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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645885, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Converters for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Grid

Integration

Yifan Yu, Student Member, IEEE, Georgios Konstantinou, Member, IEEE,

Christopher D. Townsend, Member, IEEE, Ricardo P. Aguilera, Member, IEEE,

and Vassilios G. Agelidis, Fellow Member, IEEE

becoming a promising candidate for use in next gen- pab,bc,ca Instantaneous power generated in

eration large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants. How- phases ab, bc, ca (∆).

ever, solar power generation in the three converter phase-

legs can be significantly unbalanced, especially in a large Vga , Vgb , Vgc Grid voltage vectors (line-to-neutral).

geographically-dispersed plant. The power imbalance be- vga , vgb , vgc Grid voltages (line-to-neutral) (in-

tween the three phases defines a limit for the injection stantaneous value).

of balanced three-phase currents to the grid. This paper Vgab , Vgbc , Vgca Grid voltage vectors (line-to-line).

quantifies the performance of, and experimentally confirms, vgab , vgbc , vgca Grid voltages (line-to-line) (instanta-

the recently proposed delta-connected CHB converter for

PV applications as an alternative configuration for large- neous value).

scale PV power plants. The required voltage and current Vg Grid voltage (line-to-line) (rms).

overrating for the converter is analytically developed and Vab , Vbc , Vca Converter output voltage vectors (∆).

compared against the star-connected counterpart. It is VLab , VLbc , VLca Voltages across the filtering inductors

shown that the delta-connected CHB converter extends Lf (∆).

the balancing capabilities of the star-connected CHB and

can accommodate most imbalance cases with relatively vab , vbc , vca Converter output voltages (instanta-

small overrating. Experimental results from a laboratory neous values) (∆).

prototype are provided to validate the operation of the delta- VLab , VLbc , VLca Inductor voltage vectors (∆).

connected CHB converter under various power imbalance V0 , v 0 , V 0 Zero-sequence voltage (voltage vector

cases. - instantaneous value - rms).

Index Terms—ac-dc power converters, cascaded H- vdc dc-side voltage of H-bridges.

bridge converter, multilevel converter, photovoltaics. θY , θ∆ Phase angle of the zero-sequence

voltage vector (Y and ∆).

N OMENCLATURE λa , λb , λc Power generation ratios (Y).

fs Carrier frequency of phase shift pulse λab , λbc , λca Power generation ratios (∆).

width modulation.

Iga , Igb , Igc Line current vectors.

I. I NTRODUCTION

iga , igb , igc Line currents (instantaneous values).

Iba , Icb , Iac

iba , icb , iac

Phase-leg current vectors (∆).

Phase-leg currents (instantaneous val-

ues) (∆).

T HE cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) converter is considered

one of the most suitable configurations to be used in

next-generation large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plants,

Ig Line current (rms). attracting significant research interest both from the technical

I0 , i0 , I 0 Zero-sequence current (current vector, and financial perspective [1]–[22]. With multilevel waveform

instantaneous value, rms in the ∆). synthesis, the switching frequency at the device level can be

Lf , Lf (p.u.) Inductance and per-unit value of greatly reduced while the converter still achieves excellent

three-phase filtering inductors. harmonic performance [23]. Multiple H-bridges cascaded in

series also enable the converter to be directly connected to

Manuscript received May 29, 2016; revised August 8, 2016 and

October 5, 2016; accepted November 9, 2016. medium-voltage (MV) grids without the presence of a bulky

Y. Yu, and G. Konstantinou, are with the School of Electrical Engineer- and lossy line-frequency transformer. In addition, each H-

ing and Telecommunications, UNSW Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia, bridge also operates at low voltage, which effectively reduces

(e-mail: g.konstantinou@unsw.edu.au).

C. D. Townsend is with the University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, PV module mismatch loss [14], [15].

Australia. In applications where the CHB converter has achieved

R. Aguilera is with the University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Aus- commercial success, such as Variable Speed Drives (VSDs)

tralia.

