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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE

PROJECT II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERI

ENGINEERING

NG TECHNOLOGY

II)

COURSE CODE:

CODE EEC 249

YEAR II-

I SEMESTER IV

THEORY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Department Electrical Engineering Technology

Year 2

Semester 4

Credit Hours 2

Theoretical 1

Practical 2

• Assessment 1

Week 1-3

• Assessment 2

Weeks 4 – 7

• Laboratory

• Assessment 3 Weeks 8 - 11

• Laboratory 2

• Laboratory 3

2

This Page is Intentionally Left Blank

3

1.Power in A.C Circuit Week 1

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Resistance

♦ Inductance

♦ Capacitance

1.1.1 Power in A.C circuit containing Resistance only

+

i V mI m

P(t) Average power

+ V mI m

e 2

R

_

0 t

i(t)

_ v(t)

Fig 1.1: (a) pure resistive circuit, (b) power wave form.

(b)

Inspection of the power waveform of fig 1.1 shows that its average value lies half way

between zero and its peak value of VmIm. That is

P = VmIm/2

Since V (the magnitude of the r.m.s value of voltage) is Vm/√2 and I (the magnitude

of the r.m.s value of current) is Im/√2, this can be written as P = VI. Thus, power

(average power) to a purely resistive load is P = VI (watts).

(1.1)

Example 1.1: Calculate the power dissipated by the circuit of fig 1.2

+

100V I R = 25Ω

_

Fig 1.2 4

Solution

I = 100V/25Ω = 4A

∴ P = VI = 100 x 4 = 400W

For a purely inductive load as in fig 1.3(a), current lags voltage by 900. A sketch of P

versus time (obtained by multiplying V times i) then looks as shown in fig 1.3(b).

+

i

PL(t)

VI i(t)

+ v(t)

PL

V

_ 0 t

(a)

Energy Energy Energy Energy

_ stored released stored released

Fig 1.3: (a) pure inductive circuit (b) power waveform(b)

for a purely inductive circuit

Consider fig 1.3. Energy stored during each quarter-cycle is returned during the next

quarter cycle. Thus, the average power is zero. Consequently, the only power flowing

in the circuit is reactive power. This is given by

QL = VI (VAr) (1.2)

Example 1.2: For the circuit of fig 1.4, determine the reactive power

100V I XL = 20Ω

_

Solution

Fig 1.4

I = 100V/20Ω = 5A

∴ QL = VI = 100 x 5 = 500VAr

5

1.1.3 Power in A.C circuit containing capacitance only

For a purely capacitive load current leads voltage by 900. Multiplications of V times i

yield the power curve of figure 1.5

+

PC(t)

i VI v(t)

i(t)

+

PC 0 (b) t

V

_

(a)

-VI

Energy Energy Energy Energy

released stored released stored

(b)

Fig 1.5: (a) pure capacitive circuit (b) power waveform for a pure capacitive circuit.

Consider fig 1.5. Energy stored during each quarter-cycle is returned during the next

quarter cycle. Thus, the average power is zero. Consequently, the only power flowing

in the circuit is reactive power. This is given by

QC = I2XC (1.3)

Example 1.3: With regard to fig 1.6, determine average and reactive power.

+

I

100V XC = 40Ω

_

Fig 1.6

Solution

I = 100V/40Ω = 2.5A.

QC = VI = 100 x 2.5 = 250VAr.

P = 0W.

6

1.1.4 Calculations of power in A.C circuits containing R, L and C

Example 1.4: For the RL circuit of figure 1.7, I = 5A. Find the power and reactive power.

R = 3Ω XL = 4Ω

P

5A

Q

Fig 1.7

Solution

P = I2R = (5)2 (3) = 75W

QL = I2XL = (5)2 (4) = 100VAr

Example 1.5: For the RC circuit of figure 1.8, determine the power consumed and the

reactive power.

+

40V 20Ω R 80Ω XC

_

Fig 1.8

Solution

P = V2/R = (40)2/20 = 80W

QL = V2/XC = (40)2/80 = 20VAr

Example 1.6: A 10Ω resistor, a 100µF capacitor and an inductor of 0.15H are connected in

series to a supply at 230V, 50Hz. Calculate the power consumed by the circuit.

