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are summarized as follows:

Dharet. al. [2012] produced biodiesel from high free
Silvio et. al. [2002] investigated engine performance fatty acid neem oil using a two-step process i.e.
and emissions using pure palm oil as an alternative fuel. esterification followed by transesterification to evaluate
Engine performance and emissions were inuenced by emission characteristics in a direct injection (DI) diesel
basic differences between diesel fuel and palm oils engine. Study showed that emissions of CO and HC
such as mass based heating values, viscosity, density with biodiesel and its various blends with mineral diesel
and molecular oxygen content. They also concluded were found lower than mineral diesel however NO x
that the specic fuel consumption of palm oil was found emissions were observed higher for biodiesel blends
almost 10% higher than diesel at low loads [27]. [36].

Makareviciene et. al.[2003] tested rapeseed oil methyl Eugene et. al. [2013] evaluated the engine
ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil performance of unaltered waste soybean oil blended
diesel fuel for exhaust emissions. It was observed that with petroleum diesel and kerosene for three vehicles.
as the percentage of bio-esters in the fuel blend is The study showed the minimal decrease in
increased, Emissions of CO, HC and smoke density performance for50% oil blend and addition of kerosene
are reduced [28]. diminished performance significantly [37].

Puhan et. al. [2005] presented that due to chemical Violetaet. al. [2014] utilized microalgae oil methyl
composition of Mahua Oil Ethyl Ester (MOEE) small esters to analyze performance characteristics of diesel
variation of brake thermal efficiency in comparison with fuel. Result showed that at each engine load, the
diesel occurred at 5.481 BMEP and It was found that brake-specific fuel consumption was approximately
the exhaust gas temperature increased with BMEP 3–3.5% higher with rapeseed oil methyl esters
because of better combustion of MOEE [29]. (B30RME) and algae oil methyl esters (B30AME) than
mineral diesel fuel, While running on (B30AME), the
Agrawal [2007] reviewed that ethanol-diesel blends up engine’s thermal efficiency was 2.5–3% higher
to 20% can be used in CI engines without any compared to mineral diesel fuel[38].
modifications. The brake specic fuel consumption is
slightly increased for higher blends of ethanol. There is EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
not any significant difference achieved in power output
and brake thermal efficiency of engine.[30] In this study linseed oil methyl ester is prepared from
raw linseed oil by transesterification which is the
Banapurmath et. al. [2008] compared performance of process of converting the triglycerides of vegetable oils
DI engine fuelled with neat diesel, methyl esters of to their monoester by reacting them with alcohols in the
Honge oil, Jatropha and sesame oils. Results showed a presence of a catalyst. Transesterification causes a
slightly reduced thermal efficiency and poor significant reduction in viscosity and improvement in
performance with all the esters[31]. cetane number. The fuel Diethyl ether (DEE) is a
renewable oxygenate which has a high cetane number
Lujan et. al. [2009] explained the comparative analysis and also volatile.DEE can be produced by conversion
of a DI turbocharged diesel engine with biodiesel of ethanol through a dehydration process. All blends of
blends. Results obtained showed higher NOx emissions the fuel samples were prepared (%by volume) in
for higher content of biodiesel and for blend less than addition with standard diesel fuel. Proportions of LME
50% biodiesel, CO and HC emissions are found were varied as 10%, 15% and 20% by volume while
reduced [32]. content of DEE kept constant as 5% by volume for all
fuel samples. The different fuel samples were prepared
Huseyinet. al. [2010] investigated emissions of using 5% diethyl ether 10%, linseed oil methyl ester by
cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME) in a diesel engine. volume (DLD15), 5% diethyl ether 15%linseed oil
Study showed that the reduction in CO emissions was methyl ester by volume (DLD20) and 5% diethyl ether
maintained due to presence of oxygen in CSOME. 20% linseed oil methyl ester by volume (DLD25) with
Experiments showed reduced NO x emission for all neat standard diesel. Homogeneity and stability of all
blends, however the SO2 emission was found fairly blends were inspected thoroughly. Composition of all
lower for biodiesel than those of diesel fuel [33]. fuels is shown in table 1.