V.G. Agelidis is with the Technical University of Denmark, Copen- and Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOMs) [24]–

hagen, Denmark. [28], the active or reactive power processed by all of the

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645885, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

iac iga (Section III) and the analytical derivation of its power bal-

Lf

ancing capabilities also in comparison with the star-connected

vca vga

topology (Section IV). Detailed experimental results under

vab various power imbalance cases are presented in Section V to

N i0

vgb vgc demonstrate and verify the delta-CHB converter and its power

Lf balancing capabilities.

iba vbc

II. D ELTA -C ONNECTED CHB C ONVERTER FOR PV

HB

HB

b c

Lf icb A PPLICATIONS

igc

igb Fig. 1 illustrates the layout of a three-phase, (2N + 1)-level,

delta-connected CHB converter for large-scale PV plants. As

PV strings

with a star-connected converter [14]–[18], each phase consists

S1 S3

of N bridges, each of which is fed by multiple PV strings

via independent dc-dc converters. Galvanic isolation can be

provided in the dc-dc conversion stage (high-frequency trans-

isolated vdc formers are typically preferred) to isolate PV modules from

dc-dc the grid, because most commercial PV modules are designed

converter C S2 S4 to bear less than 1000 V between the active part of the module

and the grounded frame [29], although general consensus

on the optimal topology does not exist. Under balanced PV

generation, the delta connection requires a greater number of

bridges cascaded in series than the star connection, to reach

the line-to-line grid voltage, thus inevitably increasing the size

H-Bridge (HB) of the converter.

During balanced operation, the power generation level of

Fig. 1. Three-phase, (2N + 1)-level, delta-connected cascaded H- each of the three phases is equal to the other two. The three-

bridge converter. phase line currents delivered to the grid (Iga , Igb , Igc in

Fig. 2) are balanced with a unity power factor; so are the

three-phase phase-leg currents (Iba , Icb , Iac ). The converter is

H-bridges is more or less equal. The situation is different modulated to generate voltage vectors Vab , Vbc , Vca , which

for PV applications, as PV power generation levels in each are also symmetrical.

bridge are unlikely to be equal, due to non-uniform solar However, when power generation levels of the three phases

irradiance, partial shading, unequal ambient temperatures, and become unequal, the three-phase line currents are no longer

inconsistent module degradation. The issue is referred to as balanced. To overcome this issue, a zero-sequence current

power imbalance and can further divided into inter-phase and can be used to re-balance the line currents. Fig. 2b shows

inter-bridge power imbalance [14], [15]. the phasor diagram for unbalanced power generation. The

The current work on inter-phase power imbalance [14]–[18] injected zero-sequence current vector I0 contributes to the

focuses predominantly on the star-connected topology, where power transfer among the three phases. For the case illustrated

the issue is addressed by injection of a zero-sequence voltage in Fig. 2b, I0 helps transfer the excessive power in phase ab to

into the converter output voltages. Fundamental Frequency phases bc and ca. Since the zero-sequence current only flows

Zero-Sequence Injection (FFZSI) method, presented in [14], within the delta, the three-phase line currents are still balanced.

is able to generate three-phase balanced grid currents in the Therefore, viewed from the grid side, the converter produces

case of inter-phase power imbalance. However, zero-sequence three-phase balanced line currents, just like the case of equal

voltage injection requires higher converter output voltages, power generation.

which are constrained by the available dc-side capacitor volt- The power generation ratios (λab , λbc , λca ) are defined

ages. As a result, the converter reference will saturate with to reflect the actual power generation levels in the three

only mild inter-phase power imbalance [14]. Advanced zero- phases [16]:

sequence voltage injection methods were derived in [14]–[16] pi

to minimize the required converter output voltages extending λi = , i ∈ {ab, bc, ca}, (1)

Pnom /3

the range where balance can be achieved. However, even more

advanced zero-sequence injection methods cannot cope with where Pnom denotes the three-phase nominal power.

severe power imbalance scenarios [15]. Assuming a delta connections, the three-phase grid voltages

(line-to-line) can be defined as:

Simulations studies for the delta-connected CHB converter √

have demonstrated its potential to deal with severe inter-phase vgab = 2Vg cos (ωt + π/6), (2a)

power imbalance in PV applications [20]–[22]. he contribu- √

vgbc = 2Vg cos (ωt − π/2), (2b)

tions of this paper include the comprehensive description of the √

recently proposed delta-connected CHB converter for large- vgca = 2Vg cos (ωt + 5π/6), (2c)

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645885, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

TABLE I

Z ERO -S EQUENCE C URRENT V ECTOR S ECTOR

λbc < λca < λab (I)

λbc < λab < λca (II)

λab < λbc < λca (III)

λab < λca < λbc (IV)

λca < λab < λbc (V)

λca < λbc < λab (VI)

quired to balance the phase-leg power levels can be calculated

as:

√

0 2Γ∆ Pnom

I = , (6a)

9Vg

(a)

√ !

6 (λca − λbc )

π/6 + sin−1

Sectors (I), (VI)

2Γ∆

II I

λbc<λab<λca λbc<λca<λab

√ !