Solution

XL = 2πf L = 2π x 50 x 0.15 = 47.1Ω

XC = 1 = 1 = 31.83Ω

2πfC 2π x 50 x 100 x 10-6

7

Z = √{R2 + (XL – XC)2} = √{102 + (47.1 – 31.83)2} = 18.28Ω

I = VS = 230 = 12.58A

Z 18.28

Power consumed, P = I2R = (12.58)2 x 10 = 1582W

8

Power in A.C Circuit Week 2

At the end of this week, the students is expected to:

1.2.1 Power Factor

Power factor is the ratio of the real power dissipated in the load to the apparent power

of the load. Thus,

P.f = cosθ = P/S (1.4)

Angle θ is the angle between voltage and current. For a pure resistance, therefore, θ =

00. For a pure inductance, θ = 900; for a pure capacitance, θ = -900. For a circuit

containing resistance and inductance, θ will be somewhere between 00 and 900; for a

circuit containing resistance and capacitance, θ will be somewhere between 00 and -

900.

1.2.2 Factors Affecting the Value of Power Factor

1. Increase in supply voltage

Due to increase in supply voltage, which usually occurs during low loads period, the

magnetizing current of inductive reactance increase and power factor of the plant as a

whole comes down.

2. Improper Maintenance and Repairs

The power factor at which motors operates falls due to improper maintenance and

repairs of motors.

3. Industrial Heating of Furnance

Induction furnances operates at a very low lagging power factor due to heating of the

furcance.

1.3 METHODS OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

1. Synchronous Motors

These machines draw leading KVAr when they are over excited and, especially, when

they are running idle. They are employed for correcting of the power factor in bulk

and have the special advantage that the amount of correction can be varied by

changing their excitation.

9

2. Static Capacitors

They are installed to improve the power factor of a group of a.c motors and are

practically loss-free. Since their capacitances are not variable, they tend to over-

compensate on light loads, unless arrangements for automatic switching off the

capacitor bank are made.

3. Phase Advancers

The power factor of induction motors is being improved by equipping the machines

with a phase advancer, which supply exciting current to the motor circuit. With the

arrangement, the phase angle between the supply voltage and current would be

decrease, thereby increasing the power factor.

10

Power Calculation in A.C Circuit Week 3

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Explain apparent power, reactive power and active power

♦ Solve problems on power factor, active power apparent power reactive power and

power factor

1.4 APPARENT POWER, REACTIVE POWER AND ACTIVE

POWER

1.4.1 Apparent power I

+

S load V

_

When a load has voltage V across it and current I through it as in figure 1.9, the power

that appears to flow to it is VI. However, if the load contains both resistance and

reactance, this product represents neither active power nor reactive power. Since VI

appears to represent power, it is called apparent power. Apparent power is given the

symbol S and units of volt-amperes (VA). Thus

S = VI (VA) (1.5)

where V and I are the magnitude of the r.m.s voltage and current respectively.

1.4.2 Reactive Power

Consider figure 1.3. During the intervals that instantaneous power PL(t) is negative,

power is being returned from the load. (This can only happen if the load contains

reactive elements: L or C.) The portion of power that flows into the load then back out

is called reactive power. Reactive power is given by the symbol Q and units of volt-

ampere reactive (VAr). Thus

Q = VIsinθ (1.6)

1.4.3 Active power

Consider again figure 1.3. Since PL represents the power flowing to the load; its

average will be the average power to the load. Denote this average by the letter P. If P

has a positive value, it represents the power that is really dissipated by the load. For

11

this reason, P is called Real power. In modern terminology, real power is also called

active power. The unit of active power is in watt (W). Thus

P = VIcosθ (W) (1.7)

1.5 SOLVED PROBLEMS ON POWER FACTOR, ACTIVE POWER,

APPARENT POWER, REACTIVE POWER AND POWER

FACTOR CORRECTIONS

(a) The active power (b) the apparent power (c) the reactive power and (d) the

power factor.

