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Analysis of Three Phase Fly back Full Bridge PFC Boost Converters
with Control of Switching Cycles

Mr NANDHAKUMAR.V

PG – Scholar in Power System Engineering

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

P.S.V. College of Engineering and Technology

Krishnagiri – 635108, Tamilnadu ,India

Professor.R.KALPANA.,M.E

Assistant professor

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

P.S.V. College of Engineering and Technology

Krishnagiri – 635108, Tamilnadu ,India

ABSTRACT

A start-up scheme is proposed and investigated for a three-phase isolated full-bridge


boost power factor correction (PFC) converter with the passive fly back auxiliary circuit.
Configuration derivation in ac side of the PFC converter has been done, and the three boost

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inductors are replaced by three coupled-inductors with fly back inductors. In starting state, the
PFC converter operates in fly back mode, and the charging of its output filter capacitor can be
realized with the help of the adding fly back inductors. Operational principles of the PFC
converter are discussed in both steady and starting states. Furthermore, design considerations of
the key parameters in starting state are analyzed through comparing with the characteristics of
the PFC converter in steady state. Finally, experimental study of the proposed start-up scheme
has been done on a 1.7kW laboratory-made three-phase PFC prototype, and feasibility of the
presented method and validity of the theoretical analysis are verified by the experimental results.

Key words : proposed, converter, capacitor, Operational principles, analyzed

CHAPTER-1

1.1.INTRODUCTION

Power factor correction (PFC) is an important researching orientation in power


electronics field, and it is one of the most effective methods to reduce harmonics current and
increase power factor. PFC technique can be divided into two categories due to the different
circuit structures: two-stage and single-stage approaches. Compared with two-stage PFC,
single-stage PFC integrates the functions of PFC and isolated dc/dc conversion into a single
power converter, and it has the advantages such as high efficiency, simplicity and low cost.
Presently, many low power single-stage PFC converters have been investigated, however,
fewer medium and high power schemes, but very few the three-phase schemes.
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In medium or high power field, the isolated full-bridge boost topology is attractive in
applications such as isolated dc/dc converter and single-stage PFC converter. It has the
advantages including electrical isolation, soft switching, and inherent short-current protection.
However, the reasons why it has not been widely used can be mainly attributed to the
following two problems: 1) due to the existence of the transformer leakage inductance, there
is a large voltage spike across the bridge leg, and 2) it cannot achieve starting-up normally, so
an additional starting-up circuit is required to establish an initial output voltage. For the
conventional dc/dc converter, as well as single-phase or three-phase single-stage PFC
converter based on the isolated full-bridge boost topology, the problem of large voltage spike
has been solved through many effective methods. The typical methods are as follows.

A lossy resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD) snubber is used in. The active clamping


techniques are introduced in, which can also achieve soft-switching of the switches. The
passive snubbers are proposed in the single-phase and three-phase single-stage PFC converter
in and respectively, which have the advantages of simplicity and high reliability. In and , a
family of multilevel passive clamp circuits and a passive flyback auxiliary circuit are used in
single-phase and three-phase single-stage PFC converter respectively, which can overcome
the limitation of the LC parameters in these snubbers. To achieve normal starting-up of the
isolated full-bridge boost converters, some methods have also been proposed and investigated.
For example, a direct starting scheme of the dc/dc converter is presented in, which can only be
used when the converter is in the state of no load.

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A lossy RCD snubber is connected in parallel with the bridge leg of dc/dc converter in,
and a lossy starting method which connects a resistor in series with the output filter capacitor
is used in a three-phase single-stage PFC converter in , however, adoption of these two lossy
methods will result in low efficiency and long starting time for the PFC converter during
starting state. In and , a flyback winding is coupled with the boost inductor, which can realize
the normal starting-up of the dc/dc converter, however, there are three boost inductors in the
conventional three-phase PFC converter, and the current in these boost inductors flows bi-
directionally, so this method cannot be used in the conventional three-phase PFC converter
directly.