VLca 6 (λbc − λab )

−1

Vgca

θ∆ = 5π/6 + sin Sectors (II), (III) ,

2Γ∆

Iba

√ !

Iac 6 (λab − λca )

III

0

3π/2 + sin−1

I Sectors (IV), (V)

λab<λbc<λca VLab

2Γ∆

θΔ

(6b)

Vgbc q

2 2 2

Icb where Γ∆ = (λab − λbc ) + (λbc − λca ) + (λca − λab ) .

VI

λca<λbc<λab (6c)

Vgab

IV The location of the zero-sequence vector depends on the

λab<λca<λbc VLbc

relation between the three-phase power generation ratios which

V

creates six sectors in the phasor diagram. These sectors are

λca<λab<λbc

defined in Table I and illustrated in Fig. 2b, which also shows

an imbalance case with the zero-sequence vector in Sector I.

(b) The phasor diagram is divided into six sectors according

Fig. 2. Phasor diagrams, (a) balanced operation, and (b) unbalanced to the relationship between the three-phase power generation

operation demonstrating the zero-sequence current injection. ratios, as in Fig. 2b and Table I.

For the star connection, the resultant converter output volt-

age of each phase consists of i) the grid voltage, ii) the

the three-phase line currents as: inductor voltage, and iii) the zero-sequence voltage. When the

√ inter-phase power imbalance becomes severe, the amplitude

iga = 2Ig cos ωt, (3a) of the zero-sequence voltage becomes larger. The converter

√ may reach saturation and grid currents would then become

igb = 2Ig cos (ωt − 2π/3), (3b)

√ unbalanced and distorted. Therefore, voltage overrating is

igc = 2Ig cos (ωt + 2π/3), (3c) required by connecting more H-bridges in series to increase

the available dc voltage.

and the zero-sequence current as: However, the scenario in the delta connection is different.

√ The phase-leg current consists of a positive-sequence current

i0 = 2I 0 cos (ωt + θ∆ ). (4) and a zero-sequence current. When the inter-phase power

imbalance becomes severe, the amplitude of the zero-sequence

When the power generation becomes unbalanced, the active current is expected to increase. However, the positive-sequence

power delivered by each phase should be equal to its generated current decreases during this condition, owing to the drop

PV power: in overall power. The necessary semiconductor overrating

√ to tolerate all possible power imbalance cases is, therefore,

Vg Ig / 3 + Vg I 0 cos (π/6 − θ∆ ) = λab Pnom /3, (5a) reduced [22]. In addition, a temporary over-current (< 5 s),

√ during severe imbalance, can usually be tolerated in industrial

Vg Ig / 3 + Vg I 0 cos (3π/2 − θ∆ ) = λbc Pnom /3, (5b)

√ converters, whereas any over-voltage is likely to destroy the

Vg Ig / 3 + Vg I 0 cos (5π/6 − θ∆ ) = λca Pnom /3. (5c) semiconductors immediately.

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645885, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

conventional 50 Hz component

vdc PI 1/N vab

(ab1)

λab 0

i *(ω)

0 0

i * v vbc

λbc Eq. (4) P

vca

Æ vdc (abj ) /N

j

λca

i

0 R(ω)

(a)

iba

R(3ω)

Third

power flow direction detection icb Harmonic

0

i *(3ω)

Generator

vab iac additional 150 Hz component

sgn(x)

iba

vab vab1

(a)

vdc (ab1) 1/N

PI

pab1

PI pab

Æj vdc (abj )/N vdc( ij )

idc ( ij ) pabN

(b) vdc* pbc1

pbc p 2 id *

Fig. 3. Controller implementation, (a) Inter-bridge power balance loop 3Vgd

with fundamental frequency components and, (b) inter-bridge power pbcN

balance loop with power flow direction detection. pca1

pca

pcaN

III. C ONTROL I MPLEMENTATION

(b)

The operation of CHB converters in PV applications require

Fig. 4. Controller implementation, (a) Inter-phase power balance loop

controllers in order to address both the inter-bridge and the with two resonant gains tuned at ω and 3ω, (c) Active power reference

inter-phase imbalance. The controller implementation used in generation.

the rest of the paper is described in this section.

note the zero-sequence voltage in the delta connection is much

A. Inter-bridge power balance loop smaller than that in the star connection [14], [15] because

The inter-bridge power balance loop (phase ab) is shown in the delta connection the zero-sequence voltage is only

in Fig. 3 [12]–[16], [18]. The loop is formed based on the responsible for creating zero-sequence current, rather than

assumption that power always flows from the converter to the driving the inter-phase power exchange.

