beam Real Beam

## Conjugate Beam Conjugate Beam Conjugate Beam

47
Real Beam
A B
C From the geometry of elastic curve
A  θA = θC+ θAC
tA C θC = θA - θAC
c

C
D
 AC tB
A tB
A  A  AAB xB
a
L LEI
XB AAC
 AC 
Conjugate Beam EI
M
VC MC EI AAB x B AAC
C   EQ. 1
C LEI EI
L

48
AAB
EI XB
From the conjugate beam

∑MB = 0
VC MC
AAB X B
C RA L  0
L
EI

AAB X B
RA
AAC
RA 
EIL
M
EI
EI xc Vc =∑FV

VC MC AAB xB AAC
VC   EQ. 2
C LEI EI
a
RA

49
AAB
EI XB
From the conjugate beam

∑MB = 0
M
VC MC EI
AAB X B
C RA L  0
L
EI

AAB X B
RA
AAC
RA 
EIL
EI
xc Vc =∑FV

VC MC AAB xB AAC
VC   EQ. 2
C LEI EI
a EQ.1 = EQ.2
RA

C  VC
50
AAC
t B
CD EI
 A xc
a L
VC MC
AAB x B
CD  a C
LEI a
AAB X B
AAC xC RA  From the conjugate beam
tC  EIL Mc =∑Mc
A EI M c  RA a 
AAC xc
EI
c = CD - tC
A
AAB x B AAC xc
Mc  a EQ. 4
AAB x B AAC xc LEI EI
c  a EQ. 3
LEI EI EQ. 3 = EQ. 4

c  M c
51
1. Using the conjugate beam method, compute the midspan deflection of
the beam shown. Assume constant EI

60 kN
M B 0
RA (6)  60(4)  20(6)3  0
20 kN/m
RA  100 kN

2m 4m
RA C B wL2 20(6) 2
  360
c
A
2 2
100(6)=600
3m
Conjugate beam

-360

52
-60(4)=-240
P1
2m
600/EI

A
3m
C M B 0
B
4
RA ' (6)  P1 (2)  P2 (1.5)  P3 ( )  0
3
1.5m
RA’ P2 360/EI 1800 720 480 4
RA ' (6)  (2)  (1.5)  ( )0
4/3 EI EI EI 3
313.36
240/EI RA 
'

P3
EI
4m

## 1(600 )6 1800 1(240 )4 480

P1   P3  
2 EI EI 2 EI EI
1(360 )6 720
P2  
3EI EI
53
P4
y 32
3m 300/EI  2
360 6
A y  90
90/EI 1(300 )3 450
P5
C
P4  
2 EI EI
313 .36
R A'  1(90)3 90
EI 60(1)=60/EI
P5  
3EI EI
P6
1(60)1 30
P6  
2 EI EI
1m

c  M c   M C
1 1
 C  RA ' (3)  P4 (1)  P5 ( )(3)  P6 ( )
4 3
54
313.36 450 90 1 30 1
C  (3)  (1)  ( )(3)  ( )
EI EI EI 4 EI 3
567.58
C  kN .m 3

EI

55
2. Compute the deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
72 kN

M
48 kN
B B 0
A
24 kN/m RA (6)  48(1)  72(4)  24(6)(3)  0 \
C
RA  112 kN
2m 4m 1m
112(6)=672

112

-48(1)=-48

24(6) 2
  432
2

-72(4)=-288 56
2m 4m
672/EI
672/EI P1
4m

A B A B
C

48/EI
3/4 (6)= 4.5m RB
432 P2 432
EI EI

## 1(672) 2016 288/EI

P1  (6)  2+2/3 (4)= 14/3m 288/EI
2 EI EI
P3
1(432) 864
P2  (6) 
3EI EI
1(288) 576
P3  (4) 
2 EI EI
57
M A 0
14
RB (6)  P2 (4.5)  P3 ( )  P1 (4)  0
3
864 576 14 2016
RB (6)  (4.5)  ( ) (4)  0
EI EI 3 E1
248
RB  kN .m 2
EI

RB 
248 c  M c   M c
EI 2
1m  c  P4 ( )  RB (1)
B C
3
24 2 248 232
c  ( )  (1)   kN .m 
3
48/EI
2/3 EI 3 EI EI
P4

1(48) 24
P4  (1) 
2 EI EI 58
2. Compute the deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
72 kN

M
48 kN
B B 0
A
24 kN/m RA (6)  48(1)  72(4)  24(6)(3)  0 \
C
RA  112 kN
2m 4m 1m

24(6) 2
  432
112(6)=672 2
112

-48(1)=-48

-432

-72(4)=-288 59
3. Using the conjugate beam method, locate and compute the maximum
deflection of the beam shown. Assume constant EI

60 kN

## A C B At point of maximum deflection

2m 4m
c  0
RA
 max M B 0
x RA (6)  60(4)  0
40(6)=240 RA  40kN

 max  M c   M c

-60(4)=-240
P1 2m
240/EI
C
M B 0
4
A
A B R1 (6)  P1 (2)  P2 ( )  0
3
x 4/3
R1 240/EI 720 480 4
P2 R1 (6)  (2)  ( )0
2m 4m EI EI 3

133.33
R1 
1(240 ) 720 EI
P1  (6) 
2 EI EI

1(240 ) 480
P2  ( 4) 
2 EI EI

61
P3

60 kN 40X/EI

A C

2m
60(X-2)/EI
RA=40 R1=133.33/EI
P4
X
X
40X
X-2 1(40 x ) 20 x 2
P3  ( x) 
2 EI EI
60( x  2) 30( x  2) 2
-60(X-2)
P4  ( x  2) 
2 EI EI

62
 c   FV 0
R1  P4  P3  0
133 .33 30( x  2) 2 20 x 2
  0
EI EI EI

## 133 .33  30 x 2  120 x  120  20 x 2  0

10 x 2  120 x  253 .33  0
x 2  12 x  25.33  0
(12) 2  (12) 2  4(25.33)
x  2.73m
2

63
P3

40X/EI
1(40 x) 20(2.73) 2 149 .06
P3  ( x)  
A C
2 EI EI EI

60( x  2) 30(2.73  2) 2 16
R1=133.33/EI
60(X-2)/EI P4  ( x  2)  
P4
2 EI EI EI

X  max  M c   M c
X-2

1 x
 max  R1 x  P4 ( x  2)  P3
3 3
133 .33 16 149 .06
 max  (2.73)  (2.73  2)  (2.73)
EI 3EI 3EI
232 .24
 max  kN .m 3

EI 64
L/2
P

A B

C
60(2) 230
b
C  [3(6)  4(2) ] 
2 2

L 48 EI EI

C 
Pb
48 EI

3L  4b
2 2

at center
b = distance of P from the nearer support < L/2
4. Using the conjugate beam method, compute the maximum deflection
of the beam shown. Assume constant E
180 kN
3m

I 2I I

3m 6m 3m

65
180 kN
Solution
3m
A B C D E
I 2I I

3m 6m 3m
90 kN
A B C D E
540

270 270

Ordinary M - Diagram

## Modified M/EI – Diagram

270/EI 270/EI
(conjugate beam) 270/EI

135/EI 135/EI

66
Modified M/EI – Diagram
270/EI 270/EI
(conjugate beam)

F1 =1/2(270)3 =405
135/EI
C F2 = 135(3) = 405
F3 =1/2(135)3 =202.5
F3
F2 R = F1 + F2 + F3 = 1012.5
F1
R 3m 3m

c  M c   M c
 c  R(6)  F1 (4)  F2 (1.5)  F3 (1)
1012 .5 405 405 202 .5 3645
c  (6)  (4)  (1.5)  (1) 
EI EI EI EI EI

67
Plate No.2: area moment method
1. Using the area moment method, compute the midspan deflection of
the beam shown. Assume constant EI

30N kN

20+N kN/m

2m 4m
2. Compute the deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
24N kN
48+3N kN
B
20N kN/m
A
C

2m 4m 1m 69
3. Using the area moment method, locate and compute the maximum
deflection of the beam shown. Assume constant EI

30N kN

A C B

2m 4m

70
Plate No.3 : Conjugate beam method
1. Using the conjugate beam method, compute the midspan deflection of
the beam shown. Assume constant EI

30N kN

20+N kN/m

2m 4m
2. Compute the deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam shown below.
Assume constant EI.
24N kN
48+3N kN
B
20N kN/m
A
C

2m 4m 1m 71
3. Using the conjugate beam method, locate and compute the maximum
deflection of the beam shown. Assume constant EI

30N kN

A C B

2m 4m
VIRTUAL WORK METHOD
Virtual Work Equation for Beams and Frames
the slope and deflection in any direction at a point in a beam or frame can be
obtained by applying a unit load at that point and applying the formula
L M P MU L M P MU
  dx   dx EQ. A
0 EI 0 EI
where Mp = the bending moment at the element under consideration
Mu = the bending moment due to a unit load applied at the
point where the deflection is required
If rotation at a point is required, apply a unit couple at the point to
determine Mu,then use EQ. A.

73
Real System

 c

C
L
c
1

L
Virtual System for deflection at C

1
C

L
Virtual System for Rotation at C

74
General Procedure : Slope and deflection of beams by Virtual Work Method

1. Real System - Draw a diagram of the beam showing all the given forces.
2. Virtual System - Draw a diagram of the beam without the real loads. If
the deflection is to be determined , apply a unit load at the point in the
direction of the desired deflection. If the slope is to be determined, apply
a unit couple on the beam where the slope is desired.
3. Examine the real and virtual systems; the variation of EI along the length
of the beam. Divide the beam into segments so that the real and virtual
systems is continuous in each segment.
4. For each segment of the beam, determine an equation expressing the
Variation of the bending moment due to the real loading (MP) along the
length of the segment in terms of position coordinate x. The origin x
maybe located anywhere on the beam and must be chosen so that the number of
terms in the equation is minimum. Use the sign convention of bending moment,
5. For each segment of the beam, determine an equation expressing the
using the same x coordinate adopted in step 4. The sign convention of
6. Determine the desired slope or deflection using
L M P MU L M P MU
  dx   dx EQ. 1
0 EI 0 EI
If the beam is divided into segments, then integral on the right side of EQ. 1
can be evaluated by adding algebraically the integrals for all segments of the beam.
75
Problem 1:
Using the virtual work method, compute the slope and deflection under the
120 kN load of the beam shown. Assume constant EI

120 kN

2m 4m

120 kN
Segment AB ( 0rigin at A)
0<x<2
A B C A B
Real system

Mp = 80x
2m 4m x

80 40 80

76
Segment BC ( 0rigin at C)
0<x<4

Mp = 40x
x

40 Segment AB ( 0rigin at A)
1 0<x<2
A B
A B C
Virtual system Mu =2/3x
For vertical
Deflection at B x
2m 4m
2/3
2/3 1/3 Segment BC ( 0rigin at C)
0<x<4
B C
Mu =1/3x

1/3
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu
AB A 0–2 80x 2/3x

## CB C 0–4 40x 1/3x

L M P MU
  dx
0 EI
2 1 160 40
2
80 x x 4
40 x x B  (8)  (64)
B   3 dx 
0 EI
3 dx 9 EI 9 EI
0 EI
3840
160 2 40 4 B  kN .m 3 
B    
2 2
x dx x dx 9 EI
3EI 0 3EI 0

B 
160 3
9 EI
x   2
0 
40
9 EI
x3  4
0
Virtual system 1 Segment AB ( 0rigin at A)
For slope at B 0<x<2
M C 0 A B C A B

1  RA 6  0 Mu = -1/6x

1 2m 4m x
RA  
6 1/6 1/6 1/6
Segment BC ( 0rigin at C)
0<x<4
B C
Mu =1/6x

1/6
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu
AB A 0–2 80x -1/6x

## CB C 0–4 40x 1/6x

L M P MU
  dx
0 EI
1 1
2
80 x( x) 4
40 x x
B   6 dx 
0 EI
6 dx
0 EI
 40 2 2 20 4 2
B  
3EI 0
x dx  
3EI 0
x dx

B 
 40 3
9 EI
x   2
0 
20
9 EI
 
x3
4
0

 40 20
B  (8)  (64)
9 EI 9 EI

960
B  kN .m 2
9 EI
Problem 1:
Using the virtual work method, compute the slope and deflection under the
120 kN load of the beam shown. Assume constant EI
120 kN

2m 4m
Problem 2 :
Using the virtual work method, compute the midspan deflection of
the beam shown. Assume constant EI
60 kN

20 kN/m

2m 4m

81
60 kN Segment AB ( 0rigin at A)
Solution to Problem 2 0<x<2
A B C D 20 kN/m
Real System 20 kN/m A B

## Mp = 100x – 20x (x/2)

2m 4m x Mp =100x -10x2
100 80 100
1
A B
Virtual system A B C D
for vertical
deflection of C Mu =1/2x
x
3m
1/2
1/2 1/2
60 kN
x-2
Segment BC ( 0rigin at A)
2<x<3 A B C
20 kN/m

B C Mu =1/2x
x
Mp=100x -20x(x/2) – 60(x-2)
x 1/2
Mp =40x-10x2+120
100 82
Segment CD ( 0rigin at D)
0<x<3