In , a lossless starting method is also proposed for a three-phase single-stage PFC


converter, and in , a buck starting-up scheme is presented in a single-phase single-stage PFC
converter, which can also be used in three-phase PFC converter. But these two schemes have
a common disadvantage: their final output voltage in starting state cannot be large enough for
the PFC converter to operate in boost mode, as a result, the input over-current cannot be
eliminated completely. In this paper, a start-up scheme suitable for the three-phase isolated
full-bridge boost PFC converter is proposed, which is analyzed and verified based on a three-
phase isolated boost PFC converter with the passive flyback auxiliary circuit in .

The proposed start-up scheme can also be suitable for the three-phase PFC converter
with the voltage spike suppression circuits in ~. The rest of this paper is organized as follows.
In section II, configuration derivation of the three-phase isolated full-bridge boost PFC
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converter is introduced, based on which the start-up scheme is proposed. In section III, the
operational principles of the PFC converter in both steady and starting states are presented.
Design considerations for the proposed start-up scheme are discussed in section IV. The
proposed method and theoretical analysis are verified by the experimental results in section V.
Finally, conclusions are given in section VI.

In the late 19th century the control troubles to the supply network was detected
practically and it was first constructed. The British Lighting Clauses Act of 1899 was first
among these to prevent uncontrolled arc-lamps from causing flicker on incandescent lamps. In
the 1970's the evolution of electronic equipment claimed essential control to the disturbances
produced due to the increase in electronic equipment. The day by day increase in electronics
consumers and the rigid occurrence of mains rectification circuits inside the electronic devices
dominants the cause of mains harmonic distortion.

Some form of ac to dc power supply are used within the construction of most modern
electrical and electronic apparatus and for each half cycle of the supply these supplies take
pulses of current. Considering for single apparatus (a domestic television, for example) the
amount of reactive power drawn may be small, but for bulk, may be 100 or more TVs the
reactive power utilization from the same supply phase causing a flow of substantial amount of
reactive current and hence harmonics generation. The advancement in power electronic
converters reduces the weight and size and simultaneously the performance and function of
such converters preferable for industrial, commercial and residential purposes. This reactive
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current can’t be identified since the domestic tariff meter is concerned and it results loss of
revenue due to the mismatch between the developed and that used power.

Different streets are supplied from different phases creates 3-phase unbalance within a
housing scheme. Through the neutral line of the star configuration unbalanced current flows
and causes heating & burning of the conductor, in extreme cases. Also, the supply voltage
waveform gets distorted because of the reactive current hence an EMC problem happens, for
an apparatus, sensitive to such voltage distortion. Moreover, this cumulates supplementary
losses and dielectric stresses in capacitors and cables due to the harmonic content and hence
the increase in currents in windings of rotating machinery and transformers and noise in
various products, and taking out of premature failure of fuses and safety modules.

Since in the present situation, the rise and growth in utilization of equipment like
computers, laptops, telecom, biomedical equipment, and uninterruptable power supplies is
uncontrollable and also resulting to the high power draw and small power density. But
industry or market appeals the diminishment of power sources with greater power density at
Sensible value. Thus, it is compulsory to deliver additional power on a smaller cost and size
for the telecom and computer applications. To settle these concerns, it is desired to endorse
the distributed power system (DPS). Therefore, DPS has expanded from an ordinary access,
utilizing isolated DC-DC converters to midway bus construction using non-isolated
converters.

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Fig. 1.1: Block Diagram of Basic Distributed Power System 1.2.


1.2.NONLINEAR LOADS AND ITS EFFECTS

The distortion normal electric current waveform due to the nonlinear loads creates
harmonics in AC distribution systems. Nonlinear loads arise for variable resistance i.e.
resistance varies for each sine wave of the applied voltage, causing in a series of positive and
negative pulses, as in fig. 1.3. In AC-DC system, the connected equipment to the DPS desires
some kind of power conditioning, rectification in general, which creates a non-sinusoidal line
current because of the non-linear input characteristic.