grid (defined as positive power flow). Therefore, the bridge An additional third harmonic current reference i0∗ (3ω) is

with its dc-side capacitor voltage higher than the average added to the fundamental frequency zero-sequence current

synthesizes a larger share (> 1/N ) of the phase output voltage reference in Fig. 4a. It does not affect the inter-phase power

to increase the output power, and vice versa [12]–[18], [28]. balance loop, but improves the dynamic performance of inter-

Furthermore, when the phase-leg current is low, the inter- bridge power balance loops as mentioned in the previous

bridge power balance loop has poor dynamic performance, subsection. An additional resonant gain tuned at 3ω is required

because the amount of power exchange is limited by the to track i0∗ (3ω).

current magnitude. Therefore, an additional third harmonic Finally, the decoupled dq control regulates the positive-

zero-sequence current i0 (3ω) is injected to increase the cur- sequence component of the phase-leg currents, assuming equal

rent magnitude. The control method used to inject the third amounts of power are generated by the three phases. The

harmonic current is described in the next section. active power reference (Fig. 4b) of each bridge is calculated

by comparing the measured dc-side capacitor voltage vdc(ij)

∗

(i ∈ {ab, bc, ca}; j ∈ {1, 2, ..., N }) to its command vdc . The

B. Inter-phase power balance loop phase power reference can then be obtained by adding the

An inter-phase power balance loop generates a fundamental bridge power references in the phase leg, and the overall power

frequency zero-sequence current, which helps maintain three- reference by adding the three phase power references.

phase balanced line currents, even with unbalanced three-

phase power generation [14]–[18]. The fundamental frequency IV. C OMPARISON BETWEEN S TAR AND D ELTA

zero-sequence current reference i0∗ (ω) (Fig. 4a) is calculated C ONNECTIONS

according to power generation levels in the three phases as in To deal with inter-phase power imbalance, additional zero-

(6). A proportional resonant (PR) controller with the resonant sequence voltage (Y) or current (∆) must be injected, both

gain tuned at ω generates a zero-sequence voltage v 0 to track of which are expected to increase as the inter-phase power

the reference i0∗ (ω). The zero-sequence voltage v 0 is then imbalance becomes more severe. As a result, the converter

+ + +

added to the positive-sequence component vab , vbc , vca to needs to be overrated in terms of voltage or current. This sec-

obtain the final converter output voltage references. Please tion analytically derives both the required voltage and current

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645885, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

overrating for the star and delta connections, considering a Therefore, G (λab , λbc , λca ) reaches the maximum value at

generalized unbalanced case with non-zero connection induc- λab = 1, λbc = 0, λca = 1. The maximum required device

tance. Although the extreme power imbalance associated with voltage rating

worst scenarios in terms of voltage or current overrating may v √

u 3 + 2 3Lf (p.u.),∆ + 4L2f (p.u.),∆

u

∆

rarely happen in practice, this section calculates the converter Vmax

rating required to tolerate all possible power imbalance cases. ∆

=tu . (16)

Vnom 3 1 + L2f (p.u.),∆

A. Voltage Overrating (∆) The worst cases are (λab , λbc , λca ) = (1, 1, 0) , (1, 0, 1)

and (0, 1, 1), which corresponds to two phases generating full

The required voltage overrating can be calculated by devel- power while the remaining phase producing zero power.

oping an analytical function of the overrating as a function

of the power imbalance and identifying the worst case power B. Current overrating (∆)

imbalance. The per-unit value of the filtering inductor Lf in

the delta connection is defined as: Similarly to the previous calculation, the worst case imbal-

ance for the current overrating can be calculated. The required

ωLf Pnom current rating during balanced operation is:

Lf (p.u.),∆ = . (7) √

3Vg2 2Pnom

∆

Inom = . (17)

The required voltage rating during balanced operation 3Vg

(Fig. 2b): Again, the case when the zero-sequence current vector I0

∆

√ q

Vnom = 2 Vg2 + VL,∆ 2 . (8) is located in Sector I (λab ≥ λca ≥ λbc ) (Fig. 2b) is analyzed.

The required current rating with the injected zero-sequence

where VL,∆ = Lf (p.u.),∆ Vg . current can be derived as:

Again, the case when the zero-sequence current vector I0 √

I π

2

is located in Sector I (λab ≥ λca ≥ λbc ) (Fig. 2b) is analyzed. I∆ = 2 √g + I 0 cos θ∆ − (18)

3 6

The required voltage rating with the injected zero-sequence 1/2

current can be derived as:

0

π 2

+ I sin θ∆ − , (19)

√

6

π 2

V ∆ = 2 Vg + ωLf I 0 sin θ∆ + (9) with I 0 and θ∆ of (6).