R = 8Ω

XL = 7Ω XC = 15Ω

V = 100

Fig 1.10

Solution

Z = √{R2 + (XC – XL)2} = √{82 + (15 – 7)2} = 11.314Ω

I = E = 100 = 8.84A

Z 11.314

From the phasor diagram of RLC series circuit shown in fig 1.11

VL

V

V L - VC

φ

I

VR

Fig 1.11

VC

12

∴ φ = cos-1 (70.72/100) = 450

(a) P = VIcosφ = 100 x 8.84 x cos450 = 625W

(b) S = VI = 100 x 8.84 = 884VA

(c) Q = VIsinφ = 100 x 8.84 x sin450 = 625VAr

(d) P.f = cosφ = cos450 = 0.707

Example 1.8: A resistor of 40Ω is connected in parallel with a 67.6mH inductor, the

combination being supplied by a 120V, 50Hz supply. Calculate (a) the power factor

(b) the active power (c) the apparent power (d) the reactive volt-amperes consumed

Solution

IR = VS/R = 120/40 = A

IL = VS = 120 = 5.65A

-3

2πfL 2π x 50 x 67.6 x 10

I = √(IR2 + IL2) = √(32 + 5.652) = 6.397A

From the phasor diagram of RL parallel circuit (fig 1.12)

IR

φ VS

IL I

Fig 1.12

(b) P = VIcosφ = 120 x 6.397 x 0.4690 = 360W

(c) S = VI = 120 x 6.397 = 767.64VA

(d) Q = VIsinφ, φ = cos-1(0.469) = 620

= 120 x 6.397 x sin620 = 677.8VAr

Example 1.9: A load of P = 1000KW with p.f = 0.5lagging is fed by a 5KV, 50Hz source. A

capacitor is added in parallel such that the power factor is improved to 0.8. Find the value of

the shunt capacitance needed to improve the power factor

13

Solution

The value of the shunt capacitance is given by

C = P(tanφ1 - tanφ2)

2πfV2

Before improvement.

P = 1000KW, cosφ1 = 0.5, ⇒ φ1 = cos-1(0.5) = 600

∴ Ptanφ1 = 1000K x tan600 = 1732.05KVAr

∴ C = 1732.05 – 750.82 ≅ 125µF

2π x 50 x (5000)2

14

Three Phase Systems Week 4

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Define polyphase system

♦ Explain the basic differences between single phase and three phase systems

♦ Explain phase sequence of a three phase system

♦ State the advantages of three phase circuits.

2.1 POLYPHASE SYSTEM

Circuits or system in which the ac sources operate at the same frequency but different

phases are known as polyphase systems.

2.2 BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SINGLE PHASE AND THREE

PHASE SYSTEMS

2.2.1 Single-Phase Systems

A single phase a.c power system consists of a generator connected through a pair of

wires (a transmission line) to a load. Figure 2.1 depicts a single phase two wire

system, where VP is the magnitude of the source voltage and φ is the phase. The

power in a single phase system is pulsating (not constant). For large motors, pulsating

power supply causes excessive vibration. Besides, it has neither delta nor star type of

connection.

Vp ∠Φ +_ ZL

2.2.2 Three Phase Systems

Figure 2.2 shows a three phase four wire systems. As distinct from a single phase

system, a three phase system is produced by a generator consisting of three sources

having the same amplitude and frequency but out of phase with each other by 1200.

When one phase or two phase inputs are required, they are taken from the three phase

system rather than generated independently. The instantaneous power in a three phase

system can be constant. This result in uniform power transmission and less vibration

of three phase machines. Generally, three-phase systems have two type of connection,

which are star and delta connections

15

Vp 00 a A ZL1

_

+

Vp -12 00

_ b B

ZL2

+

Vp +12 00

_ c C ZL3

+

n N

Consider the waveform of three phase e.m.f shown in fig 2.3. From the waveform it is

seen that the e.m.f of phase A lead that of B by 1200, and in similar way, the e.m.f of

phase B lead that of C by 1200. Hence, the order in which the e.m.fs of phases A, B

and C attain their maximum values is ABC. It is called phase sequence ABC.

Therefore, Phase sequence is the order in which the three phases (A,B and C) reach

their maximum value.

e

A B C

ωt

0

120

2400

16

2.4 ADVANTAGES OF 3-PHASE CIRCUITS

1. The instantaneous power in a three phase system can be held constant. This

results in uniform transmission.