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Fig 1.2: Linear Load Sine Wave

In addition to the original current the sequence of pulses generates harmonic


currents additionally to the original current. In sample, the third harmonic of 50Hz is 150Hz.
For 3-phase systems, even harmonics are canceled out; hence concern is the odd harmonics
only. In a balanced distribution network, at the common neutral conductor the current cancel
each other out when adding together and return to the source, due to which the neutral current
becomes zero.

The presence of nonlinear loads, make all the third harmonic exactly in phase and add,
rather than cancels in all the phases, therefore, current and heat is developed on the neutral
conductor. The harmonic loads decrease the distribution capacity and effects to the quality of
the power of public utility systems. Computer equipment with switched mode power supplies,

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battery chargers, UPSs, variable speed motors and drives, fax machines, laser printers,
photocopiers, medical diagnostic equipment etc. work as nonlinear loads, invariably.

1.3 HARMONICS MITIGATION

Realistically, completely eliminating harmonics would be very challenging and


overpriced. Understanding of the choices and their relevant costs for balancing the real
harmonic load in contradiction of the cost of the solution is the vital factor. For the
minimization of the actual harmonic loads there are numbers of selections offered, but should
be studied deliberately because of the combined expenditure and usage of extra copper, is
enhancing increase in deficient.

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Fig. 1.3: Single Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier (a) Schematic (b) Typical line voltage and
current waveforms (Non-linear Load Current Pulse)

Fig. 1.4: Third Harmonic Current

1.4 STANDARDS REGULATING LINE CURRENT HARMONIC

All the negative effects of line current distortion needs for setting limits for the line
current harmonics of joined equipment to the distribution network. Standardization activities
have been carried out since long days. In 1982, the IEC-International Electro-technical
Committee published standard IEC 555-2, was approved as EN 60555-2 European standard in
1987 by the European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization-CENELEC. In 1995
standard IEC 1000-3-2 took position of standard IEC 555-2 and is further approved by
CENELEC as European standard EN 61000-3-2.

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1.5 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

It is a measurement of the degree of the utilization of the power from grid.


Mathematically it is the proportion of the real power to the apparent power and is in the range
of 0 to 1.

Real power is in watts and is the power necessary for real work done. Apparent power is in
volt-amp. And is the vector summation of active and reactive power.For pure sinusoidal
voltage and current waveforms Where “ ” is the displacement factor of the voltage and
current. In general PFC tends to the compensation of the displacement factor. But for non-
linear load i.e; for sinusoidal line voltage and non-sinusoidal line current waveform the PF
can be expressed as;

As per earlier discussion, because of the non-linear loads in the distribution network, line
current harmonics are introduced as in the fig. 1.6, which need to be minimized. There are
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numbers of procedures for the power factor correction. But mainly, it categorized into
methods as; “Passive method” and “Active method”. L-C filter is used in “Passive PFC
approach”. L-C filter is introduced between the supply line and diode rectifier to improve the
shape of the line current as in fig. 1.6. It is simple and rugged technique but bulky in size and
expensive. Moreover, in this technique power factor cannot be highly improved and output
voltage is not controllable. Active switches are used in association with reactive element for
“Active PFC approach” as in fig. 1.7 for the improvement of line current shape and to obtain
controllable output voltage. For this DC-DC converter is in employment and is working at
high frequency to make shape of the line current waveform as sinusoidal. Boost, buck, buck-
boost, flyback, cuk, or sepic topologies are the commonly used PFC DC-DC converter
topologies. Mainly Boost Converter topology is more suitable for PFC application and is
widely used for PFC pre-regulation application.

Fig. 1.5: Schematic diagram of Passive PFC Technique

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Fig. 1.8 illustrates that the PFC technique improves the input current drawn from the mains
supply and reduces the DC bus voltage ripple. The target of PFC is to make the input current
waveform in phase to the voltage and in view of power supply like a simple resistor. This
grants the Power Distribution System to run much efficiently, with minimum energy
consumption. This thesis work isfocused in the area of active PFC approach and boost
topology is employed for research on AC-DC PFC pre-regulator system for the improvement
of quality of power.