20 kN/m C D
C D
Mp = 40x
x x

80 1/2
Mp = 80x – 20x (x/2) Mu =1/2x
Mp =80x -10x2

L M P MU
  dx
0 EI
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu
AB A 0–2 100x-10x2 1/2x

## BC A 2–3 40x-10x2 +120 1/2x

DC D 0–3 80x-10x2 1/2x

83
1 1 2 1
2
(100 x  10 x ) x 2
3
(40 x  10 x  120) x
2
3
(80 x  10 x ) x
c   2 dx 
2 2 dx 
0 2 dx
0 EI EI EI
2 (50 x 2  5 x 3 ) 3 ( 20 x  5 x  60 x )
2 3
3 ( 40 x  5 x )
2 3
c   dx   dx   dx
0 EI 2 EI 0 EI
4 2 3 4 3
1  50 x 5 x  1  20 x 5 x
3
2 1  40 x 5 x 
3 4 3
c         30 x     
EI  3 4  0 EI  3 4 2 EI  3 4 0

## 1  400  1  405 160  1  405 

c   3  20 
 EI (180   270 )  (  20  120 ) 
 EI 360 
EI    4 3   4 

## 1  340  1 1395 460  1 1035 

c  
 3  EI  4  
EI    3  EI  4 

## 1  2430 120  1 7290  480 6810

c    
EI  4 3  EI 12 12 EI

84
Problem
Determine the slope and deflection at the free end of the overhanging beam showm

48 kN
A B
24 kN/m
C

2m 4m 2m

48 kN
M A 0
A B 24(6)3  48(8)  RB 6  0
24 kN/m C
Real System RB  136 kN 

2m 4m 2m F y 0
56 136 RA  RB  48  24(6)  0
RA  136  48  24(6)  0
RA  56 kN 
85
1

A B C
Virtual System
for vertical
deflection at C
2m 4m 2m
1/3 4/3

A B
24 kN/m
A B
Mp = 56x -12x2 Mu= - 1/3x

x x
1/3
56
1
48

B Mp=-48x B C Mu= -x
C

x x

86
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu
AB A 0–6 56x-12x2 -1/3x

CB C 0–2 -48x -x

L M P MU
  dx C 
1
(3888  4032 ) 
16
(8) 
80
0 EI 3EI EI EI
1
6
(56 x  12 x )( x)
2
2  48 x (  x )
C   3 dx   dx
0 EI 0 EI
1 6 1 2
C     
3 2 2
(12 x 56 x )dx 48 x dx
3EI 0 EI 0
6
 4 56 x 
 
3
1 16 3
C
2
 3 x    x 0
3EI  3  0 EI

87
1 ∑MB = 0
A B C 1 – 6RA = 0
Virtual System
RA = 1/6
for slope at C

2m 4m 2m
1/6 1/6

A B
24 kN/m
A B
Mp = 56x -12x2 Mu= - 1/6x

x x
1/6
56
48
1

## B Mp= - 48x B C Mu= -1

C

x x

88
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu
AB A 0–6 56x-12x2 -1/6x

CB C 0–2 -48x -1

L M P MU
  dx C 
1
(3888  4032 ) 
24
(4) 
72
0 EI 6 EI EI EI
1
6
(56 x  12 x )( x)
2
2 48 x(1)
C   6 dx   dx
0 EI 0 EI

1 6 48 2
C   (12 x  56 x )dx   xdx
3 2

6 EI 0 EI 0
6
 4 56 x 
 
3
1 24 2
C
2
 3 x    x 0
6 EI  3  0 EI

89
4. Using the virtual work method, compute the vertical deflection
of point D of the beam shown. Assume constant E
180 kN
3m
A B C D E
I 2I I

3m 6m 3m

180 kN
3m
A B C D E
Real System
I 2I I

3m 6m 3m
x x
90
90 x
x

90
Problem
Using the virtual work method, compute the vertical deflection
of point D of the beam shown. Assume constant E

180 kN
3m
A B C D E
I 2I I

3m 6m 3m

180 kN
3m
A B C D E
Real System
I 2I I

3m 6m 3m
x x
90 x 90
x

91
1
A B C D E
Virtual System
I 2I I

3m 6m 3m
1/4 x x 3/4
Segment AB x
0<x<3 A B
A B
x
x
1/4
1
90
M P  90 x MU  x
4
Segment BC
3<x<6
A B C A B C

x x

90 1/4
M P  90 x 1
MU  x
4
180
Segment CD X-6
6<x<9
A B C D A B C D

x x
90 1/4

M P  90 x  180 ( x  6) 1
MU  x
M P  90 x  180 x  1080 4
M P  1080  90 x
Segment DE
0<x<3 D E
D E

x
3
x
MU  x
90
3/4 4
M P  90 x
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu EI
AB A 0–3 90x 1/4x EI

## CD A 6–9 90x-180(x-6) =1080-90x 1/4x 2EI

ED E 0-3 90x 3/4x EI

1 1 1 3
3
90 x( x) 6
90 x( x) 9
(1080  90 x) x 3
90 x( x)
D   4 dx   4 dx   4 dx   4 dx
0 EI 3 2 EI 6 2 EI 0 EI

94
L M P MU
  dx
0 EI

1 1 1 3
3
90 x ( x ) 6
90 x ( x ) 9
(1080  90 x ) x 3
90 x ( x)
D   4 dx 
3 2 EI 4 dx 
6 4 dx 
0 EI 4 dx
0 EI 2 EI

45 3 45 6 1 9 135 3 2
D   x dx   x dx  6 (1080 x  90 x )dx  2EI 0 x dx
2 2 2

2 EI 0 4 EI 3 8EI

D 
45 3 3
6 EI
x 0  
45 3 6
12 EI
x 3
1
8EI
 
3 9
540 x  30 x 6 
2 135 3
6 EI
x     3
0

1  972  135
D 
45
27  216  27  (4374 
45 2187
)  (1296  )  27
6 EI 6 EI 2 EI  2 2  6 EI

## 1215 8505 1  1215  3645 48843

D     (3078  )  
6 EI 6 EI 2 EI  2  6 EI 12 EI
95
Plate No. 3: Slope & Deflection by Virtual Work Method
Problem 1 :
Using the virtual work method, compute the midspan deflection of
the beam shown. Assume constant EI
50 +NkN

12N kN/m

2m 4m
Problem 2
Using the virtual work method,determine the slope and deflection at the free end of
the overhanging beam showm
24NkN
A B
14N kN/m
C

2m 4m 2m
96
Problem 3
A cantilever beam of Length L with stepwise cross section carries a vertical load P
at its free end. The section of the beam changes midway along its length so that
its second moment of area is reduced by one third. The smaller section is
towards the free end. If E is constant, determine the deflection at the free end
using the virtual work method

L/2 L/2

A B C
I
3I

97
Real System Virtual system

P 1

## L/2 L/2 L/2 L/2

A I C A I C
B 3I B 3I
x x

x x
Segment AB 0 <x < L/2

M P   Px MU   x

## Segment BC L/2 <x < L

M P   Px MU   x
Segment Limits MP Mu EI

AB 0 – L/2 -Px -x EI

## BC L/2 – L -Px -x 3EI

L M P MU
  dx 1 L 3 1 L 3
0 EI  P[( ) ]  P[ L  ( ) ]
3

3EI 2 9 EI 2
L
Pxx L Pxx P L3 P L 3
  2
dx  L dx  ( ) ( L3  )
0 EI 2 3 EI 3EI 8 9 EI 8
L
Px 2 1 L Px 2 PL3 7 PL3 (3PL3  7 PL3 )
  2
dx  L dx   
0 EI 3 2 EI 24 EI 9(8) EI 72 EI
3 3
10 PL 5 PL
1
L
1  
 P[ x ]0 
3 2 3 L
P[ x ] L 72 EI 36 EI
3EI 9 EI 2
Slope and Deflection of Frames by Virtual Work Method
Considering axial deformation of
members of the frame
M PMu Fp L
   dx   Fu
EI AE where
Mp = the bending moment at the element under
M PMu
   dx   Fu
EI AE Mu = the bending moment due to a unit load
applied at the point where the deflection is required
or a unit couple applied at the point where the
Neglecting axial deformation of slope is required.
members of the frame
Fp = the axial load at the element under
M PMu
EI
Fu = the axial load due to a unit load applied at the
M PMu
  
point where the deflection is required or a unit
dx couple applied at the point where the slope is
EI required.

Note: unless otherwise stated in the problem, the effect of axial deformation
is negligible.

100
General Procedure : Slope and deflection of frames by Virtual Work Method

1. Real System – Determine the internal forces at the ends of the members
2. Virtual System - If the deflection is to be determined , apply a unit load at the point
in the frame in the direction of the desired deflection. If the slope is to be determined,
apply a unit couple on the frame where the slope is desired. Determine the member
3. Divide the frame into segments so that the real and virtual systems is continuous in
each segment.
4. For each segment of the frame , determine an equation expressing the
Variation of the bending moment due to the real loading (MP) along the
length of the segment in terms of position coordinate x. The origin x
maybe located anywhere on the frame and must be chosen so that the number of
terms in the equation is minimum. Use the sign convention of bending moment,
5. For each segment of the beam, determine an equation expressing the
Variation of the bending moment due to the virtual loading (Mu) along the frame
using the same x coordinate adopted in step 4. The sign convention of
6. If the effects of the axial deformation is to be included in the analysis, divide the
frame into segments so that the real and virtual forces and AE are constant in
each segment. It is not necessary that these segments be the same as in
steps 4 and 5. It is important that the same sign convention be used for Fp and Fu.
7. Determine the desired slope or deflection using
M PMu Fp L Fp L
   dx   Fu
M PMu
   dx   Fu
EI AE EI AE 101
For the frame shown in the figure, determine the vertical deflection of point E.
Assume constant EI for all members.
Real System

C 16 kN/m C 16 kN/m
F F
E E
2m 2m 3m
3m

36 kN B 36 kN B

2m 2m

G A G
A 36

6m 6m
36 60

## ∑MA = 0 RG(6) – 16(6)3 -36(2) = 0 RG = 60 kN

∑Fy = 0 RAy + RG – 16(6) = 0 RAy = 36 kN
∑Fx = 0 RAx – 36 = 0 RAx = 36 kN

102
Virtual System for vertical deflection of E
1
Segment AB
C F B B
E
2m 3m x x
Mp =36x Mu =0

B A A
36
2m

A G 36 1/2
Segment BC
C C
6m
1/2 1/2
36 B B
Mp =36x - 36(x-2) x
2m x
Mu =0
A A
36

36 1/2
103
1
72
C 16 kN/m C
F F
E E

36 60 1/2 1/2

## ∑MC = 0 60(6) – 16(6)3- Mc =0 Mc = 72

Segment EF ( origin at F 0<x,3)
Segment CE ( origin at C 0<x<3)
C 72 16 kN/m
72 16 kN/m
C E E F E F
E x
x
x 1/2
60 x
36
Mu =1/2x Mp = 60x -16x(x/2) Mu =1/2x
Mp = 36x -16x(x/2) + 72
Mp = 60x – 8x2
Mp = 36x – 8x2 + 72

104
F F

x x
Mp =0 Mu =0
G G

60 1/2

## Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu EI

AB A 0–2 36x 0 EI
BC A 2–4 36x-36(x-2) =72 0 EI

## CE C 0–3 36x-8x2+72 1/2x EI

FE F 0-3 60x- 8x2 1/2x EI

GF C 0–2 0 0 EI
1 2 1
L M P MU (36 x  8 x  72) x
2
(60 x  8 x ) x
  dx 3 3
0 EI E   2 dx 
0 2 dx
0 EI EI
105
3 (18 x 2  4 x 3  36 x) 3 (30 x  4 x )
2 3
E   dx   dx
0 EI 0 EI

E 
1
EI
 2 3
6 x  x  18 x 0 
3 4 1
EI
3
4 3
10 x  x 0  
E 
1
162  81  162   270  81 
1 432
EI EI EI

Problem
B 15 kN/m
Determine the rotation of joint C
B of the frame shown in the figure.