2. Three phase systems are more economical than single phase systems.

3. Three phase systems are more efficient

17

Three Phase Systems Week 5

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Explain how 3-phase e.m.fs are produced

♦ Distinguish between star and delta three-phase system

♦ Derive the relationship between line and phase values of voltages and currents in a

star and delta connected windings

2.5 GENERATION OF THREE PHASE E.M.F’s

B1 A

C1

N S

C B

A1

Fig 2.4: Generation of 3-φ e.m.f’s

In figure 2.4, three similar coils (A,B, and C) are displaced from one another by 120

electrical degrees. If the coils are rotated within the magnetic field, emf would be

induced or generated in the three coils. It is evident that counterclockwise rotation

results in coil sides A, B, and C in the order A-B-C. The result for the three coils is as

shown in fig 2.3. Voltage B is 120 electrical degrees later than A, and C is 2400 later.

Changing the direction of rotation would result in A-C-B, which is called the ACB

phase sequence.

2.6 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STAR AND DELTA 3–PHASE

SYSTEM

2.6.1 Star-Connected 3-Phase System

1. Neutral wire is available

2. Phase current = line current

3. Phase voltage = line voltage

√3

4. It can handle both lighting and power loads

18

2.6.2 Delta-Connected 3-Phase system

1. Neutral wire is not present

√3

3. Phase voltage = line voltage

4. It can handle power loads only

2.7 DERIVATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LINE AND

PHASE VALUES OF VOLTAGES AND CURRENT IN A STAR

AND DELTA CONNECTED WINDINGS

2.7.1 Line voltages and phase voltages in a star connected windings

Line 1

VR

VRY

VBR

VB

Vy

Line2

VYB

Line3

(a)

Fig 2.5: (a) Star connection of a 3-Φ circuit

VRY

VR

-VY -VB

300

VYB

VB

VY

-VR

VBR

19

Fig 2.6: phasor diagram of a star connected load

Consider the star connection of a three phase circuit shown in fig 2.5. It phasor

diagram is as shown in fig 2.6. To obtain the line voltages we proceed as under:

Let VRY = line voltage between red phase and yellow phase

VYB = line voltage between yellow phase and blue phase

VBR = line voltage between blue phase and red phase

VR = voltage across the red phase

VY = voltage across the yellow phase

VB = voltage across the blue phase

Thus, VYB, VBR and VYB are called line voltages, while VB, VR and VY are called

phase voltages.

The p.d between line 1 and 2 in (fig 2.5) is VRY. Hence, VRY is found by

compounding VR and VY reversed and its value is given by the diagonal of the

parallelogram of fig 2.6. Obviously, the angle between VR and VY reversed is 600.

The parallelogram is shown in fig 2.7 below.

VY VRY

o 300

VR

Fig 2.7: parallelogram of fig 2.6

From fig 2.7, ox = ½ VRY (2.1)

Also, ox = VR cos 300 (2.2)

Equating (2.2) to equation (2.1) gives

VRY = 2 (VRcos300)

= √3 VR = √3 Vph

Considering that the system is balanced,

∴ VYB = √3 Vph

also, VBR = √3 Vph

Now VRY = VYB = VBR = line voltage, say VL. Hence, in star connection

VL = √3Vph (2.3)

20

2.7.2 Line currents and phase currents in a star connected windings

R

IR

IB

Iy

Consider fig 2.8.

Let IR = current flowing through the red phase

IY = current flowing through the yellow phase and

IB = current flowing through the blue phase

IR, IY and IB are called phase current (Iph). It is seen that each of the phase currents is

equal to the current flowing through the respective lines. Thus, the current flowing

through the respective lines is known as the line current (IL)

Hence, in star connection, line current = phase current.

∴ IL = Iph (2.4)

2.7.3 Line currents and phase currents in a delta connected windings

1

(IR – IB) R

IB

IR

VRY VBR

2

Y

IY (IY – IR)

VYB

3 B

(IB – IY)

21

VRY

(IR – IB)

IR

-IY Φ

-IB

(IB – Iy)

Φ

Φ

IY VYB

IB

-IR

VBR

(IY – IR)

Fig 2.10 Phasor diagram of a delta connection of a three phase circuit

Consider the delta connection of a three phase circuit shown in fig 2.9. It phasor

diagram is as shown in fig 2.10. To obtain the line currents we proceed as under:

Let I1 = IR – IB

I2 = IY - IR

I3 = IB - IY

I1, I2 and I3 are called line currents

Line current I1 is also found by compounding IR and IB reversed as shown in fig 2.10.

Its value is given by diagonal of fig 2.10. The parallelogram of fig 2.10 is as shown in

fig 2.11.