Fig. 1.6: Schematic diagram of Active PFC technique

1.6. MOTIVATION

Power factor correction (PFC) is an important researching orientation in power


electronics field, and it is one of the most effective methods to reduce harmonics current and
increase power factor. PFC technique can be divided into two categories due to the different
circuit structures: two-stage and single-stage approaches. Compared with two-stage PFC,
single-stage PFC integrates the functions of PFC and isolated dc/dc conversion into a single
power converter, and it has the advantages such as high efficiency, simplicity and low cost.
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Presently, many low power single-stage PFC converters have been investigated,
however, fewer medium and high power schemes, but very few the three-phase schemes. In
medium or high power field, the isolated full-bridge boost topology is attractive in
applications such as isolated dc/dc converter and single-stage PFC converter. It has the
advantages including electrical isolation, soft switching, and inherent short-current protection.
However, the reasons why it has not been widely used can be mainly attributed to the
following two problems: 1) due to the existence of the transformer leakage inductance, there
is a large voltage spike across the bridge leg, and 2) it cannot achieve starting-up normally, so
an additional starting-up circuit is required to establish an initial output voltage.

For the conventional dc/dc converter, as well as single-phase or three-phase single-


stage PFC converter based on the isolated full-bridge boost topology, the problem of large
voltage spike has been solved through many effective methods. The typical methods are as
follows. A lossy resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD) snubber is used in . The active clamping
techniques are introduced in, which can also achieve soft-switching of the switches.

The passive snubbers are proposed in the single-phase and three-phase single-stage
PFC converter in and respectively, which have the advantages of simplicity and high
reliability. In and , a family of multilevel passive clamp circuits and a passive flyback
auxiliary circuit are used in single-phase and three-phase single-stage PFC converter
respectively, which can overcome the limitation of the LC parameters in these snubbers.

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1.7 OBJECTIVES

Operational principles of the PFC converter are discussed in both steady and starting
states. Furthermore, design considerations of the key parameters in starting state are analyzed
through comparing with the characteristics of the PFC converter in steady state. Finally,
experimental study of the proposed start-up scheme has been done on a 1.7kW laboratory-
made three-phase PFC prototype, and feasibility of the presented method and validity of the
theoretical analysis are verified by the experimental results.

CHAPTER-2

CONVENTIONAL CONTROL SCHEME FOR PFC BOOST CONVERTER

2.1 EXISITING SYSTEM

In medium or high power field, the isolated full-bridge boost topology is attractive in
applications such as isolated dc/dc converter and single-stage PFC converter. It has the
advantages including electrical isolation, soft switching, and inherent short-current protection.
However, the reasons why it has not been widely used can be mainly attributed to the
following two problems: 1) due to the existence of the transformer leakage inductance, there
is a large voltage spike across the bridge leg, and 2) it cannot achieve starting-up normally, so
an additional starting-up circuit is required to establish an initial output voltage. For the
conventional dc/dc converter, as well as single-phase or three-phase single-stage PFC