3m

4m

106
Real System Virtual System
1
B 15 kN/m B
C C

1/4
3m 30 kN 3m

A A

4m 4m
1/4
30 kN ∑MA = 0
Segment AB( 0rigin at A) 0<x<3 1 – 4RC = 0 RC = 1/4
∑Fy = 0
RA – RC =0 RA = 1/4
x Mp =0 x Mu =0
A A

30 1/4
107
Segment CB ( 0rigin at C) 0 < x < 4

15 kN/m C
B C B
Mp = 30x -15x(x)/2
Mu = 1/4x
x Mp =30x -15x2/2 x
30 kN 1/4

## Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu EI

AB A 0–3 0 0 EI
CB C 0–4 30x-15(x2) /2 1/4x EI

M PMu
   dx
EI
x2 1
4
(30 x  15 ) xdx
C   2 4
0 EI

108
30 2 x3
4
( x  15 )dx
C   4 8
0 EI
4
1 10 3 15 4 
C   x  ( x )
EI  4 32 0

1 10 3 15 4 
C   4  (4 )
EI  4 32 
 C  160  120 
1
EI

40
C  kN .m 2
EI

109
24(5) C
Problem
Determine the vertical deflection of point
C for the frame shown in figure. 3m
24(5)3/5 =72
80 kN
B
5m 24(5)4/5 = 96
C
5m
3m

80 kN
B A
Ax
MA 4m
5m 2I
Ay
∑Fx = 0 Ax – 80 – 72 = 0 Ax = 152 kN
A
∑Fy = 0 Ay – 96 = 0 Ay = 96 kN
4m
+ ∑MA = 0 MA – 96(2) -72(6.5) – 80(5) = 0
MA = 1060 kN.m

110
REAL SYSTEM VIRTUAL SYSTEM
1 1

C C C

3m 3m 3m
80 kN
B B B

5m 5m 5m

A A A
152
MA 4m 4m
1060 4 4m

RA 96 1

∑Fy = 0 RA – 1 = 0 RA = 1

+ ∑MA = 0 MA – 1(4) = 0
MA = 4
111
Segment AB origin at A ( 0 < x < 5 )
B B

Mp = 152x - 1060 Mu = - 4
x x

A A
152
1060 4

96 1
1
4/5
Segment CB origin at C ( 0 < x < 5 )
24x 3/5
C
C

x
x
B
Mp = -24x (x)/2 Mu = -4/5x
Mp = - 12x2

112
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu EI
AB A 0–5 152x- 1060 -4 2 EI
CB C 0–5 -12x2 -4/5x EI

4
L M P MU (12 x )(  x)
2
  dx 5 (152 x  1060 )( 4) 5
0 EI c   dx   5 dx
0 2 EI 0 EI
(2120  304 x)
5
3
5 (9.6 x )
c   dx   dx
0 EI 0 EI
c 
1
EI
 2 5
2120 x  152 x 0 
EI

2.4 4 5
x 0  
c 
EI
1

2120 (5)  152 (5) 2

EI

2.4 4
5  
c 
1
10600  3800   625  6800  
2.4 1 1500
EI EI EI EI
8300
c 
EI 113
Problem
For the frame shown in figure,determine the horizontal deflection of point D
using the virtual work method.

16 kN/m
B D
48 kN
C 2I
3m

4m I I

A E

6m

114
16 kN/m
16 kN/m
B Cx Cx
48 kN C D
C
3m 3m
Cy Cy
4m

A
Ax E Ex

Ay
∑MA = 0 Ey
∑ME = 0
Cx (4) + Cy(3) – 48(4) – 16(3)(1.5) = 0 Cx (4) - Cy(3) – 16(3)(1.5) = 0
4Cx + 3Cy = 264 4Cx - 3Cy = 72
∑Fx = 0 4Cx + 3Cy = 264
4Cx - 3Cy = 72
Ax + Cx – 48 = 0
8Cx = 336 Cx = 42 Cy = 32
Ax + 42 - 48 = 0
Ax = 6 ∑Fx = 0 ∑Fy = 0
Ex - Cx = 0 Ey - Cy – 16(3) = 0
∑Fy = 0 Ey - 32 - 48 = 0
Ex - 42 = 0
Ay + Cy – 16(3) = 0 Ey = 80
Ex = 42
Ay + 32 - 48 = 0
Ay = 16
115
B D 1
C
3m

4m

A Ax E Ex

6m
Ay Ey
∑MA =0
Ax =Ex = 1/2
6Ey – 1(4) = 0
Ey = 2/3

∑Fy =0
Ey – Ay = 0
Ay = 2/3

116
Real System Virtual System

16 kN/m
B D B D
48 kN 1
C C
3m 3m
4m 4m

A 6 E 42 A E 1/2
1/2

6m 6m
16 80 2/3 2/3

117
Segment AB origin at A( 0 < x < 4)
B B

x Mp =6x x Mu =1/2x

A 6 A 1/2

16 2/3
Segment DB origin at D( 0 < x < 6)
42(4) = 168 2 1/2(4) = 2
6(4) = 24
16 kN/m B
42 42 1/2 1/2
B D
C x
2/3 2/3
x 80
16 Mu = 2/3x - 2
Mp = 80x – 16x(x)/2 – 168
Mp = 80x – 8x2 - 168

118
Segment ED origin at E( 0 < x < 4)
D D

x Mp =42x x Mu =1/2x

E 42 E 1/2

80 2/3
Segment Origin Limits Mp Mu EI
AB A 0–4 6x 1/2x EI

## ED E 0–4 42x 1/2x EI

119
L M P MU
  dx
0 EI
1 2 1
4
(6 x)( x) 5
(80 x  8 x  168)( x  2)
2
4
(42 x)( x)
D   2 dx 
0
3 dx  0 EI 2 dx
0 EI 2 EI
208 2 16 3
4 3x
2
6
( x  x  272 x  336 ) 2
4 ( 21x )
D   dx   3 3 dx   dx
0 EI 0 2 EI 0 EI

   
6
1 3 1  208 3 16 4  7 3
D
4 4
 x 0   9 x  12 x  136 x  336 x   EI x
2
0
EI 2 EI  0

   
6
1 3 1  208 3 16 4  7 3
D
4 4
 4 0   9 6  12 6  136 (6)  336 (6)  EI 4
2
0
EI 2 EI  0

D 
64

1
4992  1728  4896  2016   448
EI 2 EI EI
704
D  kN .m 3 
EI
120
Plate # 4 : Slope and Deflections of Frames

For the frame shown in the figure, determine the vertical deflection of point E
and the rotation at point C. Assume constant EI for all members.

C 18+N kN/m
F
E
2m 3m

75+N kN B

2m

A G

6m

121
Deflection of Trusses
VIRTUAL WORK METHOD
Considering axial deformation of Fp = the axial load at the element under
Fu = the axial load due to a unit load applied at the
Fp L
 A   Fu EQ. 1 point where the deflection is required or a unit
AE couple applied at the point where the slope is
required.
L = length of truss member
Considering thermal deformation of A = cross sectional area of truss member
members of the truss E = modulus of elasticity of truss member
α = coeffecient of linear expansion
 T   FuLT EQ. 2 ΔF = fabrication error of truss member
ΔT = change in temperature
Considering fabrication errors of
members of the truss

 F   Fu  F EQ. 3
   A  T   F EQ. 4

Note: unless otherwise stated in the problem, the effect of thermal deformation
and fabrication errors are negligible.
122
General Procedure : Deflection of Trusses by Virtual Work Method

1. Real System – Determine the internal forces at the members due to the external loads
by using the method of sections or joints. Consider tensile and compressive forces
to be positive and negative respectively. Likewise, increases in temperature and member
length; decreases in temperature and member length are positive and negative
respectively.

2. Virtual System - Removed all applied loads and apply a unit load at the point
in the truss in the direction of the desired deflection to form the virtual force
system. By using the method of joints or sections,determine force in all members
due to this load. Use the same sign convention for member forces, temperature
change and fabrication errors adopted in 1.

3. The desired deflection can now be determined by using EQ. 1 if deflection is due
to external loads, EQ. 2 if due to temperature change, EQ. 3 if due to fabrication
errors. If necessary use EQ. 4 to determine the deflection due to combined axial,
thermal change and fabrication errors. Positive results indicates that the deflection
conforms with the direction of the unit load; negative results indicates otherwise.
It is recommended that computations be arranged in tabular form.

123
Problem
Determine the horizontal deflection of point D for the truss shown. Cross sectional areas
of horizontal and vertical members is 4000 sq. mm each, inclined members 5000 sq.mm.
E = 200000 MPa for all members.

C D C D
40 kN 40 kN

3m

B E B E
60 kN 60 kN

3m

A F Ax A F

Ay RF
4m
∑MA = 0 40(6) + 60(3) – 4 RF = 0 RF = 105 kN
∑Fy = 0 Ay – RF = 0 Ay -105 = 0 Ay = 105 kN
∑Fx = 0 Ax – 40 – 60 = 0 Ax = 100 kN

124
Joint C Joint D
C D
40 CD =40 (C) 40 ∑Fx = 0
BD(4/5) – 40 = 0 BD =50 kN (T )
BC =0 BD ∑Fy = 0
DE – BD(3/5) = 0 DE = 30 kN (C)
DE
Joint E Joint F
30 30
BF
BE=0 E
F ∑Fy = 0
AF
BF(3/5)+ 30 - 105 = 0 BF = 125 kN (C)
EF = 30 kN (C) ∑Fx = 0
125(4/5) – AF = 0 AF = 100 kN (T)
105
Joint A
AB = 105 kN (T)

A 100
100

105
125
Joint A
AB = 1.5 (T)

C D 1 A AF = 1 (T)
1

3m Joint C
1.5
B By inspection
E Joint F CD= BC = 0
EF
3m
BF ∑Fx = 0
1 F BF(4/5) - 1 = 0 BF = 1.25 (C)
A F ∑Fy = 0
Ax
1.25(3/5) + EF – 1.5 = 0 EF =0.75 (C)

1.5 Joint E
By inspection
4m
RF DE= EF = 0.75 (C) BE = 0
Ay
∑MA = 0 1(6) – 4 RF = 0 RF = 1.5 Joint D
∑Fy = 0 Ay – RF = 0 Ay -1.5 = 0 Ay = 1.5 0 D ∑Fx = 0
∑Fx = 0 Ax – 1 = 0 Ax = 1 1 BD(4/5) – 1 = 0
BD =1.25 (T )
BD

0.75 126
REAL SYSTEM VIRTUAL SYSTEM

C - 40 D C 0 D
40 kN 1

0 50 - 30 0 1.25
-0.75

B 0 E B 0 E
60 kN
- 125 -1.25
105 - 30 1.5 -0.75

A F A F
100 1
100 1.0

105 105
4m
1.5
1.5

127
FP Fu L kN .mm
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 ( 2
)
A mm
AB 105 1.5 3000 4000 118.13
AF 100 1 4000 4000 100
BD 50 1.25 5000 5000 62.5
BF -125 -1.25 5000 5000 156.25
DE - 30 -0.75 3000 4000 16.88
EF - 30 -0.75 3000 4000 16.88

FP Fu L kN .mm
NOTE: members with zero forces may
not be included in the tabulation.  A
 470 .64(
mm 2
)

## Horizontal Deflection of point D

Fp L
 D   Fu
AE
470 .64
D  (1000 )  2.352 mm
200000

128
Solve the preceding problem considering the effect of an
 6 mm
increase in temperature Of 30 C.   11.7 x10
0
mm0C
Member Fu L (mm) Fu L(mm)
AB 1.5 3000 4500
AF 1 4000 4000
BD 1.25 5000 6250
BF -1.25 5000 -6250
DE -0.75 3000 -2250
EF -0.75 3000 -2250

 Fu L  4000 (mm)
 T   FuLT
 T  4000 (11.7)10 6 (30)  1.404 mm 

##  DT   D   T  2.352  1.404  3.756 mm  129

129
Solve the preceding problem considering the effect of axial
load, temperature increase of 300C and that each member
was fabricated 0.005 mm too long.
Fu L(mm)
Member Fu
F
AB 1.5 0.005 0.0075
AF 1 0.005 0.005
BD 1.25 0.005 0.00625
BF -1.25 0.005 -0.00625
DE -0.75 0.005 -0.00375
EF -0.75 0.005 -0.00375

 Fu F  0.005(mm)
 F   Fu F  0.005mm 

##  DT   D   T   F  2.352  1.404  0.005  3.761mm 

130

130
Problem AB
Determine the horizontal and vertical deflections of point G
5 4
for the truss shown. A = 4500 mm2,E=200 GPa for all members.
3 AH
100 kN 100 kN 100 kN 100 kN

B C D B C D
300 kN
∑Fy =0
4m AB(4/5) – 300 = 0
H F A H F E AB = 375 kN (C)
A E
G G
∑Fx =0
100 kN 200 kN 100 kN
100 kN 200 kN 100 kN AB(3/5) – AH = 0
4 at 3 m each = 12 m 300 kN 300 kN 375(3/5) – AH = 0
AH = 225 kN (T)
100
By symmetry
∑MG = 0 DE = 375 kN (C) EF = 225 kN (T)
B BC 4BC + 200(3) – 300 (6) = 0

## 4 5 BC = 300 kN (C) CD = 300 kN (C) Joint H BH = 100

3 ∑Fy =0 225 GH = 225
A H GH BG BG(4/5)+200 – 300 = 0
G
BG = 125 kN (T) DG = 125 kN (T) 100
By inspection; CG = 0 By symmetry
300 100 GF = 225 kN (T) DF = 100 kN (T)
131
AB
5 4
3 AH

B C D
1/2

4m ∑Fy =0
AB(4/5) – 1/2 = 0
A H F E AB = 0.625 (C)
G
∑Fx =0
1 By symmetry
AB(3/5) – AH = 0
4 at 3 m each = 12 m DE = 0.675 (C)
1/2 1/2 0.625(3/5) – AH = 0
EF = 0.375 (T)
AH = 0.375 (T)