6

2 1/2 The required current overrating is a function of the power

λa + λb + λc 0

π

+ VL,∆ − ωLf I cos θ∆ + , generation ratios

3 6 √ p

(10) I ∆ = 2 H (λab , λbc , λca ), (20)

√ 2 2

The required voltage overrating is a function of the power H = Ig / 3 + I 0 cos (θ∆ − π/6) + I 0 sin (θ∆ − π/6) .

generation ratios (21)

√ p The partial derivatives of H with respect to λab , λbc and

V ∆ = 2 G (λab , λbc , λca ), (11)

λca

2

where ∂H 2Pnom

= λab ≥ 0, (22)

!2 ∂λab 9Vg2

π

3Lf (p.u.),∆ Vg2 I 0 sin θ∆ + 6 2

G= Vg + ∂H 2Pnom

Pnom = (λbc − λca ) ≤ 0, (23)

!2 ∂λbc 27Vg2

3Lf (p.u.),∆ Vg2 √ π 2

+ Ig / 3 − I 0 cos θ∆ + . ∂H 2Pnom

Pnom 6 = (λca − λbc ) ≥ 0. (24)

∂λca 27Vg2

(12)

Therefore, H (λab , λbc , λca ) reaches the maximum value at

The partial derivatives of G with respect to λab , λbc and λab = 1, λbc = 0 and λca = 1. The maximum required device

λca are then: current rating

√

∂G 2Vg2 Lf (p.u.),∆ √ 2 6Pnom √

= 3 + Lf (p.u.),∆ (λab − λbc ) > 0, ∆

Imax 9Vg 2 3

∂λab 3 = √ = ≈ 1.155. (25)

(13) ∆

Inom 2Pnom 3

∂G 2Vg2 Lf (p.u.),∆ √

=− 3 + Lf (p.u.),∆ (λab − λbc ) < 0, 3Vg

∂λbc 3

(14) The worst cases are (λab , λbc , λca ) = (1, 1, 0) , (1, 0, 1) and

∂G (0, 1, 1), which again correspond to two phases generating full

= 2Vg2 L2f (p.u.),∆ λca ≥ 0. (15) power while the third phase produces zero power.

∂λca

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Transactions on Industrial Electronics

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A similar analysis can be developed for the star-connected 1

CHB converter, assuming operation in Sector I. The per-unit 0.8

value of the filtering inductor Lf is: 0.6

λca

0.4

ωLf Pnom

Lf (p.u.),Y = . (26) 0.2

Vg2

0

1

and the required voltage rating per-phase during balanced 0.8 1

0.6 0.8

operation: λbc

0.4 0.4

0.6

0.2 0.2 λab

r 0 0

Y

√ √ 2

Vnom = 2 Vg / 3 + VL,Y2 , (27) (a)

√

where VL,Y = Lf (p.u.),Y Vg / 3. PBF=4.29%

The required voltage rating per phase with the injected zero- 1

sequence voltage is given by: 0.8

√ √

2 0.6

V = 2 Vg / 3 + V 0 cos θY

Y

(28) λc

0.4

2 1/2 0.2

λa + λb + λc

+ V 0 sin θY + VL,Y , (29) 0

3 1

0.8 1

0.6 0.8

The required voltage overrating is a function of the power 0.4 0.6

λb 0.2 0.4

0.2 λa

generation ratios: 0 0

√ p (b)

VY = 2 F (λa , λb , λc ), (30)

Fig. 5. Power Balance Spaces of the designed (a) delta (b) star-

In practical application, the per-unit inductance value should connected CHB converters.

be quite small 0 < Lf (p.u.),Y ≤ 0.1 and it can be shown that

F (λa , λb , λc ) reaches its maximum value at λa = 1, λb = 0,

λc = 0. The required overrating of the star-connected CHB on the definition of power generation ratios, these can only

converter is given by substituting these values into (28): vary between zero and one for the delta or the star configura-

v tion so that 0 ≤ λab , λbc , λca ≤ 1 (∆) or 0 ≤ λa , λb , λc ≤ 1

Y 81 + L2f (p.u.),Y (Y ) all possible power imbalance cases fall within a unity cube

u

Vmax 1u

= t . (31) (1 × 1 × 1).

Y

Vnom 3 1 + L2f (p.u.),Y

Each power imbalance case can be represented by a unique

Similar analysis can be repeated in the remaining sectors. operation point (λ0ab , λ0bc , λ0ca ) or (λ0a , λ0b , λ0c ) inside the cube.