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converter based on the isolated full-bridge boost topology, the problem of large voltage spike
has been solved through many effective methods. The typical methods are as follows. A lossy
resistor-capacitor-diode (RCD) snubber is used in . The active clamping techniques are
introduced in, which can also achieve soft-switching of the switches. The passive snubbers are
proposed in the single-phase and three-phase single-stage PFC converter in and respectively,
which have the advantages of simplicity and high reliability. In and , a family of multilevel
passive clamp circuits and a passive flyback auxiliary circuit are used in single-phase and
three-phase single-stage PFC converter respectively, which can overcome the limitation of the
LC parameters in these snubbers. To achieve normal starting-up of the isolated full-bridge
boost converters, some methods have also been proposed and investigated. For example, a
direct starting scheme of the dc/dc converter is presented in , which can only be used when the
converter is in the state of no load. A lossy RCD snubber is connected in parallel with the
bridge leg of dc/dc converter in , and a lossy starting method which connects a resistor in
series with the output filter capacitor is used in a three-phase single-stage PFC converter in ,
however, adoption of these two lossy methods will result in low efficiency and long starting
time for the PFC converter during starting state. In and , a flyback winding is coupled with the
boost inductor, which can realize the normal starting-up of the dc/dc converter, however, there
are three boost inductors in the conventional three-phase PFC converter, and the current in
these boostinductors flows bi-directionally, so this method cannot be used in the conventional
three-phase PFC converter directly. In , a lossless starting method is also proposed for three-
phase single-stage PFC converter, and in , a buck starting-up scheme is presented in a single-
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phase single-stage PFC converter, which can also be used in three-phase PFC converter. But
these two schemes have a common disadvantage: their final output voltage in starting state
cannot be large enough for the PFC converter to operate in boost mode, as a result, the input
over-current cannot be eliminated completely.

2.2PROPOSED SYSTEM

A start-up scheme suitable for the three-phase isolated full-bridge boost PFC
converter is proposed, which is analyzed and verified based on a three-phase isolated boost
PFC converter with the passive flyback auxiliary circuit in . The proposed start-up scheme can
also be suitable for the three-phase PFC converter with the voltage spike suppression circuits
in ~. configuration derivation of the three-phase isolated full-bridge boost PFC converter is
introduced, based on which the start-up scheme is proposed. the operational
principles of the PFC converter in both steady and starting states are presented. The proposed
method and theoretical analysis are verified by the experimental results. Operational
principles of the PFC converter are discussed in both steady and starting states. Furthermore,
design considerations of the key parameters in starting state are analyzed through comparing
with the characteristics of the PFC converter in steady state. Finally, experimental study of the
proposed start-up scheme has been done on a 1.7kW laboratory-made three-phase PFC
prototype, and feasibility of the presented method and validity of the theoretical analysis are
verified by the experimental results.

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Fig.2.1. Three-phase isolated full-bridge boost PFC converter with the passive flyback
auxiliary circuit. (a) Configuration. (b) Input theoretical waveforms of phase A.

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Fig.2.2. Configuration derivation in ac side of the PFC converter. (a) Configuration derivation
1. (b) Configuration derivation 2. (c) Input theoretical waveforms of phase A of the two
configurations.

Fig.2.3. Start-up schemes. (a) Start-up scheme based on configuration derivation


1. (b) Start-up scheme based on configuration derivation 2.

2.3 CONVENTIONAL CONTROL SCHEME

There is variety of control methods, among which any one method can be used in PFC
application. In general, for any control strategy for PFC, two basic feedback compensating
loops are required, shown in fig. 2.1. A voltage feedback compensating loop is used as the
outer loop to keep the bus voltage to a fixed DC (predefined reference) value . An inner loop,

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known as current loop is to control the inductor current to a specific level and to shape the
inductor current with the aim to be as alike as possible to the rectified input DC voltage
keeping almost unity PF. The PFC power supplies with control loops implementation is
employed to achieve a stable system with a tolerable dynamic behavior irrespective of the
system loading conditions .

CHAPTER 3

3.1.A MODULAR THREE PHASE POWER FACTOR CORRECTION (PFC)

Rectifiers are widely used to convert main sinusoidal voltage to a DC voltage. The
rectifier inputs are connected to the grid through a line transformer to provide a galvanic
isolation between grid voltage and load. The rectified voltage used to supply a DC load such
as telecommunication and network server industries or act as first stage power conversion
process such as uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), variable speed drive (VSD) and
HVDC. Three phase classic diode bridge rectifiers draw nonlinear currents with harmonics of
order 6nῳ where, w is the angular frequency and n=1,2,3,…., Along with the fundamental
frequency component which result in a high total harmonic distortion (THD) and
consequently poor distortion factor (DF) and power factor (PF). IEEE standard (512-1992)
recommend to limit harmonics to THD <5% for 69KV and below and provide basis for
limiting the harmonic . In order to meet these quality requirements, improvement of the utility
interface with power electronic devices is applied by adding active filter on the point of