Joint H BH = 0 ∑MG = 0
B BC 4BC - 1/2(6) = 0
0.375 GH = 0.375
4 5 BC = 0.75 (C) CD = 0.75 (C)
By symmetry 3 ∑Fy =0
GF = 0.375 (T) DF = 0 H GH CH CH(4/5) – 1/2 = 0
A G
CH = 0.625 (T) DG = 0.625 (T)
By inspection; CG = 0
1/2
132
REAL SYSTEM
100 kN 100 kN
VIRTUAL SYSTEM ( Vertical deflection of G)
B -300 C -300 D B -0.75 C -0.75 D
0
-375 125 125 -375 0 0 -0.625
-0.625 0
100 100 0.625 0.625

A H F E A H F E
225 225 225 225 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375
G G
100 kN 200 kN 100 kN 1
300 kN 300 kN
1/2 1/2
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 FP Fu L kN .mm
( )
A mm 2
AB -375 -0.625 5000 4500 260.42
AH 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25
BC -300 -0.75 3000 4500 168.7
BG 125 0.625 5000 4500 86.8
CD -300 -0.75 3000 4500 168.7
DE -375 -0.625 5000 4500 260.42
DG 125 0.625 5000 4500 86.8
FG 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25
EF 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25
GH 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25
FP Fu L kN .mm
 A
 1,256 .81(
mm2
) 133
FP FU L 1256 .81(1000 )
 GV  
AE 200000
 GV  6.28mm

B C D AB = 0
Joint A
5 4
4m 1 A 3 AH =1 (T)
A H F E
1 Joint H BH = 0
G 1
1 GH=1 (T)
H
4 at 3 m each = 12 m

CG=0
BG=0 DG=0
1
1 GF=0
G

134
VIRTUAL SYSTEM ( Horizontal deflection of G)
B 0 C 0 D

0 0 0 0 0 4m
0 0
A H F E
1 1 0
1 G 1

4 at 3 m each = 12 m
FP Fu L kN .mm
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 ( 2
)
A mm
AH 225 1 3000 4000 150
GH 225 1 3000 4000 150
Fp FU L kN .mm
 a
 300 (
mm 2
)

## Horizontal Deflection of point G

Fp FU L (300 )1000
 GH   
AE 200000
 GH  1.5mm

135
Problem
Determine the vertical deflection of point G of the truss given in the previous problem
due to the given loads and fabrication errors of an increase of 0.2 mm in length for
tension members and 0.25 mm decrease in length for compression members. All
Other data remain unchanged. .

100 kN 100 kN

## B C -300 D B -0.75 C -0.75 D

-300

0
-375 125 125 -375 0 0 0 -0.625
100 100 -0.625 0.625 0.625

H F A H F E
A 225
E 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375
225 225 225
G G
100 kN 200 kN 100 kN 1
300 kN 300 kN 1/2
1/2

136
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 FP Fu L ( kN .mm ) F Fu  F
A mm 2 mm mm
AB -375 -0.625 5000 4500 260.42 -0.25 0.156
AH 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 0.20 0.075
BC -300 -0.75 3000 4500 168.7 -0.25 0.188
BG 125 0.625 5000 4500 86.8 0.20 0.125
CD -300 -0.75 3000 4500 168.7 -0.25 0.188
DE -375 -0.625 5000 4500 260.42 -0.25 0.156
DG 125 0.625 5000 4500 86.8 0.20 0.125
FG 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 0.20 0.075
EF 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 0.20 0.075
GH 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 0.20 0.075

FP Fu L
A
 1,256.81 F 
u F  1.238mm

FP FU L
 GV    Fu  F
AE

1000
 GV  1256 .81  1.238  7.518 mm 
2000
137
Problem
Determine the vertical deflection of point G of the truss given in the previous problem
due to the given loads and temperature increase of 200C . All Other data remain
unchanged. .   11.7 0m
m C

100 kN 100 kN

## B C -300 D B -0.75 C -0.75 D

-300

0
-375 125 125 -375 0 0 0 -0.625
100 100 -0.625 0.625 0.625

H F A H F E
A 225
E 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375
225 225 225
G G
100 kN 200 kN 100 kN 1
300 kN 300 kN 1/2 1/2

138
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 FP Fu L ( kN .mm ) Fu L
A mm 2 mm
AB -375 -0.625 5000 4500 260.42 -3125
AH 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 1125
BC -300 -0.75 3000 4500 168.7 -2250
BG 125 0.625 5000 4500 86.8 3125
CD -300 -0.75 3000 4500 168.7 -2250
DE -375 -0.625 5000 4500 260.42 -3125
DG 125 0.625 5000 4500 86.8 3125
FG 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 1125
EF 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 1125
GH 225 0.375 3000 4500 56.25 1125

FP Fu L
A
 1,256.81 F L  0
u

FP FU L
 GV    FuLT
AE
1000
 GV  1256 .81  0  6.28mm 
200000
139
Problem
For the truss shown in the figure , if E = 200 GPa, determine the following:
a) the vertical deflection of B
b) the horizontal deflection of C
c) the horizontal deflection of D

60 kN D 60 kN D

4m 4m
300 mm2 200 mm2 300 mm2 300 mm2 200 mm2 300 mm2

A Ax A
6m 6m 6m 6m

100 kN 100 kN
Ay Rc

## ∑MA = 0 100(6) + 60(4) - 12 Rc = 0 Rc = 70 kN

∑Fy = 0 Ay + Rc - 100= 0 Ay +70 -100 = 0 Ay = 30 kN
∑Fx = 0 Ax – 60 = 0 Ax = 60 kN

140
REAL SYSTEM CD
∑Fy =0
60 kN D 2 3.61 CD(2/3.61) – 70 = 0
CD = 126.35 kN (C)
3 C
-126.35 4m BC
∑Fx =0
-54.15 100
CD(3/3.61) – BC = 0
105 126.350(3/3.61) – BC = 0
105 B C
60 A BC= 105 kN (T)
6m 70
6m
BD = 100 kN (T)
100 kN
30 70
B 105
AB=105 kN (T)
3.61 2

3 105 100 kN
60 A
∑Fy =0
30

141
Virtual System for vertical deflection of B ∑Fy =0
CD CD(2/3.61) – 1/2 = 0
D CD = 0.90 (C)
2 3.61

4m
3 C ∑Fx =0
-0.90 BC CD(3/3.61) – BC = 0
-0.90 1
0.9(3/3.61) – BC = 0
BC= 0.75 (T)
0.75 0.75 C
A
6 mB 6m 1/2 By symmetry
AD =0.90 (C) AB = 0.75 (T)
By inspection BD = 1 (T)
1 kN
1/2 1/2 FP Fu L kN .mm
( )
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 A mm 2
AB 105 0.75 6000 300 1,575
AD -54.15 -0.90 7220 300 1,172.89
BC 105 0.75 6000 300 1,575
BD 100 1.0 4000 200 2,000
CD -126.35 -0.90 7220 300 2,736.74
FP Fu L kN .mm
Vertical deflection of B
 A  9059 .63 mm2
9059 .63(1000 )
 BV   45.5mm 
200000
142
Virtual System for horizontal deflection of C CD =0
D 2 3.61
2
3.61
3 C
BC=1 1 1 A 3 1
4m
0 0 0
AB = 1 BD =0
A 1 1 C
1 1
6 mB 6m 1
B

FP Fu L kN .mm
( )
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 A mm 2
AB 105 1.0 6000 300 2100
BC 105 1.0 6000 300 2100
FP Fu L kN .mm
 A  4200
mm2
Horizontal Deflection of point C
Fp FU L (4200 )1000
 CH   
AE 200000
 GH  21mm
143
Virtual system for horizontal deflection of D
1
D ∑Fy =0
2 3.61 CD(2/3.61) – 1/3 = 0
4m CD = 0.60 (C)
- 0.60 3 C
0.60 0 BC
∑Fx =0
0.50 0.50 CD(3/3.61) – BC = 0
Ax A C 0.6(3/3.61) – BC = 0
6 mB 6m BC= 0.5 (T)
1/3

Ay RC BD = 0

B 0.5
∑MA = 0 1(4) - 12 Rc = 0 Rc = 1/3 AB=0.5 (T)
∑Fy = 0 Ay - Rc = 0 Ay -1/3 = 0 Ay = 1/3 AD
∑Fx = 0 Ax – 1 = 0 Ax = 1 3.61 2

3 0.5
1 A
∑Fy =0
1/3

144
FP Fu L kN .mm
( )
Member Fp (kN) Fu L (mm) mm2 A mm 2
AB 105 0.50 6000 300 1,050
AD -54.15 0.60 7220 300 -781.93
BC 105 0.50 6000 300 1,050
CD -126.35 -0.60 7220 300 1,824.5
FP Fu L kN .mm
Horizontal deflection of D
 A  3142 .56 mm2
Fp FU L
 DH  
AE
3142 .56(1000 )
 DH   15.71mm 
200000

145
Midterm Exam

For the truss shown in figure, determine the vertical deflection of joint B
If E = 200GPa.

90 kN D

4m
400 mm2 200 mm2 400 mm2

## 300 mm2 B 300 mm2 C

A
6m 6m

100 kN

146
II
For the frame shown in the figure, determine the vertical deflection of point E.
Assume constant EI for all members.

C 18 kN/m
F
E
2m 3m

75 kN B

2m

A G

6m

147
ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS- the
process of determining the unkown reactions and end moments of
the beam so that the shear and moment diagrams of the beam can
be plotted.
Methods of analysis
1. METHOD OF SUPERPOSITION
2. THREE MOMENT EQUATION
3. MOMENT DISTRIBUTION METHOD
4. SLOPE DEFLECTION METHOD

## Method of Superposition - Apply known slope or deflection formulas

to obtain equations involving slope or deflections.
The following table will be useful in applying the method of superposition

148

PL 2
PL3
 
L 2 EI 3EI

P
w wL 3
wL4

L
  6 EI 8 EI

b P at center
Pb
(3L2  4b 2 )
 48 EI
L L b=distance of P from the
2 2
nearer support
149

3 4
w wL wL
  24 EI 30 EI
L
2
ML ML
 M
L
EI 2 EI
P
at supports at center
3
PL2 PL

L
2
L
2
16 EI 48 EI
w at supports at center
wL 3
5wL4
  384 EI
L
24 EI

150
w
A C
B iIlustration of method of superposition
a a

## w Remove redundant at B and solve for

B Vertical deflection at B due to the given
B
A C
5wL
B 
L = 2a 384 EI

B C
Remove applied loads and apply at RB at B
B Solve for Vertical deflection at B due to RB.
RB
RB L3
L = 2a B 
48 EI

By superposition of deflections;
 B   B  settlement of B
151
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by method of superposition.
Assume that support B does not settle.
60 kN 60 kN
3m 3m

W= 25 kN/m
A C
B
6m 6m
60 kN 60 kN
3m 3m

5wL4 Pb
B
w
B   (3L2  4b 2 )
B
A C 384 EI 48 EI

L = 12m

B RB L3
B C B 
48 EI
RB
L = 12 m
152
B  B
RB L3 5wL4 Pb
  (3L2  4b 2 )
48 EI 384 EI 48 EI

 
4
5( 25 )(12 )
RB (12)3   2(60)(3) 3(12) 2  4(3) 2
8
RB  270 kN

## 2(60)  25(12)  270

RA  RC   75kN
2

153
60 kN 60 kN
3m 3m 3m 3m

W =25 kN/m
A B C

75 kN 270 kN 75 kN

135
75
60
V-Diagram 1
MA’ = A1
2 MA’ = ½(75) 3 = 112.5 kN.m
-60
-75 MB – MA’ = A2
MB – 112.5 = -1/2(60+135) 3
-135 MB = - 180 kN.m

A A’ B
112.5 112.5
M-Diagram 0 0

-180
154
Problem
Analyze the beam given in the previous problem if B settles 18 mm vertically
down. E = 200000 MPa and I = 600 x 106 mm4.

 B  18   B

RB L3 5wL4 Pb
 18   (3L2  4b 2 )
48 EI 384 EI 48 EI
 
4
5( 25)(12000 )
RB (12000 ) 3  18(48 EI )   2(60)(1000 ) 2 (3) 3(12000 ) 2  4(3000 ) 2
8
18(48)200000 (500 )(10) 6
RB  3
 187500  82500
(12000 )
RB  220000 N  220 kN

## 2(60)  25(12)  220

RA  RC   100 kN
2

155
60 kN
3m 3m 3m 3m

W =25 kN/m
A B C

## 100 kN 220 kN 100 kN

100 110

25 35
V-Diagram 1
MA’ = A1
2 MA’ = ½(100) 3 = 150 kN.m
-25
-35
-100 MB – MA’ = A2
-110 MB – 150= -1/2(110+35) 3
MB = - 67.5 kN.m

A A’ B
150 150
M-Diagram 0 0

-67.5
156
Problem;
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown in figure.