The worst cases are (λa , λb , λc ) = (1, 0, 0) , (0, 1, 0) and If the maximum converter output voltage is lower than the total

(0, 0, 1), which corresponds to one phase generating full power available dc-side voltage of one phase-leg then three-phase

while the remaining two phases producing zero power. balanced grid currents can be generated without saturation, and

this operation point can be rebalanced using the given method.

PBS is defined as the three-dimensional space that includes all

D. Current overrating (Y)

operation points (λa , λb , λc ) (Y ) or (λab , λbc , λca ) (∆) that

When the inter-phase power imbalance occurs in the star can be tolerated by the converter. PBF, defined as the volume

connection, the current is always less than the nominal, of PBS, indicates the converter power balance capability [14],

because of the drop in overall power. As a result, current [15]. A larger PBF indicates more operation points can be

overrating is not necessary in the star-connected CHB. rebalanced.

Z1 Z1 Z1

E. Comparison & Discussion P BF = F (λa , λb , λc ) dλa dλb dλc , (32)

A comparison between the power balancing capabilities 0 0 0

of the two converters can be made based on the overrating where

considerations and considering that the two designs would (

share the same i) grid voltage Vg , ii) nominal power rating 1, max {va , vb , vc } (λa , λb , λc ) ≤ N vdc

F (λa , λb , λc ) = .

Pnom , iii dc-side capacitor voltages vdc , iv) semiconductor 0, max {va , vb , vc } (λa , λb , λc ) > N vdc

requirements and v) harmonic performance. (33)

Two metrics that assess the converter power balance capa- The PBS of two designed star and delta-connected convert-

bilities are the Power Balance Space (PBS) and the Power ers of Table II is shown in Fig. 5 with the corresponding PBF.

Balance Factor (PBF) [33]. The power generation of each The PBS of the delta-connected converter, based on the as-

phase fluctuates with changing solar irradiance and/or ambient sumptions of the comparison (Fig. 5a), features a much larger

temperature of the solar panels connected to that phase. Based volume than that of the star-connected counterpart (Fig. 5b),

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TABLE II

E XPERIMENTAL P ROTOTYPE PARAMETERS

430V 50Hz 430V:430V

Lf = 10mH Parameters Values

10kVA

Grid Voltage, Vg 430 V

ab3 bc3 ca3

Three-phase Nominal Power, Pnom 10 kW

a1

Filtering Inductance per phase, Lf 10 mH (0.06 p.u.)

ab2 bc2 ca2

MPP of PV Simulators 239.4 V, 4.645 A

PV C

simulator dc-side Capacitor Voltage, vdc 239.4 V

vdc=239.4V H-bridge bc1 ca1 Carrier Frequency, fs 1500 Hz

(a)

three-phase seven-level

With three bridges in the phase leg, the converter output

control PC dSPACE & FPGA PV simulators

CHB converter voltages feature seven-level waveforms with an equivalent

switching frequency of 9 kHz. In practical applications with a

higher number of bridges per phase, a lower carrier frequency

can be used to achieve similar harmonic performance. A limi-

tation of the experimental implementation is that the converter

can only track the MPP under nominal conditions, because vdc

is kept constant during the operation and dc-dc converters are

not included in the setup. When the irradiance changes, the

converter cannot track the MPP of the new condition, because

vdc remains constant. However, this does not affect the results

and conclusions from the experiment as there still exists an

unbalanced power generation between the three phases of the

converter i.e. it is only the magnitude of that imbalance which

Inductors and transformer is slightly different.

(b)

Fig. 6. Experimental setup: (a) schematic diagram and (b) hardware.65 A. Balanced operation (λab = λbc = λca = 1)

Under steady-state and balanced operation, all nine PV

being able to generate three-phase balanced line currents for simulators are subject to the same nominal conditions of

92.32% of all possible power imbalance cases compared to the 1000 W/m2 irradiance assuming temperature of 25◦ C. The

only 4.29% of all cases for the star-connected CHB. Therefore, three-phase converter output voltages and phase-leg currents

in terms of ability to cope with inter-phase power unbalance are depicted in Fig. 7(a), both of which are balanced and

(and given an equal installed switching power), the delta- symmetrical, as the power generation levels from the PV side

connected CHB converter is far superior to that of its star- is equal in the three phases. The three-phase line currents are

connected counterpart. also balanced and symmetrical with an average rms value of