Thomas et. al. [2011] tested croton oil methyl ester Table 1: Fuel Composition
(COME) with antioxidant in CI engine. Test results Linseed oil
showed that the brake specific fuel consumption Diethyl
Fuel Methyl Diesel Blend
(BSFC) of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased Ether
more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants. 5% 10% 85% DLD15
However, the BTE for biodiesel was found lower 5% 15% 80% DLD20
compared to diesel [34]. Content
5% 20% 75% DLD25
100% - - DEE100
Su Han et. al. [2012] investigated the impact of
- 100% - LME100
biodiesel in bio ethanol blended diesel fuel on engine
performance characteristics. It has been found that the
The main fuel properties of various blending stocks and
increase of biodiesel in the blended fuel caused
standard diesel fuel are shown in Table 2. Cetane
increase in fuel consumption and decrease in indicated
number for different blend was estimated as follows:
mean effective pressure [35].

CNH = iCNi * xi
where CNH is the equivalent cetane number of the Table 4: Specifications of AVL DI Gas analyzer:
blended fuel, while CNi is the cetane number of each
constituent. [39,40] Emission Range Resolution
HC 0-20 ppm vol. 1 ppm
Table 2:The fuel properties CO 0-10% vol. 0.01% vol
Calorific CO 2 0-20% vol 0.1% vol
Fuel Density Viscosity Cetane
value NO X 0-5 ppm vol 1 ppm
Properties (kg/m3) (mm2/s) Number
DLD15 822.9 2.918 45.743 51
DLD20 827.95 3.098 44.371 51
DLD25 826.3 3.126 45.834 51
LME100 835.8 4.256 38.171 47
DEE100 714 0.24 35.368 120
Diesel 832.6 2.946 47.231 48

The engine used in experiment was a single cylinder,

naturally aspirated, four stroke, and direct injection
diesel engine. Experiment tests were performed with
engine speed 1500 rpm and variable compression ratio
16, 17 and 18 at different load conditions. The engine
set up used in the tests is shown in Fig.1. There are
different methods to achieve different compression ratio,
one of them is tilting cylinder block arrangement which
was given in setup to vary the combustion space Fig. 1: Engine Set Up
volume for change in compression ratio. This is
achieved without stopping the engine and altering the
combustion chamber geometry. The arrangement
consists of a tilting block with six Allen bolts, a
compression ratio adjuster with lock nut, and Performance Characteristics
compression ratio indicator. For a chosen compression
ratio within the range given, the Allen bolts provided for The variation of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and
clamping the tilting block are loosened slightly. The lock brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust
nut is loosened on the adjuster and the adjuster is gas temperature with brake mean effective pressure
rotating to set the compression ratio on the (BMEP) for the fuel samples DLD15, DLD20, DLD25
compression ratio indicator marking. Thus locking the and standard diesel at compression ratio 18, 17 and
adjuster by the lock nut and all the Allen bolts are to be 16is shown in figures (2-10).
tightened gently. The different performance parameters
were measured from engine set up. AVL DI Gas Brake Thermal Efficiency
analyzer was used to measure the HC, CO, NOX and
CO2 emissions. The specification of the diesel engine It was observed that increase in brake power; caused
is shown in Table 3. Whereas the specifications of AVL increase in thermal efficiencies of all the fuels at part
DI Gas analyzer and AVL Smoke meter is shown in load condition figures(2-4) but on further increment,
Table 4. BTE of DLD15, DLD20at compression ratio (CR) 18
were reported lower than diesel fuel. Whereas DLD25
Table 3: Engine Specification exhibited higher efficiencies for all compression ratio.
Make Kirloskar, India Further at CR 17 DLD15, DLD20 showed BTE very
close to diesel fuel. Though at CR16, DLD15 showed
Product VCR Engine Setup
minimum efficiency. This is due to the fact that
Rated Brake Power (kw) 3.50
biodiesel have higher viscosity and lower heating value
Rated Speed(rpm) 1500
than diesel fuels. Reduction in lower calorific value and
Number of Cylinder One
high viscosity cause improper atomization of the blends
Bore (mm) 87.5 as compared to diesel fuel. It was reported that the BTE
Stroke (mm) 110.0 increases with increase in load due to the fluctuations
Connecting Rod length (mm) 234.0 in engine speed and power output. These results are in
Swept volume (cc) 661.45 well agreement with the result obtained by Mohanan P.
Compression Ratio(variable) 12-18 et. al.[41].
Fuel injection starts before TDC 230
Cooling System Water Cooled
Lubrication System Forced Feed
Piezo sensor Range 5000 PSI,
with low noise
Crank angle sensor Resolution 1 Deg,
Speed 5500 RPM
with TDC pulse