48 kN
4m

24 kN/m
A B
6m
6m

RB

## wL4 PL12 PL12

1   2  2  2  2( )
24kN/m 8 EI 2 EI EI

1 PL 3 RB L3
6m 3  1 
3EI 3EI
48 kN 1   2   3   EQ. of Deformation
4m

3
wL4 PL12 PL13 R B L3
  
6m   2  2 8 EI EI 3EI 3EI

157
24(6) 4 48 ( 4 ) 3
R ( 6 ) 3
 48( 4) 2   B
48 kN 8 3 3
4m
RB = 78.89 RA = 24(6)+48 – 78.89 =113.11
24 kN/m
150.66 B MA = 78.89(6) – 48(4) – 24(6)(3) = -150.66 kN.m
A 6m
M C  M A  A1
113.11 78.89 M C  M A  A1
113.11 113 .11  17.11 
17.11 M C  (150 .66)    4
1  2 
V-Diagram -30.89 2 M C  109 .78kN .m
A C
-78.89 M B  M C  A2
109.78  30.89  78.89 
B M B  109 .78    2
 2 
M-Diagram
MB  0

-150.66 158
Continuous Beams :Three Moment Equation
A relation between the moments at any three points on a beam
and their relative vertical distances and deviation.

## SYMBOLS & NOTATIONS

Any Loading M1, M2, M3 = moments at points 1,2 & 3
L1 = horizontal distance between points
1 & 2, span # 1
L2 = horizontal distance between points
1 3 2 & 3, span # 2
h1 2 h3
h1=vertical deviation of point 1 with
L1 L2 respect to point 2
h3=vertical deviation of point 3 with
Moment diagram A1 Moment diagram respect to point 2
due to loads on L1 due to loads on L2 I1 = moment of inertia of section of span #1
I2 = moment of inertia of section of span #2
a1 A2 E1,E2 = modulus of elasticity of sections
of span #1 and #2
a2 A1a1 = moment of area of Moment diagram
Moment diagram
due to end M2
left end of span # 1
moments
L1 M3 A2a2 = moment of area of Moment diagram
right end of span # 2
L2
159
1

t1/ 2
h1 3

h1  t1/ 2 2
h3
t3 / 2
t3/ 2  h3
L1 L2

h1  t1/ 2 t3 / 2  h3 1 1 1 2
 A1a1  M 1 L1 ( L1 )  M 2 L1 ( L1 )
L1 L2 t1/ 2  2 3 2 3
E1 I1
1 1
t1/ 2 t3 / 2 h1 h3 A1a1  M 1 L1  M 2 L12
2
   EQ.1 6 3
L1 L2 L1 L2 t1/ 2  EQ.2
E1 I1

160
1 1 1 2
A2 a2  M 3 L2 ( L2 )  M 2 L2 ( L2 )
t3 / 2  2 3 2 3
E2 I 2
1 1
A2 a2  M 3 L2  M 2 L22
2

t3 / 2  6 3
EQ.3
E2 I 2
Substituting EQs 2 and 3 in EQ. 1
1 1 1 1
A1a1  M 1 L1  M 2 L1 A2 a2  M 3 L2  M 2 L22
2 2 2

6 3 6 3 h1 h3
  
E1 I1 L1 E2 I 2 L2 L1 L2
Multiplying by 6 and simplifying
M 1 L1  L1  M 3 L2  L2  6 A1a1 6 A2 a2  h1 h3 
 2M 2    2M 2     6  
E1 I1  E1 I1  E2 I 2  E2 I 2  E1 I1 L1 E2 I 2 L2  L1 L2 

M 1 L1  L1 L2  M 3 L2 6 A1a1 6 A2 a2  h1 h3 
 2M 2       6  
E1 I1  E1 I1 E2 I 2  E2 I 2 E1 I1 L1 E2 I 2 L2  L1 L2 

161
General Form of the three moment equation

M 1 L1  L1 L2  M 3 L2 6 A1a1 6 A2 a2  h1 h3 
 2M 2       6  
E1 I1  E1 I1 E2 I 2  E2 I 2 E1 I1 L1 E2 I 2 L2  L1 L2 

If E is constant
M 1L1  L1 L2  M 3 L2 6 A1a1 6 A2 a2  h1 h3 
 2M 2        6E   
I1  I1 I 2  I 2 I1L1 I 2 L2  L1 L2 
If E and I are constants
 h1 h3 
M 1 L1  2M 2 L1  L2   M 3 L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
  6 EI   
L1 L2  L1 L2 
If E and I are constants, h1 = h3 = 0

M 1 L1  2M 2 L1  L2   M 3 L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2

162
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
and span L1 L2
P
a b

L

Pa 2
L  a2  
Pb 2 2
L
L b 
L

w wL3 wL3
4 4
L

w
8 wL3 7 wL3
60 60
L

163
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
and span L1 L2

w 7 wL3 8 wL3
60 60
L

w wL3 5 wL3
4 32
L

a M
 M (3a 2  L2 ) M (3b 2  L2 )
b L L
L

164
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by three moment equation.
Assume constant EI.
48 kN 24 kN

6 kN/m
D
A B C
2m 3m 2m 2m 6m
Considering points A, B and C
MA = 0 6 A1a1 Pa 2
L1

L
L  a 
2 48(2)
5
5 2

 2 2  403 .2
L1 =5

   
L2 =4 6 A2 a2 Pb 2 2 24(2) 2 2
h1 =0  L b  4  2  144
h3 =0 L2 L 4

M A L1  2M B L1  L2   M C L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
2M B 5  4  4M C  403.2  144  0

## 18M B  4M C  547.2  0 EQ. 1

165
Considering points B ,C and D
MD = 0 6 A1a1 Pa 2
L1

L
 
L a 
2

4

24(2) 2

4  2 2  144
L1 =4
6 A2 a2 wL3 16(6)3
L2 =6    864
L2 4 4

 
M B L1  2M C L1  L2  M D L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
4M B  2M C 4  6  6(0)  144  864  0

M B  5M C  252  0 EQ. 2
M B  5M C  252
18(5M C  252)  4M C  547.2  0
 90 M C  4536  4M C  547.2  0 MC = -46.38 kN.m

MB = -20.1 kN.m

166
COMPUTATION OF REACTIONS

A B
C

Positive sense of end moments: if end moments are positive they must be
plotted as illustrated below, if negative plot it otherwise

## For interior reactions

A B B C
RB  RB1  RB 2
RA RB1 RB2 RC

Note:
After the end moments are plotted, neglect negative signs; in computing
reactions using ∑M = 0 positive moments depends on your assumption

167
48 kN

+
0 20.1 ∑MB = 0
A RA(5) + 20.1 – 48(3) = 0 RA = 24.78 kN
B

## 2m 3m ∑Fy = 0 RB1 + RA – 48 =0 RB1 = 23.22 kN

RA RB1
24 kN
+
∑MB = 0
20.1 46.38 RC1(4)- 46.38 +20.1 – 24(2) = 0 RC1 = 18.57 kN
C
B
∑Fy = 0 RB2 + RC1 – 24 =0 RB2 = 5.43 kN
2m 2m
RB2 RC1

+
0 ∑MC = 0
46.38 6 kN/m
RD(6)+46.38 –6 (6)3 = 0 RD = 10.27 kN
D
C
∑Fy = 0 RD + RC2 – 6(6) =0 RC2 =25.73 kN
6m
RC2 RD RB  RB1  RB 2  28.65kN
RC  RC1  RC 2  44.3kN
168
48 kN 24 kN

6 kN/m
D
A B C
2m 3m 2m 2m 6m
M1 = A1
24.78 28.65 44.3 10.27
M1 = 24.78(2) = 49.56
MB – M1 = A2
25.73 MB - 49.56= -23.22(3)
24.78 MB = -20.1
5
1 5.43 3 M2-MB = A3
4 6
2 M2- (-20.1) = 5.43(2)
-23.22 -18.57 -10.27 M =-9.24
4.29 1.71 2
MC – M2 =A4
B 2 C 3 D
A 1 MC-(-9.24)=-18.57(2)
49.56 MC = - 46.38
M3 – MC = A5
M3- (-46.38) =1/2(25.73)(4.29)
8.81 M3 =8.81
MD – M3 = A6
-9.24
MD -8.81 =1/2(10.2)(1.71)
MD =0
-20.1

-46.28 169
48 kN Problem
2m Analyze the indeterminate beam
64 kN Shown assuming constant EI.

16 kN/m
A
B C

2m 2m 6m

## Considering points A, B and C

MA = 0 6 A1a1 Pa
L1

L
 L a 2 2

4

64(2) 2 2

4  2  384 
L1 =4
L2 =6
L2 L
 4

6 A2 a2 Pb 2 2 wL3 48(4) 2 2 16(6)3
 L b  
6
6 4 
4

 1504 

M A L1  2M B L1  L2   M C L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
2M B 4  6  M C 6  384  1504  0
20 M B  6M C  1888  0 EQ.1
170
48 kN

64 kN

## 16 kN/m Imaginary span

D
B C
Note: all values for imaginary span is 0
A
2m 2m 6m

## Considering points B,C and D

   
MD = 0 6 A1a1 Pa wL3 48(2) 2 2 16(6)3
 L a 2

2
6 2   1376
L1 L 4 6 4
L1 =6 6 A2 a2
L2 =0 0
L2

M B L1  2M C L1  L2   M D L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
6M B  2M C 6  1376  0

3M B  6M C  688  0 EQ. 2

171
20 M B  6M C  1888  0
3M B  6M C  688  0
17 M B  1200  0 MB = -70.59 kN.m MC = -79.37 kN.m

64 kN

+
0 70.59 ∑MB = 0
A RA(4) + 70.59 – 64(2) = 0 RA = 14.35 kN
B
2m 2m ∑Fy = 0 RB1 + RA – 64 =0 RB1 = 49.65 kN
RA RB1
48 kN
+
∑MB = 0
2m
RC(6)+ 70.59 - 79.37 – 48(2)- 16(6)3 = 0
RC = 65.46 kN
70.59 16 kN/m 79.37
∑Fy = 0 RB2 + RC – 48 – 16(6)=0 RB2 = 78.54 kN
B C
6m RB  RB1  RB 2  128.19kN
RB2 RC

172
48 kN

2m
64 kN

16 kN/m
A 2m 2m
B C M1 – MA = A 1
M1 – 0 = 14.35(2)
6m
65.46 M1 = 28.7 kN.m
14.35 128.19 MB - M1 =A2
78.54 MB – 28.7 =- 49.65(2)
46.54
MB = -70.59 kN.m
14.35 3 M2 – M3 =A3
1
M2 –(-70.59) = ½(78.54+46.54)2
2 -1.46 4 M2 = 54.49 kN.m
-49.65 MC – M2 = A 4
-65.46 MC- 54.49=-1/2(1.46+65.46)4
A 1 B 2 C
54.49 MC = - 79.37 kN.m

28.7

-70.59
-79.37 173
90 kN 114 kN Problem:
2m Analyze the indeterminate beam
36 kN/m shown assuming constant EI.

A B C D

1m 2m 2m 5m 2m

90 kN 114 kN
Considering points A’, A and B
2m 36 kN/m MA’ = 0 L1 =0 L2 =3
6 A1a1
A’ A B C D 0
L1
5m
1m 2m 2m 2m

L2

L

L b  
6 A2 a2 Pb 2 2 90(1) 2 2
3

3  1  240
M A' L1  2M A L1  L2   M B L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
2 M A 0  3  3M B  240  0

## 3M A  1.5M B  120  0  EQ.1

174
Considering points A, B and C

L1

L

6 A1a1 Pa 2

L  a2 
3

90(2) 2 2

3  2  300
L1 =3
L2 =4
L2

L

L b 
6 A2 a2 Pb 2 2 114 (2) 2 2
4

4  2  684 

M A L1  2M B L1  L2   M C L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
3M A  2M B 3  4  4M C  300  684  0

3M A  14 M B  4M C  984  0  EQ.2
subtract
3M A  1.5M B  120  0  EQ.1
12.5M B  4M C  864  0  EQ.3

175
Considering points B ,C and D

D
36 kN/m
L1 =4
6 A1a1 Pa 2
L1

L
L  a 2

114 (2) 2
4
 4  22
 684
L2 =5
3 3
6 A a wL 36 (5 )
2m 2 2
   1125
MD =-36(2)(1)= -72 kN.m L2 4 4

M B L1  2M C L1  L2   M D L2 
6 A1a1 6 A2 a2
 0
L1 L2
4M B  2M C 4  5  5(72)  684  1125  0
Divide by 4.5 4M B  2M C 4  5  1449  0
12.5M B  4M C  864  0  EQ.3
subtract 0.89 M B  4M C  322  0  EQ.4
11.61M B  542  0 M B  46.68kN .m
0.89(46.68)  4M C  322  0 M C  70.11kN .m
3M A  1.5M B  120  0  EQ.1
3M  1.5(46.68)  120  0 M A  16.66 kN .m
A

## Check 3(16.66)  14(46.68)  4(70.11)  984  0 176

90 kN
+
2m ∑MA = 0
16.66 46.68 RB1(3)+ 16.66 – 46.68 – 90(2) = 0
B RB1 = 70 kN
A
RA 1m ∑Fy = 0 RB1 + RA – 90 =0 RA = 20 kN
RB1
114 kN
+
∑MB = 0
RC1(4)+ 46.68 – 70.11 – 114(2) = 0
46.68 70.11
RC1 = 62.86 kN
B C
∑Fy = 0 RB2 + RC 1– 114 =0 RB2 = 51.14 kN
2m 2m
RB2 RC1