IR I1

o 300

IB

Fig 2.11: parallelogram of fig 2.10

From fig 2.11,

Ox = ½ I1 (2.5)

0

Also, ox = IB cos30 (2.6)

22

From equation (2.6) and (2.6), ½ I1 = √3/2 IB

If IR = IY = IB = phase current (Iph), then

Current in line no.1 is I1 = √3Iph

Current in line no.2 is I2 = √3Iph and

Current in line no.3 is I3 = √3 Iph

Since all the line currents are equal in magnitude, i.e I1 = I2 = I3 = IL

∴ IL = √3Iph (2.7)

2.7.4 Line voltages and phase voltages in a delta connected windings

It is seen from fig 2.9 that there is only one phase winding completely included

between any pair of terminals. Hence, in delta connection, the voltage between any

pair of lines is equal to the phase voltage of the phase winding connected between the

two lines considered. Hence, for a balanced system, VRY = VYB = VBR = line voltage

VL. Then, it is seen that

VL = Vph (2.8)

23

Three Phase Systems Week 6

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Derive an expression for power in a three-phase circuit (balanced and unbalanced)

♦ Explain the two wattmeter and single wattmeter methods of measuring three-phase

power

2.8 DERIVATION FOR POWER IN A 3-PHASE CIRCUIT

(BALANCED AND UNBALANCED)

2.8.1 Power in a 3-Phase circuit (balanced-delta connection)

Consider the delta connection of a three phase circuit (fig 2.9). The total active power

in a delta connected circuit is the sum of the three phase powers. Hence,

Power per phase = VphIphcosφ

Total power = 3 x VphIph cos φ

However, Vph = VL and Iph = IL/√3. In terms of line values, the above expression for

power becomes

P = 3 x VL x IL x cosφ = √3 VLILcosφ (2.9)

√3

Similarly, total reactive power is given by

Q = √3 VLILsinφ (2.10)

and total apparent power of the three phase is

S = √3 VLIL (2.11)

2.8.2 Power in a three phase circuit (unbalanced star connection)

IR

Vph ZR

In N

ZY

Vph ZB

IY

Vph

IB

Fig 2.11: unbalanced three phase star connected load

Consider the unbalanced three phase star connected load, where it is assumed that the

phase voltages (Vph) are equal. The line currents are obtained from ohms law.

24

Power in phase R, PR = phase voltage x Phase current x cosφR, where φR is the angle

between phase voltage and phase current.

∴PR = Vph IRcosφR (2.12)

Similarly, power in phase Y is obtained as

PY = Vph IY cosφY, (2.13)

Power in phase B is

PB = Vph IB cosφB (2.14)

Total power in the three phase is

PT = PR + PY + PB

= Vph IRcosφR + Vph IYcosφY + Vph IBcosφB (2.15)

MEASURING 3-PHASE POWER

2.9.1 2-Wattmeter Method

In this method, two wattmeters are connected in two phases and their potential coils

are connected to the remaining phase. As shown in fig 2.12, wattmeter W1 is inserted

in phase a and wattmeter W2 in phase c. Their potential coils are connected across a

and b, and c and b respectively. The current coil (c.c) of each wattmeter measures the

line current, while the respective potential coil (p.c) measures the line voltage. The

algebraic sum of the two wattmeter readings equals the total power absorbed by the

loads. Thus

The following are important with regard to two wattmeter method.

1. For a lagging Power factor,

tanφ = √3 W2 – W1 (2.17)

W2 + W1

tanφ = _ √3 (W1 – W2) (2.18)

W1 + W2

25

c.c

W1 ia

a

p.c

ZA

b

ZB

ZC

p.c

ic

c c.c

2.9.2 Single- Wattmeter Method

In this method, one wattmeter is used to get two readings which are obtained by two

wattmeter in the two wattmeter method. The total power is 3 times the reading of that

one wattmeter. This method is used only when the load is balanced. Figure 2.13

shows the schematic diagram of a single wattmeter method.

c.c

W1

a

p.c Z

Z

Z

b

c

Fig_ 2.13: schematic diagram of a single-wattmeter method

26

Three Phase Systems Week 7

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Solve problems on

Line and phase voltages and current in a star and delta connected windings

Power in a three phase circuit

2-wattmeter and single wattmeter methods of measuring 3-phase circuits

2.10 SOLVED PROBLEMS ON LINE AND PHASE VOLTAGES AND

CURRENT IN A STAR AND DELTA CONNECTED WINDINGS,

POWER IN THREE PHASE CIRCUIT AND 2-WATTMETER AND

SINGLE WATTMETER METHOD OF MEASURING 3-PHASE POWER

Example 2.1The impedance per phase of a delta connected load is 10Ω per phase, the line

voltage being 230V. Determine (a) the phase current (b) the line current (c) the apparent

power of the load.