12.4 A. The zero-sequence current to deal with the power

V. E XPERIMENTAL V ERIFICATION imbalance is almost zero (Fig. 7(b)).

phase, seven-level, delta-connected CHB converter prototype B. Mild inter-phase power imbalance

are provided to demonstrate the operation and power balance (λab ≈ 0.5, λbc = λca = 1)

capabilities of the delta-connected CHB converter in PV The solar irradiance of the three PV simulators in phase

applications. ab is decreased from 1000 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 to emulate a

The schematic diagram and experimental setup of the seven- mild case of power imbalance between the power generation

level experimental prototype, including the 5 kVA TerraSAS of the three-phases. Due to the lack of dc-dc conversion

programmable PV simulators and APS PP75B060 H-bridge stages, the actual power generation level is approximately

modules is shown in Fig. 6 while the parameters of the 50% of its nominal value. Fig. 8(a) shows the three-phase

experiment are given in Table II. The delta-connected CHB converter output voltages and phase-leg currents under mild

converter is connected to a 430 V grid via a 1:1 transformer for inter-phase power imbalance. The phase-leg currents are no

isolation purposes during the experiment. The control, inter- longer symmetrical since phase ab generates less power than

phase and inter-bridge power balance functions of the con- the other two phases. However, the three-phase line currents

verter are implemented in a dSPACE DS1006 platform while injected to the grid (Fig. 8(b)) still feature symmetrical and

the modulation, based on the conventional Phase Shift Pulse balanced sinusoidal waveforms with an average rms value

Width Modulation (PS-PWM) [34] with a carrier frequency of of 10.3 A, demonstrating the balancing capabilities and high

1500 Hz, is implemented in Xilinx FPGA modules operating harmonic performance of the delta-connected CHB converter.

at 100 MHz. The zero-sequence current, which only flows within the delta

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(a) (a)

(b) (b)

Fig. 7. Balanced operation: (a) three-phase converter output voltages Fig. 8. Mild inter-phase power imbalance:(a) three-phase converter

and phase-leg currents. CH1: voltage of phase ab vab , CH2: current of output voltages and phase-leg currents. CH1: voltage of phase ab vab ,

phase ab iba , CH3: voltage of phase bc vbc , CH4: current of phase bc icb , CH2: current of phase ab iba , CH3: voltage of phase bc vbc , CH4: current

CH5: voltage of phase ca vca , CH6: current of phase ca iac . CH1, CH3, of phase bc icb , CH5: voltage of phase ca vca , CH6: current of phase

CH5: 500 V/div; CH2, CH4, CH6: 10 A/div. (b) line currents and zero- ca iac . CH1, CH3, CH5: 500 V/div; CH2, CH4, CH6: 10 A/div. (b) line

sequence current. M1: line current of phase a iga , M2: line current of currents and zero-sequence current. M1: line current of phase a iga ,

phase b igb , M3: line current of phase c igc , M4: zero-sequence current M2: line current of phase b igb , M3: line current of phase c igc , M4: zero-

i0 . M1, M2, M3, M4: 10 A/div. Timescale: 5 ms/div. sequence current i0 . M1, M2, M3, M4: 10 A/div. Timescale: 5 ms/div.

to cope with the unequal power generation levels, is also the harmonic performance [16]. However, this issue does not

shown in Fig. 8(b). appear in the delta-connected CHB converter. As illustrated

in Fig. 9(a), the converter output voltage of the phase with

C. Worst-case inter-phase power imbalance zero power generation still features a seven-level waveform,

(λab = 0, λbc = λca = 1) because with the delta connection, a zero-sequence current

i0 is injected to ensure the power balance between the three

The solar irradiance of the three PV simulators in phase ab phases instead of a zero-sequence voltage.

is further decreased to 0, which means a small amount of active

power needs to be delivered into phase ab to maintain the

capacitor voltage levels, because of the losses. This is the worst VI. C ONCLUSION

inter-phase power imbalance cases derived in Section IV. As

illustrated in Fig. 9(a), under this extreme power imbalance The delta-connected CHB converter provides an alternative

case, the three-phase line currents still exhibit symmetrical configuration for large-scale PV applications. A major differ-

waveforms with an average rms value of 8.2 A.The injected ence between the two configurations is that the delta-connected

zero-sequence current, including both the fundamental and topology offers superior power balancing capabilities in order

third harmonic components, is also demonstrated in Fig. 9(b). to address unbalanced power generation amongst the three

It would not be possible for the star connection to deal with phases without requiring significant voltage or current over-

this extreme case without significantly overrating the converter rating. In this paper, the capability has been demonstrated

(Section IV and [16]). The superior power balance capability both analytically in terms of worst-case power imbalances

of the presented delta connection is thus confirmed. and practically by comparing the Power Balance Space of the

Furthermore, in the star connection, the converter output two configurations. Experimental results demonstrate both the

voltage of the phase with low power generation is expected to operation of the delta-connected cascaded H-bridge converter

exhibit lower number of voltage levels, which adversely affects in PV applications and its power balancing capabilities.