+
∑MC = 0
70.11 36 kN/m RD(5)+ 70.11 – 36(7)3.5 = 0
RD = 162.38 kN
C D
∑Fy = 0 RC2 + RD – 36(7)=0 Rc2 = 89.62 kN
5m
RC2 RD 2 m
RB = 70 + 51.14 =121.14 kN
RC = 62.86 + 89.62 = 152.48 kN
177
90 kN 114 kN
Point of zero shear
2m 36 kN/m 36x = 92.03 x = 2.56

16.66
B C M1 – MA = A1
A D
M1 – (-16.66) = 20(2)
1m 2m 2m 5m 2m M1 = 23.34 kN.m
20 121.14 152.48 162.38 MB - M1 =A2
89.62
72
MB – 23.34 =- 70(1)
51.14 MB = -46.68 kN.m
20 3 5 M2 – MB =A3
7
1 M2 –(-46.68) =(51.14)2
M2 = 55.6 kN.m
2 6
-70
4 MC – M2 = A4
-62.86 2.49 MC- 55.6= -(62.86)2
-90.38 MC = - 70.11 kN.m
2.51
M3 – Mc = A5
A 1 B 2 C 3 D E M3- (-70.11)= 1/2(89.62)2.49
56.12 M3 = 41.47 kN.m
23.34 35.73 MD – M3 = A6
0 MD- 41.47= -1/2(90.48)2.51
MD = - 72 kN.m
ME – MD = A7
-16.66
-46.68 -72 ME-(- 72)= 1/2(72)2
ME = 0
-70.11
178
Plate # 8 : Three Moment Equation

90 +NkN 124+N kN
Analyze the indeterminate beams
26N kN/m shown by using the three
moment equation.
A B C D E
3m 2m 2m 5m 2m

48+2N kN 24+3N kN

4N kN/m
D
A B C
2m 3m 2m 2m 6m

179
MOMENT DISTRIBUTION

## Carry over moment – the moment induced at fixed end of

a beam by the action of a moment applied at the other
end. When a moment MB is applied at B and flexes the
beam it induced a wall moment MA at A such that :
1
MA   MB
2
MB
-1/2MB
B
 A

## Beam stiffness – the moment required by the simply supported end of a

beam to produce a unit rotation of that end the other end being rigidly
fixed. 4 EI
MB 
L 4 EI I
Absolute stiffness k abs  Relative Stiffness k
L L
180
Distribution Factors of any member of joint
k
DF 
k
k = stiffness of the member
∑k = sum of stiffness of all members meeting at the joint
Convention of signs for fixed end moment
- +- +
A B C

Member BA Member
Joint B BC
Joint B
For external supports

## Fixed end Hinged end

DF= 0 DF= 1.0

181
P
a b
 Pab2 Pa 2 b
A B L2 L2
L

w  wL2 wL2
A B 12 12
L

w  wL2 wL2
A B 30 20
L

182

  6 EI  6 EI
A B L2 L2
L

w  5wL2 5 wL2
A B 96 96
L

w  wL2 wL2
A B 20 30
L

183
General Procedure: Moment Distribution
1. Lock all joints against rotation. Compute the fixed end moments. k
2. Compute the distribution factors of each member of joint using DF 
3. Prepare the table of moment distribution. Indicate by arrows how the
k
moments will be distributed to adjacent joints
4. Unlock each support and compute the balancing moment (BM)
using BM =( Sum or Difference in moment at joint)DF
sign of BM - take the sign of the moment with the smaller absolute value;
if the moments are of the same sign take the opposite sign
Sum – if the moments are of the same sign
Difference- if the moments are of opposite sign
5. Carry over one half of BM to the adjacent joints as indicate by the arrows
in step 3
6. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the moment to be distributed becomes
negligible

## MODIFIED STIFFNESS METHOD

For continuous beams with hinge or rollers ends the moment at this end is
zero. Multiplying the stiffness of this member by ¾ eliminates any further
distribution of moment at this ends.

184
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by moment distribution method .
Using the modified stiffness method. Assume constant EI.
30 kN

B 24 kN/m
A
C
5m 3m 5m

## Fixed end Moments

 Pab2  30(5)(3) 2
M FAB  2
 2
 21.09 kN .m
L 8

Pba2 30(3)(5) 2
M FBA  2  2
 35.15kN .m
L 8
 wL2  24(5) 2
M FBC    50 kN .m
12 12

185
wL2 24(5) 2
M FCB    50kN .m
12 12
Member Absolute K Relative K

## BC,CB I/5 1/5(40)= 8

k
Distribution Factors DF 
k
DFAB  1.0
k BA 5
DFBA    0.38 Note: in any interior joint, the sum
k BA  k BC 5  8 of the distribution factors is 1.

k BC 8
DFBC    0.62
k BA  k BC 5  8

DFCB  0

186
Moment Distribution Table ( Regular Method)

Joint A B C
Member AB BA BC CB
DF 1.0 0.38 0.62 0

## BM 21.09 5.64 9.21

COM 2.82 10.54 4.6
BM -2.82 - 4.0 -6.54
COM - 2.0 -1.41 -3.27
BM 2. 0 0.54 0.87
COM 0.27 1. 0 0. 43
BM -0.27 - 0.38 -0.62
COM -0.19 - 0.13 -0.31
BM 0.19 0.06 0.07
COM 0.03 0.09 0.03
BM - 0.03 -0.04 -0.05
COM -0.02 -0.01 -0.02
BM 0.02 0.00 0.01
Final End Moment 0 47.05 -47.05 51.4 6
Plotting of end moments + -

187
Using Modified Stiffness Method

## BC,CB I/5 (1/5) ( 1/5)(40)= 8

Distribution Factors

DFAB  1.0
k BA 3.75
DFBA    0.32
k BA  k BC 3.75  8

k BC 8
DFBC    0.68
k BA  k BC 3.75  8

DFCB  0

188
Moment Distribution Table ( Modified Stiffness Method)

Joint A B C
Member AB BA BC CB
DF 1.0 0.32 0.68 0

## FEM -21.09 35.15 - 50 50

BM 21.09
COM 10.54
Adjusted FEM 0 45.69 -50 50
BM 1.38 2.93
COM 1.46
Final End Moment 0 47.07 -47.07 51.46

189
30 kN +
∑MA = 0
47.07 RB1(8)- 47.07– 30(5) = 0
A B RB 1= 24.63 kN
∑Fy = 0 RB1 - RA – 30 =0 RA = 5.37 kN
5m 3m
RA
RB1

+ ∑MB = 0
47.07 51.46 RC(5)+ 47.07- 51.46 – 24(5)2.5 = 0
B 24 kN/m
RC = 60.88kN
C ∑Fy = 0 RB2 + RC – 24(5) =0 RB2 = 59.12kN
5m
RB = 24.63 + 59.12 = 83.75 kN
RB2 RC

190
30 kN M 1  M A  A1
B 24 kN/m M 1  0  5.37 (5)
A C
M 1  26.85
5m 3m 5m
M B  M 1  A2
5.37 83.75 60.88
59.12
M B  26.85  24.63(3)
5.37
1 3 M B  47.07
4
M 2  M B  A3
2
-24.63 -60.88
A 1
2.46 2.54
M 2  (47.07 )  (59.12)( 2.46)
26.85 B 25.64 2
M 2  25.64
C M C  M 2  A4
2
1
M C  (25.64)   (60.88)( 2.54)
-47.07 2
M C  51.46
-51.46
191
Plate # 9 : Moment Distribution

90 +NkN 124+N kN
Analyze the indeterminate beams
26N kN/m shown by using the moment
Distribution method
A B C D E
3m 2m 2m 5m 2m

48+2N kN 24+3N kN

4N kN/m
D
A B C
2m 3m 2m 2m 6m

192
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by moment distribution method .
Assume constant E.
120 kN
36 kN/m
B 24 kN/m
A
I I C 2I D
5m 3m 5m 9m

## Fixed end Moments

 Pab2  120 (5)(3) 2
M FAB  2
 2
 66.67 kN .m
L 8
Pba2 120 (3)(5) 2
M FBA  2  2
 140 .6kN .m
L 8
 wL  24(5)
2 2  wL2  36(9) 2
M FBC    50 kN .m M FCD    243kN .m
12 12 12 12
2
wL 24(5) 2 wL2 36(9) 2
M FCB    50kN .m M FDC    243kN .m
12 12 12 12
193
Using Modified Stiffness Method

## CD,DC 2I/9 (2I/9) ( 2/9)(360)=80

Distribution Factors
DFAB  1.0
k BA 33.75 kCB 72
DFBA    0.32 DFCB    0.47
k BA  k BC 33.75  72 kCB  kCD 72  80

k BC 72 kCD 80
DFBC    0.68 DFCD    0.53
k BA  k BC 33.75  72 kCB  kCD 72  80

DFDC  0
194
Moment Distribution Table ( Modified Stiffness Method)
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 1.0 0.32 0.68 0.47 0.53 0

## FEM -66.67 140.6 - 50 50 -243 243

BM 66.67
COM 33.33
ADJUSTED 0 173.93 - 50 50 -243 243
FEM
BM -39.66 -84.27 90.71 102.29
COM 45.35 -42.13 51.14
BM -14.51 -30.84 19.80 22.33
COM 9.90 -15.32 11.16
BM -3.17 -6.73 7.2 8.12
COM 3.60 - 3.36 4.06
BM -1.15 -2.45 1.58 1.78
COM 0.79 -1.22 0.89
BM -0.25 -0.54 0.57 0.65
COM 0.28 -0.27 0.32
BM -0.09 -0.19 0.13 0.14
Final End 0 115.1 -115.1 107.69 -107.69 310.57
Moment
120 kN

B 115.1
24 kN/m 107.69 107.69 36 kN/m
A 115.1 B 310.57

5m 3m C C D
5m 9m

## RA  30.16 R B1 RB 2 RC1 RC 2 RD  184 .54

M B 0 + M C 0
8RA  115.1  120(3)  0 5RB 2  107.69  115.1  24(5)2.5  0
+ D
R  30.61kN  RB 2  61.48kN  M 0
A

## F y 0 F y 0 9 RC 2  310 .57  107 .69  36(9)4.5  0

RB1  30.61  120  0 RC1  61.48  24(5)  0 RC 2  139 .46kN 
RB1  89.39kN  RC1  58.52kN  F y 0
RD  139 .46  36(9)  0
RD  184 .54kN 
196
120 kN RB  89.39  61.48

B 24 kN/m
36 kN/m
RB  150 .87 kN 
A
I I C 2I D
RC  58.52  139.46
5m 3m 5m 9m
RC  197.98kN 
RC  197.98
R A  30.61 RB  150 .87 RD  184 .54
61.48 139.46

M 1  A1
30.61

1 3 5
1
4 3.87 M 1  30.61(5)  153 .05
2 6
M B  M 1  A2
2.56

-89.39 -58.52

A
M B  153 .05  89.39(3)
1 B 2 C 3
153.05 -184.54
M B  115 .1
162.16

D M 2  M B  A3
1
-36.4
M 2  (115 .1)  (61.48)(2.56)
2
-115.1 -107.69 M 2  36.4
310.57 197
120 kN RB  89.39  61.48

B 24 kN/m
36 kN/m
RB  150 .87 kN 
A
I I C 2I D
RC  58.52  139.46
5m 3m 5m 9m
RC  199.28kN 
RC  199.28
R A  30.61 RB  150 .87 RD  184 .54
61.48 139.46

M 1  A1
30.61

1 3 5
1
4 3.87 M 1  30.61(5)  153 .05
2 6
M B  M 1  A2
2.56

-89.39 -58.52

A
M B  153 .05  89.39(3)
1 B 2 C 3
153.05 -184.54
M B  115 .1
162.16

D M 2  M B  A3
1
-36.4
M 2  (115 .1)  (61.48)(2.56)
2
-115.1 -107.69 M 2  36.4
310.57 198
M C  M 2  A4
1
M C  (36.4)   (58.42)(2.44)
2
M C  107 .69

M 3  M C  A5
1
M 3  (107.69)  (139.46)(3.87)
2
M 3  162.16

M D  M 3  A6
1
M D  (162 .16)   (184 .54)(5.13)
2
M D  310 .57

199
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by moment distribution method .
Support B settle down 10 mm. E= 200 GPa ,I = 600 x 106 mm4

B
A
C
5m 3m 5m 10 mm

N
 6 EI mm2
mm 4
mm 6 EI
M FAB    N .mm M FBC  2
L2
mm 2 L
6(200000 )600 (10) 610 6(200000 )600(10) 610 1
M FAB  x
1 M FBC  2
x
(8000 ) 2 (10) 6 (5000 ) (10) 6
M FAB  112.5kN .m M FBC  288kN .m

 6 EI 6 EI
M FBA  M FCB  2
L2 L
M FBA  112 .5kN .m M FCB  288kN .m
200
Member Absolute K M0dified K Relative K

## BC,CB I/5 1/5(160)= 32

k
Distribution Factors DF 
k
DFAB  1.0
k BA 15
DFBA    0.32
k BA  k BC 15  32

k BC 32
DFBC    0.68
k BA  k BC 15  32

DFCB  0

201
Moment Distribution Table ( Modified Stiffness Method)

Joint A B C
Member AB BA BC CB
DF 1.0 0.32 0.68 0
FEM -112.5 -112.5 288 288
BM 112.5
COM 56.25

