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Global energy demand

• Rate of energy consumption correlated with rate of wealth production


• If all world population consumes 4 kW per capita, the total world power consumption
needs to double (growth potential concentrated in non-OECD countries)
• Petroleum: 90x106 barrel/day at 50 $/barrel for world population of 7.7x109 people
→ 213 $/person/year just for petroleum!
Combustion
Global energy demand

Combustion
Global energy demand

• Most CO2 emissions come from electricity generation


• Most of cost in fuel cost is related to transportation fuel
1 TOE ≈ 40 Million BTU ≈ 42 GJ

Combustion
Global energy demand

Combustion
The CO2 problem

Nowadays, fossil fuels provide


80% of world energy

Net CO2 rise due primarily


to fossil fuel use

→ representing 40 Gton CO2 / year

Combustion
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

(based on electrolysis)

Combustion
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

Projections
• Growing energy demand (world population + life stile)
• Even with CO2 limits, energy sources must include fossil, renewable, nuclear

Various approaches
• Hydrogen economy (no CO2 generation)
• CO-sequestration (Carbon Capture – Storage & Utilization, CCS & CCU)
• Bio-fuels (renewable)
• Increase combustion efficiency (reduce fuel consumption)

Combustion
Carbon Capture - Utilization & Storage

Combustion
Combustion applications: CO2 capture

Combustion
Combustion application fields

Combustion
Combustion applications: examples

Combustion
Combustion and environment

Combustion
What is combustion?

• Classical definition: rapid chemical reaction of a fuel with oxygen, involving


the production of heat and usually light.

• Generic definition: high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction


between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant (usually atmospheric oxygen)
that produces oxidized products (often gaseous).

Combustion
Fuels
• Fuel carries energy in chemical form, which is released through chemical reactions
(i.e. chemical details matter)
• When fuel reacts (e.g. through combustion) most of energy is released as heat
(exception: fuel cells / batteries release electric power)
• Fuels have much higher energy densities than other ways of carrying energy
(i.e. convenient for transportation)
Considerations for fuel choice:
▪ abundance in nature (cost)
▪ safety /handeling (depend on fuel properties)
▪ energy density (per volume and/or mass)
▪ environmental impact (pollutant emission)
▪ avoid carrying oxidizer (atmospheric air)
▪ avoid carrying exhaust (gaseous products)

Combustion
What can be used as Fuel?
300

Mass of fuel for 1 GJ (kg)


Example: To carry 1GJ with fuel mass < 100 kg, 250

fuel must release at least 10 kJ/g 200

Fuel Low Heating Value 150

100
Hydrogen 142 kJ/g
50
Natural Gas 52 kJ/g
0
Gasoline 46 kJ/g 0 10 20 30 40
-1
50
Reaction exothermicity (kJ g )

Combustion
What can be used as Fuel?

Elements with enthalpy of oxidation > 10 kJ/g

Combustion
What can be used as Fuel?

Elements with enthalpy of oxidation > 10 kJ/g and non-solid /non-toxic oxides

Combustion
Hydrocarbon Fuels

Hydrocarbons: organic compounds consisting of hydrogen and carbon (CxHy)


(may contain other minor species: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur)

Classification based origin / formation time scale & physical state


Fuel Primary (Natural) Secundary (derived)
Non-renewable Renewable
(fossil) (biomass)
Solid coal Wood, waste coke, wood charcoal
Liquid Crude oil - gasoline, bioethanol, biodiesel
Gaseous Natural Gas Landfill gas hydrogen, propane, coal gas, biogas

• Solid: CxHy with x > y → higher C/H ratio; produce more CO2 per unit energy
• Liquid: CxHy with x < y
• Gaseous: CxHy with x << y → lower C/H ratio; produce less CO2 per unit energy

Introduction Combustion
Hydrocarbon Fuels

Identification by molecular structure

Number of
carbons

Introduction Combustion
Fossil Fuels Origin

Biomass:
- mainly composed of C, H, O, N
- contains stored energy from sun
- small fraction (<1%) sediments

Kerogen:
- organic matter in sedimentary rocks
- undergoes thermal decomposition

Combustion
Fossil Fuels Origin

Van Krevelen diagram of Kerogen maturation

Van Krevelen diagram of biomass and coal

graphite

Combustion