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common coupling with the utility interface or by embedded power factor correction (PFC)
topology in the rectifier. Several techniques of PFC are used. Multi-pulse rectifier which
consists of phase shifting transformer and three phase diode bridge rectifier are used to reduce
the harmonics to multiples of the number of pulses used. This technique is mainly used in
high power applications (> 100 KW) due to their relative simplicity and robustness compared
with other technique . Other method employs additional resonant elements with control circuit
instead of the phase shifting transformer such as boost convertor operated in discontinuous
current mode with the three phase bridge rectifier. Three single phase modules with boost
converter also used to reduce the THD and improve the power factor. Their output varies from
12 Vdc to 400 Vdc . Main advantages of using modular PFC in three phase rectification are:

This approach used a transformer to combine two phases into one phase with phase
shift of 90 degree with respect to the third phase as shown in figure (49(c)) and used two
single phase PFC module. In this chapter an improvement to system in is proposed by
replacing the transformer with AC chopper and using high frequency transformers in the
DC/DC side to provide galvanic isolation as shown in figure The AC chopper is less in size,
weight and cost compared with the low frequency transformer which results in higher power
density.

3.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM

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The proposed system is consist of two single phase PFC module and an AC chopper
consist of two bidirectional switches by means of two pairs of common emitter connected
IGBTs with parallel diode as shown in figure 47 and several kilohertz input filter. The
proposed system is advancement of the system presented in with increased power density by
replacing the low frequency transformer with AC chopper. The function of the AC chopper is
to generate the midpoint of two phases in a three phase system so that the phase angle
between these two phases and the voltage across the midpoint and the third phase is 90 degree
as shown in figure (49 c). This transformation of three phase system to two phase system
reduces the single phase module from three modules to two modules.

Figure 3.1 Proposed system of chapter 4 4.3

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3.3.SINGLE PHASE POWER FACTOR CORRECTED

Use of electrical appliances and so energy consumption has been increasing with the
effect of technological developments. Therefore, energy should be used more efficiently.
Nonlinear loads such as uninterrupted and switching mode power supplies and electronic
ballasts draw harmonic currents, and so cause deteriorations in the grid. Electronic devices
such as personal computers and microprocessors that are fed from the same grid could be
affected negatively by reason of these harmonics. Thus, energy should be used in a quality
manner too.

There are international mandatory standards about power factor and harmonics in
terms of the use of energy with high quality and efficiency. Therefore, to cope with these
standards power factor correction (PFC) circuits have been increasing in importance in both
academic and industrial studies [1– 20]. PFC techniques such as passive and active filters
have been studied for many years. Due to the complicated structure and high price of active
ones and the bulky structure of passive ones , the attention on high frequency AC-DC
converters has been increasing. These converters can be realized by a two stage approach or a
single stage approach. Two stage PFC circuits, which consist of input current shaper and
output voltage regulation stages, are commonly used in high power applications. Although
they have superior performance in terms of PFC and output voltage regulation due to their

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separate control structure, they have a complex structure and low efficiency owing to the fact
that both stages process total input power [2,3].

To overcome these drawbacks of two stage schemes, various single stage PFC
converters have been presented. The PFC and output voltage regulation stages are combined
into one stage generally using only one switch. Thus the attention on single stage PFC circuits
has been increasing for low power applications due to their simpler control structure and
circuitry scheme. Although they have the aforementioned advantages, total power is
processed through output twice as two stage ones in some single stage PFC circuits.
Therefore, efficiency is dramatically low in such kinds of single stage PFC circuits . The
direct power transfer (DPT) technique, in which most of the input energy is processed through
output at once, provides high efficiency.