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This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2645885, IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Electronics

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[30] G. Farivar, B. Hredzak and V. G. Agelidis, ”Decoupled Control System Christopher D. Townsend (S’09–M’13) re-

for Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converter Based STATCOM,” in IEEE ceived the B.E. (2009) and Ph.D. (2013) degrees

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 322-331, Jan. 2016. in electrical engineering from the University of

[31] R. Teodorescu, F. Blaabjerg, M. Liserre and P. C. Loh, ”Proportional- Newcastle, Australia. He was with ABB Corpo-

resonant controllers and filters for grid-connected voltage-source convert- rate Research, Västerås, Sweden and The Uni-

ers,” in Proc. of IEE - Electr. Power Appl., vol. 153, no. 5, pp. 750-762, versity of New South Wales, Australian Energy

September 2006. Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. He is cur-

[32] C. D. Townsend, T. J. Summers and R. E. Betz, ”Novel phase shifted rently with the School of Electrical Engineering

carrier modulation for a cascaded H-bridge multi-level StatCom,” Proc and Computer Science, University of Newcastle,

of EPE 2011, pp. 1-10. Australia. His current research interests include

[33] Y. Yu, G. Konstantinou, B. Hredzak, and V. G. Agelidis, “Optimal topologies and modulation strategies for multi-

zero sequence injection in multilevel cascaded H-bridge converter under level converters. He is a member of the Power Electronics and Industrial

unbalanced photovoltaic power generation,” in Proc. IEEE IPEC 2014, Electronics Societies of the IEEE.

pp. 1458–1465.

[34] D. Holmes, and T. A. Lipo, Pulse Width Modulation for Power Con-

verters: Principles and Practice, 3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley &

Sons, 2003.

M.Sc. degree in electronics engineering from

the Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria,

Valparaiso, Chile, in 2007, and the Ph.D. degree

in electrical engineering from the University of

Newcastle (UN), Callaghan, Australia, in 2012.

In 2012, he was a Research Academic with the

UN, where he was part of the Centre for Com-

plex Dynamic Systems and Control. From 2014

to 2016, he was a Senior Research Associate at

the University of New South Wales, Australia. In

2016, he joined the School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic

Systems, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia, where

he currently holds a Lecturer position. His main research interests

Yifan Yu (S’13) received the B.Eng. and M.Eng. include power electronics and theoretical and practical aspects of model

degrees in electrical engineering from the Harbin predictive control.

Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, in 2010

and 2012, respectively. He is currently work-

ing towards the Ph.D. degree at the School of

Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications,

UNSW Australia.

His current research interests include topolo- Vassilios G. Agelidis (S’89-M’91-SM’00-F’16)

gies and control strategies for multilevel PV con- was born in Serres, Greece. He received the

verters. B.Eng. degree in electrical engineering from

the Democritus University of Thrace, Thrace,

Greece, in 1988, the M.S. degree in applied sci-

ence from Concordia University, Montreal, QC,

Canada, in 1992, and the Ph.D. degree in elec-

trical engineering from Curtin University, Perth,

Georgios Konstantinou (S’08–M’11) received Australia, in 1997. He has worked at Curtin

the B.Eng. degree in electrical and computer en- University (1993-1999), University of Glasgow,

gineering from the Aristotle University of Thes- U.K. (2000-2004), Murdoch University, Perth,

saloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, in 2007 and Australia (2005-2006), the University of Sydney, Australia (2007-2010),

the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from and the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, Australia

UNSW Australia, Sydney, in 2012. From 2012 (2010-2016). He is currently a professor at the Department of Electrical

to 2015 he was a Research Associate at Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.

UNSW Australia where he is currently a Lecturer Dr. Agelidis received the Advanced Research Fellowship from the

with the School of Electrical Engineering and U.K.’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council in 2004. He

Telecommunications. His main research inter- was the Vice-President Operations within the IEEE Power Electronics

ests include hybrid and modular multilevel con- Society from 2006 to 2007. He was an AdCom Member of the IEEE

verters, power electronics for HVDC and energy storage applications, Power Electronics Society from 2007 to 2009 and the Technical Chair

pulse width modulation and selective harmonic elimination techniques of the 39th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes,

for power electronics. Greece, 2008.

0278-0046 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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