## Adjusted FEM 0 -56.25 288 288

BM -74.16 -157.59
COM -78.79
Final end moment 0 -130.41 130.41 209.21

202
B 130.41
A B
130.41 209.21

5m C
3m
5m

RA RC
R B1 RB 2
M B 0
M B 0
R A (8)  130 .41  0
RC (5)  130 .41  209 .21  0
R A  16.3kN 
RC  67.92 kN 
RB1  16.3kN 
RB 2  67.92 kN 

## RB  16.3  67.92  84.22kN 

203
B
A
C
5m 3m 5m 10 mm

RC  67.92kN M B  M A  A1
RA  16.3kN
RB  84.22 kN M B  0  16.3(8)
16.3
M B  130 .41
1 M C  M B  A2
M C  130 .41  (67.92)5
2
M C  209 .21
-67.92
130.41

-209.21 204
Moment Distribution Table ( Modified Stiffness Method)

Joint A B C
Member AB BA BC CB
DF 1.0 0.32 0.68 0

## FEM -21.09 35.15 - 50 50

BM 21.09
COM 10.54
BM 1.38 2.93
COM 1.46
Final End Moment 0 47.07 -47.07 51.46

205
SLOPE DEFLECTION METHOD

The slope deflection equations relate the moments at the end of the member
Of the member to the rotation and displacements of its ends and the external

F
N

F
F

N N 

L
206
Slope deflection equation

2 EI 
M NF  (2 N   F  3 )  FEM NF 
L L

Where :
M NF = end moment
N = rotation at the near end of the member

##  = rotation of the chord joining the elastic curve at the near

and far ends of the member
FEM NF = fixed end moment due to the loadings in the member
 = settlement of support

## Note: member end moments, end rotations, are positive when

clockwise
subscript N refers to the near end of the member
subscript F refers to the far end of the member
Use the same sign convention for FEM as in moment distribution
207
Degree s of Freedom
The unknown joint displacements(translation and rotation) are referred to as the
degrees of freedom of the structure. The number of degrees is called degree
of kinematic indeterminacy. If a structure does not have a degree of freedom
then it is called kinematically determinate.

## Equations of Equilibrium of Interior Joints

Because the entire structure are in equilibrium, each of its members and joints
must also be in equilibrium thus in the figure below;

M BA M BC

## M BA  M BC  0  Joint condition equation

208
Analysis of Continuous beams by slope deflection method

## 1. Identify the degrees of freedom of the structure. For continuous beams,

the degrees of freedom consist of the unknown rotation of joints.
2. Compute the fixed end moments using the same table in moment distribution.
3. If there are support setllements, determine the rotation of the chords of the

members adjacent to the supports by

L
4. Write the slope deflection equation of each member in terms of the
end moments, rotations of adjacent supports and chord rotation.
5. Write equilibrium equations for each joint that are free to rotate. The total
number of equilibrium equations must be equal to the number of degrees of
freedom of the structure.
6. Determine the unknown joint rotations by solving simutaneuosly the system
of equations consisting the slope deflection equations of the members and the
equations of equilibrium. Check the validity of results if necessary.
7. Substitute the computed values of the rotations in the slope deflection
equations to determine the end moments.
8. Using the values of the end moments , determine support reactions
9. Draw the shear and moment diagrams.

209
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by slope deflection method .
Assume constant EI.
30 kN

B 24 kN/m
A
C
5m 3m 5m

## Fixed end Moments

 Pab2  30(5)(3) 2
M FAB  2
 2
 21.09 kN .m
L 8
For all members

## Pba2 30(3)(5) 2  0 Since there are no

M FBA  2  2
 35.15kN .m Support settlement
L 8
 wL2  24(5) 2
M FBC    50 kN .m
12 12
wL2 24(5) 2
M FCB    50kN .m 210
12 12
Member Absolute K Relative K

## BC,CB I/5 1/5(40)= 8

2 EI
M NF  (2 N   F  3 )  FEM NF
L
Modified slope deflection equation

M NF  2k NF (2 N   F )  FEM NF

M AB  2k AB (2 A   B )  FEM AB
0  2(5)(2 A   B )  21.09
0  20 A  10 B  21.09  EQ.1

211
M BA  2k BA (2 B   A )  FEM BA
M BA  2(5)(2 B   A )  35.15
M BA  10 A  20 B  35.15  EQ.2
M BC  2k BC (2 B   C )  FEM BC
 C  0  fixedEnd
M BC  2(8)( 2 B  0)  50
M BC  32 B  50  EQ.3
JOINT CONDITION EQUATION

M BA  M BC  0
10 A  20 B  35.15  32 B  50  0
10 A  52 B  14.85  0
20 A  104 B  29.7  0  EQ.4 212
20 A  104 B  29.7  0  EQ.4
20 A  10 B  21.09  0  EQ.1
SUBTRACT
94 B  8.61  0
 B  0.091596
20 A  10(0.091596 )  21.09  0
 A  1.0087
M BA  10 A  20 B  35.15  EQ.2
M BA  10(1.0087 )  20(0.091596 )  35.15  47.06kN .m
M BC  32 B  50  EQ.3
M BC  32(0.091596 )  50  47.06kN .m
M CB  2kCB (2 C   B )  FEMCB
M CB  2(8)(0.091596 )  50  51.46kN .m 213
Problem
Analyze the indeterminate beam shown by slope deflection method .
Assume constant E.
120 kN
36 kN/m
B 24 kN/m
A
I I C 2I D
5m 3m 5m 9m

## Fixed end Moments

 Pab2  120 (5)(3) 2
M FAB  2
 2
 66.67 kN .m
L 8
Pba2 120 (3)(5) 2
M FBA  2  2
 140 .6kN .m
L 8
 wL  24(5)
2 2  wL2  36(9) 2
M FBC    50 kN .m M FCD    243kN .m
12 12 12 12
2
wL 24(5) 2 wL2 36(9) 2
M FCB    50kN .m M FDC    243kN .m
12 12 12 12
214
Member Absolute K Relative K

## AB,BA I/8 (1/8)360=45

BC,CB I/5 (1/5)360=72

## CD,DC 2I/9 (2/9)360=80

M AB  2k AB (2 A   B )  FEM AB
0  2(45)(2 A   B )  66.67
0  180 A  90 B  66.67  EQ.1
M BA  2k BA (2 B   A )  FEM BA
M BA  2(45)(2 B   A )  140.6
M BA  90 A  180 B  140 .6  EQ.2
215
M BC  2k BC (2 B   C )  FEM BC
M BC  2(72)(2 B   C )  50
M BC  288 B  144 C  50  EQ.3
JOINT CONDITION EQUATION at B
M BA  M BC  0
90 A  180 B  140 .6  288 B  144 C  50  0
90 A  468 B  144 C  90.6  0  EQ.4
M CB  2kCB (2 C   B )  FEM CB
M CB  2(72)(2 C   B )  50
M CB  144 B  288 C  50  EQ.5

216
M CD  2kCD (2 C   D )  FEM CD
 D  0  fixedEnd
M CD  2(80)(2 C  0)  243
M CD  320 C  243  EQ.6
JOINT CONDITION EQUATION at C

M CB  M CD  0
144 B  288 C  50  320 C  243  0
144 B  608 C  193  0  EQ.7
Divide EQ. 1 by 2

## 90 A  45 B  33.34  0  EQ.8

90 A  468 B  144C  90.6  0  EQ.4
subtract
90 A  45 B  33.34  0  EQ.8
423 B  144 C  123 .94  0  EQ.9
Multiply EQ. 7 by 2.9375

## 423 B  1786C  566.94  0  EQ.10

subtract
423 B  144 C  123 .94  0  EQ.9
1642 C  690 .88  0
 C  0.420755
423 B  144 (0.420755 )  123 .94  0
 B  0.436238
90 A  45(0.436238 )  33.34  0
 A  0.588563
218
check

## 90(0.588563 )  468(0.436238 )  144(0.420755 )  90.6  0

0.000006  0  A  0.588563  B  0.436238  C  0.420755

## M BA  90 A  180 B  140 .6

M BA  90(0.588563 )  180 (0.436238 )  140 .6  115 .05kN .m
M BC  288 B  144 C  50
M BC  288(0.436238 )  144 (0.420755 )  50  115 .05kN .m
M CB  144 B  288 C  50
M CB  144 (0.436238 )  288(0.420755 )  50  108 .36 kN .m
M CD  320 C  243
M CD  320 (0.420755 )  243  108 .36kN .m
M DC  2k DC (2 D   C )  FEM DC
M DC  2(80)( C )  243
M DC  160 C  243
219
M DC  160 (0.420755 )  243  310 .32 kN .m
Plate # 10: Slope Deflection Method

Draw the shear and Moment diagrams of the beam shown using the
slope deflection method . Assume constant E.

125+N kN
24N kN/m
B 16N kN/m
A
2I I C 2I D
6m 3m 5m 8m

220
ANALYSIS OF RIGID FRAMES WITHOUT SIDESWAY
The analysis of rigid frames without sideway is similar to the analysis of
continuous beams. The joints are only subject to rotations. This could
be analyzed by either moment distribution or slope deflection method

## Problem : Analyze the rigid frame shown by moment distribution.

Assume that there is no sidesway

B 16 kN/m
C
2I

4m
I I

A D

6m
221
wL2 16(6) 2 wL2 16(6) 2
M FBC    48kN .m M FCB    48kN .m
12 12 12 12
Member Absolute K Relative K

## CD,DC I/4 1/4(12)= 3

k
Distribution Factors DF 
DFAB  0
k
k BA 3 kCD 3
DFBA    0.43 DFCD    0.43
k BA  k BC 4  3 kCB  kCD 4  3
k BC 4
DFBC    0.57 DFDC  0
k BA  k BC 4  3
kCB 4
DFCB    0.57
kCB  kCD 4  3
222
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.43 0.57 0.57 0.43 0
FEM 0 0 -48 48 0 0
BM 20.64 27.36 -27.36 -20.64 0
COM 10.32 -13.68 13.68 -10.32
BM 5.88 7.8 -7.8 - 5.88
COM 2.94 -3.9 3.9 - 2.94
BM 1.68 2.22 -2.22 -1.68
COM 0.84 -1.11 1.11 - 0.84
BM 0.48 0.63 -0.63 -0.48
COM 0.24 -0.31 0.31 - 0.24
BM 0.13 0.18 -0.18 -0.13
COM 0.06 -0.09 0.09 - 0.06
BM 0.04 0.05 -0.05 -0.04
COM 0.02 -0.03 0.03 - 0.02
BM 0.01 0.02 -0.02 -0.01
Final
End Moment 14.42 28.86 -28.86 28.86 -28.86 -14.42

223
VB VC
28.86 28.86

B HB C HC

4 4

A D
HA HD
14.42 14.42

VA VD

M B 0 M C 0
14.42  28.86  H A 4  0 14.42  28.86  H D 4  0
H A  10.82 kN  H D  10.82 kN 

224
28.86
M B 0
28.86B 16 kN/m
C 28.86  28.86  16(6)3  VC 6  0
2I
VC  48kN 
6m VC VD  VC  48kN 
VB
F y 0
VB  48  16(6)  0
VB  48kN 
VA  48kN 

225
B 16 kN/m
C
2I

4m
I I

A D
10.82 10.82

14.42 14.42

48 48
ANALYSIS OF RIGID FRAMES WITH SIDESWAY
The analysis of rigid frames without sideway is similar to the analysis of
continuous beams. The joints are only subject to rotations and
translation ( sidesway). This could be analyzed by either moment
distribution or slope deflection method.

 

= Joint translation
y z or sidesway

M AB M DC
HA A HD' D

VA VD
Procedure
Step 1 : Hold frame at C to prevent sidesway by applying
an imaginary horizontal (R) force at C. Determine the

R

y z

M AB ' M DC '
H A' A HD' D

Note:
VA ' VD '
M AB ' , M BA ' , M BC ' ,..... M DC ' are the end moments due to the given
Step 2
Isolate the FBD of the columns and using the resulting end moments determine
horizontal reactions HA’ and HD’.

M BA '
B
M B 0
y M AB ' M BA ' H A ' y  0
M AB ' M BA '
H A'
y
A
M AB ' H A '

M CD '
C
M C 0

z
M CD ' M DC ' H D ' z  0
M CD ' M DC '
HD'
D
z
M DC ' H D '
229
Step 3
From the FBD of the frame solve for R

R

y z

M AB ' M DC '
H A' A HD' D

F x 0
R  H A ' H D '

230
Step 4
Remove all loads and push the frame at C to produce sideway
Assume the value of the sideway in terms of the unknown sidesway
correction Factor x. By slope deflection or moment distribution
Solve for the end moments in terms of x.
Example
  100
C
 x
B Q EI

y z
6 EI
M AB ' ' M DC ' ' M FAB  M FBA   2
L
HD ''
6 EI
D
H A'' A

M FCD  M FDC   2
VA ' ' L
Note:
VD ' '
M AB ' ' , M BA ' ' , M BC ' ' ,..... M DC ' ' are the end moments due to 
231
Step 5
Isolate the FBD of the columns and using the resulting end moments determine
horizontal reactions HA’ ‘and HD’’.