In this sense, several single stage PFC circuits have been presented [4– 9,11–13,16–
20]. An ideal DPT scheme is presented in Figure 1 for single phase PFC converters. It is
explained in that 68% of the total input power is transferred to output directly and the
remaining power is transferred to the output twice to achieve output voltage regulation. In and
PFC and DPT are achieved by different combinations of flyback and boost topologies. These
circuits suffer from excessive magnetic components and semiconductors, and complex control
scheme and circuit structure. Also there are hard switching and switching losses because of
operating in continuous current mode (CCM). A new DPT approach in which the features of
flyback and boost converters were merged in only one transformer was presented in . PFC is
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achieved by operating in discrete current mode (DCM) in both boost and flyback modes.
Although a single switch is used, two bulky capacitors are used in some implementations.

On the basis of the DPT concept, there are other topologies such as forward [16,17] and
flyback converters [18,19]. In circuits in which a forward converter is the main converter, the
DPT idea cannot be realized when the main voltage is lower than the reflected voltage on the
primary side of the transformer [16,17]. In , PFC was dependent on the load. Although the
line current waveform is similar to sinusoidal with light loads, it becomes a square wave with
heavy loads. Moreover, a safety problem occurs in this circuit; hence there is no isolation
between the bulky capacitor and the output.

There is no dead angle due to flyback operating of the proposed circuit when the line
voltage is low . In spite of this advantage, there are line current deteriorations in low main
voltage applications. There is another topology in which the DPT idea is accomplished by a
flyback converter . In this circuit there are two operation modes in one switching period
concerning line voltage value. When the line voltage is high, as the majority of input energy is
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processed to output by flyback topology, the remaining energy is processed to the auxiliary
capacitor firstly by forward topology and then is processed to output for output voltage
regulation by DC-DC flyback topology. In this mode, the line current is not proportional to
the main voltage because of forward operation and so the current wave is not sinusoidal
exactly. It could be solved by increasing DPT, resulting in higher auxiliary capacitor voltage.
Thus, PFC is dependent on converter topology.

In the other mode, in which the line voltage is low, output is supplied by input and an
auxiliary capacitor, both operating as flyback converters. Although DPT is achieved by an
AC-DC flyback converter operating in DCM, the line current wave is still nonsinusoidal.
Furthermore, in this circuit both switches turn off under hard switching, which causes
switching losses. The present paper proposes a new converter topology for single stage PFC
based on resonance and soft switching (SS). The time multiplexing control scheme is used for
both switches. Therefore, the output voltage regulation and DPT at output and PFC at input
are achieved by frequency modulation while the duty cycle is constant.

At the PFC stage, the waveform of the current drawn from the line is sinusoidal and its
peaks are proportional to the line voltage waves, and so PFC and SS are obtained by using a
fully resonant circuit. In the regulation stage, the converter construction works as a flyback or
forward concerning line voltage value by way of a transformer, and so DPT, isolation, and
regulation are obtained. Moreover, the voltage and current stresses on the semiconductor
devices are kept at reasonable levels in the converter.
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CHAPTER-4

CONCLUSION

Aiming at the three-phase isolated full-bridge boost PFC converter, a start-up scheme
is proposed and investigated. To achieve normal starting-up, the configuration derivation in ac
side of the PFC converter has been done, and a flyback inductor is added on the coupled-
inductor of each phase. The PFC converter operates in flyback mode in starting state, and its
output filter capacitor is charged by the adding flyback inductors. The investigation is based
on a three-phase isolated full-bridge boost PFC converter with the passive flyback auxiliary
circuit, and from the operational analysis of the PFC converter in both steady and starting
states, the design principles of the key parameters have been given. The theoretical analysis
and experimental results show that the three-phase PFC converter realizes starting-up
normally, and the operational principle of the PFC converter in steady state isn’t changed after
the configuration derivation of the PFC converter for the proposed start-up scheme.

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