M BA ' '
B
M B 0
y M AB ' ' M BA ' ' H A ' ' y  0
M AB ' ' M BA ' '
H A''
y
A
M AB ' ' H A ' '

M CD ' '
M
C
C 0
z M CD ' ' M DC ' ' H D ' ' z  0
M CD ' ' M DC ' '
HD ''
D
z
M DC ' ' H D ' '
232
Step 5
From the FBD of the frame solve for Q

  F x 0
B
C
Q Q  H A ' ' H D ' '

y z

## M AB ' ' M DC ' '

H A'' A HD '' D

233
Step 6
Since Q and R are imaginary they must be equal thus equating values of
R and Q determines the value of x

## Note : If Q and R are of opposite direction x is positive

If Q and R are of the same direction x is negattive

Step 7
Determine the end moments and reactions

## M AB  M AB ' M AB ' ' H A  H A ' H A ' '

M BA  M BA ' M BA ' ' H D  H D ' H D ' '
M BC  M BC ' M BC ' ' V A  V A 'V A ' '
M CB  M CB ' M CB ' '
VD  VD 'VD ' '
M CD  M CD ' M CD ' '
M DC  M DC ' M DC ' '
234
Problem : Analyze the rigid frame shown by moment distribution.
Assume that there is sidesway

B 16 kN/m
C
2I

4m
I 2I

8m
A

6m D

235
Frame A

B 16 kN/m C
R
2I

4m
I
8m
2I
H A' A

M AB '
VA ' 6m
D
HD'
M DC '
VD ' 236
wL2 16(6) 2 wL2 16(6) 2
M FBC    48kN .m M FCB    48kN .m
12 12 12 12
Member Absolute K Relative K

## CD,DC 2I /8)=I/4 1/4(12)= 3

k
Distribution Factors DF 
DFAB  0
k
k BA 3 kCD 3
DFBA    0.43 DFCD    0.43
k BA  k BC 4  3 kCB  kCD 4  3
k BC 4
DFBC    0.57 DFDC  0
k BA  k BC 4  3
kCB 4
DFCB    0.57
kCB  kCD 4  3
237
Moment Distribution Table due to Loads
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.43 0.57 0.57 0.43 0
FEM 0 0 -48 48 0 0
BM 20.46 27.64 -27.54 -20.46 0
COM 10.23 -18.82 18.82 -10.23
BM 8.09 10.73 -10.73 -8.09
COM 4.04 -5.36 5.36 - 4.04
BM 2.30 3.06 -3.06 -2.30
COM 1.15 -1.53 1.53 - 1.15
BM 0.66 0.87 -0.87 -0.66
COM 0.33 -0.43 0.43 - 0.33
BM 0.19 0.24 -0.24 -0.19
COM 0.09 -0.12 0.12 - 0.09
BM 0.05 0.07 -0.07 -0.05
COM 0.02 -0.03 0.03 - 0.02
BM 0.01 0.02 -0.02 -0.01
End Moment
15.86 31.76 -31.76 31.76 -31.76 -15.86

M AB '  15.86 M BA '  31.76 M BC '  31.76 M CB ' 31.76 M CD '  31.76 M DC '  15.86
238
VB ' VC '
31.76 31.76

B C
8m
4 From FBD of frame A

F x 0
A
H A' 11.91  5.95  R  0
15.86 R  5.96 kN 

VA ' D HD'
M B 0 15.86

## 15.86  31.76  H A '4  0 VD '

H A '  11.91kN  M C 0
15.86  31.76  H D '8  0
239
H D '  5.95kN 
Frame B
 
B C Q
2I Assume
120
4m  x
I
EI
2I

8m
A

6m D

120
 6 EI x
6 EI EI  45 x
M FAB  M FBA  
L2 42
120
 6E 2I x
6 EI EI  22.5 x
M FCD  M FDC   2
 2
L 8
240
Moment Distribution Table due to 
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.43 0.57 0.57 0.43 0
FEM -45x -45x -22.5x -22.5x
BM 19.35x 25.65x 12.82x 9.68x
COM 9.67x 6.41x 12.32x 4.84x
BM -2.76x -3.65x -7.02x -5.3x
COM -1.38x - 3.51x -1.82x -2.65x
BM 1.65x 1.86x 1.04x 0.78x
COM 0.82x 0.52x 0.93x 0.39x
BM -0.24x - 0.28x -0.53x -0.4x
COM -0.12x -0.26x -0.14x -0.2x
BM 0.12x 0.14x 0.08x 0.06x
COM 0.06x 0.04x 0.07x 0.03x
BM -0.02x -0.02x -0.04x -0.03x
End Moment -35.95x -26.9x 26.9x 17.71x -17.71x -20.09x

## M AB ' '  35.95 x M CB ' '  17.71x

M BA ' '  26.9 x M CD ' '  17.71x
M BC ' '  26.9 x M DC ' '  20.09 x
241
VB ' ' VC ' '
17.71x

26.9x

B C
8m
4 From FBD of frame B

F x 0
A
H A'' 15.71x  4.73 x  Q  0
Q  20.44 x 
5.36

M 0
20.09x
B

## 35.95 x  26.9 x  H A ' '4  0 VD ' '

H A ' '  15.71x  M C 0
17.71x  20.09 x  H D ' '8  0
H D ' '  4.73 x 
242
QR
Sidesway Correction Factor 20.44 x  5.96
x  0.292 Positive since Q and R are of opposite directions
Final End Moments
M AB  M AB ' M AB ' ' M CB  M CB ' M CB ' '
M AB  15.86  35.95 x M CB  31.76  17.71x
M AB  15.86  35.95(0.292 ) M CB  31.76  17.71(0.292 )
M CB  36.93kN .m
M AB  5.36 kN .m
M CD  M CD ' M CD ' '
M BA  M BA ' M BA ' '
M BA  31.76  26.9 x M CD  31.76  17.71x

## M BA  31.76  26.9(0.292 ) M CD  31.76  17.71(0.292 )

M BA  23.9kN .m M CD  36.93kN .m

## M BC  M BC ' M BC ' ' M DC  M DC ' M DC ' '

M BC  31.76  26.9 x M DC  15.86  20.09 x
M BC  31.76  26.9(0.292 ) M DC  15.86  20.09(0.292 )
M BC  23.9kN .m M DC  21.73kN .m
VB ' ' VC ' '
36.93

23.9

B C
8m Check
4
H A  H A '  H A ''
H A  11.91  15.71x
A
HA H A  11.91  15.71(0.292 )
5.36
H A  7.32 kN 

VA D HD
21.73

M B 0
M 0
VD C
5.36  23.9  H A 4  0
36.93  21.73  8H D  0
H A  7.32 kN 
H D  7.32kN 

244
23.9 36.93
16 kN/m
C
B

VB 6m Vc

M C 0
16(6)3  23.9  36.93  6VB  0
VB  45.83kN 
VA  45.83kN 
F y 0
VC  45.83  16(6)  0
VC  50.17 kN 
VD  50.17 kN 
Shear diagram

45.83
45.83  16 x
B
C
x  2.86
2.86

50.17

7.32 A

D 7.32
M-diagram

+ -

- +
B 36.93 C
23.9 - +
23.9

36.93
+ -
A
5.36

D
21.73
Problem : Analyze the rigid frame shown by moment distribution.
Assume that there is sidesway

B C
25 kN
2I

4m
I 2I

8m
A

6m D
Frame A

B C
25 kN R
2I

4m
I
8m
2I
A

M AB '
VA ' 6m
D
HD'
M DC '
VD '
M FAB  M FBA  M FBC  M FCB  M FCD  M FDC  0
Member Absolute K Relative K

## CD,DC 2I /8)=I/4 1/4(12)= 3

k
Distribution Factors DF 
DFAB  0
k
k BA 3 kCD 3
DFBA    0.43 DFCD    0.43
k BA  k BC 4  3 kCB  kCD 4  3
k BC 4
DFBC    0.57 DFDC  0
k BA  k BC 4  3
kCB 4
DFCB    0.57
kCB  kCD 4  3
250
Moment Distribution Table due to Loads
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.43 0.57 0.57 0.43 0
FEM 0 0 0 0 0 0

## M AB '  0 M BA '  0 M BC ' 0 M CB ' 0 M CD ' 0 M DC ' 0

B C
25 R
F
2I
X 0
4m R  25  0
I
8m
R  25kN 
2I
A

6m
D
Frame B
 
B C Q
2I Assume
120
4m  x
I
EI
2I

8m
A

6m D

120
 6 EI x
6 EI EI  45 x
M FAB  M FBA  
L2 42
120
 6E 2I x
6 EI EI  22.5 x
M FCD  M FDC   2
 2
L 8
Moment Distribution Table due to 
Joint A B C D
Member AB BA BC CB CD DC
DF 0 0.43 0.57 0.57 0.43 0
FEM -45x -45x -22.5x -22.5x
BM 19.35x 25.65x 12.82x 9.68x
COM 9.67x 6.41x 12.32x 4.84x
BM -2.76x -3.65x -7.02x -5.3x
COM -1.38x - 3.51x -1.82x -2.65x
BM 1.65x 1.86x 1.04x 0.78x
COM 0.82x 0.52x 0.93x 0.39x
BM -0.24x - 0.28x -0.53x -0.4x
COM -0.12x -0.26x -0.14x -0.2x
BM 0.12x 0.14x 0.08x 0.06x
COM 0.06x 0.04x 0.07x 0.03x
BM -0.02x -0.02x -0.04x -0.03x
End Moment -35.95x -26.9x 26.9x 17.71x -17.71x -20.09x

## M AB ' '  35.95 x M CB ' '  17.71x

M BA ' '  26.9 x M CD ' '  17.71x
M BC ' '  26.9 x M DC ' '  20.09 x
253
VB ' ' VC ' '
17.71x

26.9x

B C
8m
4 From FBD of frame B

F x 0
A
H A'' 15.71x  4.73 x  Q  0
Q  20.44 x 
35.95x

M 0
20.09x
B

## 35.95 x  26.9 x  H A ' '4  0 VD ' '

H A ' '  15.71x  M C 0
17.71x  20.09 x  H D ' '8  0
H D ' '  4.73 x 
254
QR
Sidesway Correction Factor 20.44 x  25
x  1.22 Positive since Q and R are of opposite directions
Final End Moments
M AB  0  M AB ' ' M CB  M CB ' M CB ' '
M AB  0  35.95(1.22) M CB  0  17.71x
M AB  43.86 kN.m M CB  17.71(1.22)
M CB  21.61kN .m
M AB  43.86 kN .m
M CD  M CD ' M CD ' '
M BA  0  M BA ' '
M BA  0  26.9 x M CD  0  17.71x

M BA  26.9(1.22) M CD  17.71(1.22)
M CD  21.61kN .m
M BA  32.82 kN .m
M BC  M BC ' M BC ' ' M DC  M DC ' M DC ' '
M BC  0  26.9 x M DC  0  20.09 x
M BC  26.9(1.22) M DC  20.09(1.22)
M BC  32.82kN .m M DC  24.51kN .m
VB ' ' VC ' '
21.61

32.82

B C
8m Check
4
H A  H A '  H A ''
H A  H D  25
A
HA 19.17  5.83  25
43.86

VA D HD
24.51

M B 0
M 0
VD C
43.86  32.82  H A 4  0
21.61  24.51  8H D  0
H A  19.17 kN 
H D  5.83kN 
Prelim: Structural Theory II
I
A cantilever beam of Length L with stepwise cross section
carries a vertical load 2P at its free end. The section of the
beam changes midway along its length so that its second
moment of area is reduced by one half. The smaller section is
towards the free end. If E is constant, determine the
deflection at the free end.

2P
L/2 L/2

A B C
I
2I
II
Determine the midspan deflection of the beam shown by
a) Double Integration Method
b) Conjugate beam Method
c) Area Moment Method
50 kN

A
18kN/m B

2m 4m
III
Locate and compute the maximum deflection of the beam
given in problem II.
MIDTERM EXAM: Structural Theory II
I
A cantilever beam of Length L with stepwise cross section
carries a vertical load 2P at its free end. The section of the
beam changes midway along its length so that its second
moment of area is reduced by one half. The smaller section is
towards the free end. If E is constant, determine the
deflection at the free end using the virtual work method
+

2P
L/2 L/2

A B C
I
2I

259
II
Determine the midspan deflection of the beam shown by
using the virtual work Method

50 kN

18kN/m
A B

2m 4m

260
III
For the frame shown in the figure, determine the vertical deflection of point E.
Assume constant EI for all members.

C 24 kN/m
F
E
2m 3m

48 kN B 36 kN

2m

A G

6m

261
Semi- Final Exam

Determine the horizontal and vertical displacement of joint C. A = 5000 sq. mm and
E = 200 GPa for all members

F G H

4m

A E
B C D

## 60kN 120kN 60kN

3m 4m 4m 3m

Draw the shear and moment diagrams of the beam shown. Assume constant EI.

w
A C
B
L/2 L/2

262