Solution

(a) Iph = Vph/Zph = 230/10 = 23A

(b) IL = √3 Iph = √3 x 23 = 39.8A

(c) S = √3 VL IL = √3 x 230 x 39.8 = 15.9KVA

The circuit arrangement is shown in fig 2.14.

Iph = 39.8A

VL = 230V Iph = 23A

Zph = 10Ω

27

Example 2.2 An unbalanced star-connected load has balanced phase voltage of 120V and

the a.b.c sequence. The line currents are given as Ia = 10∠00A, Ib = 20∠-400A and Ic = 30∠-

1550A. Find the power consumed by the circuit.

Solution

Ia = 10∠50A, Vpa = 120∠00V

Ib = 20∠400A, Vpb = 120∠-1200V

Ic = 30∠1550A, VPc = 120∠-2400V

Pa = VPIacosφa = 120 x 10cos(0 – 0) = 1200W

Pb = VpIbcosφb = 120 x 20cos{-120 –(-40)} = 416.76W

Pc = VPIccosφc = 120 x 30cos{-240 – (-155)} = 313.76W

P = Pa + Pb + Pc

= 1200 + 416.76 + 313.76 ≅ 1.93KW

Example 2.3: Line voltage and current of a delta connected inductive load is 160V and 40A

respectively. Power factor of load is 0.8lag. Assuming that power is being measured using

two wattmeters, find the readings of the wattmeters.

Solution

VPh = VL = 160V, IL = 40A

Total power, P = √3 VLILcosφ

= √3 x 160 x 40 x 0.8 = 8868W

∴ W1 + W2 = 8868 (2.4.1)

cosφ = 0.8, ⇒ φ = cos-1(0.8) = 36.90

tanφ = 0.75

For a lagging P.f,

tanφ = √3 (W1 - W2)

W1 + W2

⇒ 0.75 = √3 (W1 – W2), ⇒ W1 – W2 = 8868 x 0.75 = 3840

8868 √3

∴ W1 – W2 = 3840 (2.4.2)

Adding eqtn. (2.4.1) and (2.4.2) together gives

2W1 = 12708

⇒ W1 = 12708/2 = 6354W

From eqtn. (2.4.1), W2 = 8868 – 6354 = 2514W

28

Example 2.4: The current coil of a wattmeter is connected to the red phase of a star

connected load, while the potential coil is connected between the line and the neutral. If the

phase voltage and current are respectively 20∠800V and 30∠500A, find the total power

consumed by the load.

Solution

The circuit diagram is shown in fig 2.15

c.c IR

W1

R

Vph

p.c Z

Z Z

B

Fig 2.15: schematic diagram of a single-wattmeter method

P = √3 VLILcosφ

where IR = IL and VL = √3 VPh = √3 x 20∠800 = 34.64∠800V

P = √3 x 34.64 x 30 cos(800 – 500) = 1558.8W

29

Time Domain Analysis Week 8

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Explain the meaning of transient

♦ Derive formulae for current and voltage growth and decay in RC circuits

3.1 TRANSIENT

when a circuit possesses energy storing elements such as inductance and capacitance,

the energy state of the circuit can be disturbed by changing the position of the switch

(fig 3.1) connecting the elements to the source. There is a transitional period during

which the branch current and element voltages change from their former values to

new ones. This period is called the transient.

3.2 DERIVATIONS OF FORMULAE FOR CURRENT AND

VOLTAGE GROWTH AND DECAY IN RC CIRCUIT

3.2.1 Current and Voltage Growth in RC Circuit

Let us consider the circuit shown in figure 3.1

R C

Let the current in the circuit at any instant t be i, and capacitor voltage be v. When

switch S is closed and Kirchhoff’s law is being applied, this yield

Ri + v = V (3.1)

Since i = C(dv/dt), equation (3.1) becomes

V = RC (dv/dt) + v

∴ V – v = RC (dv/dt)

so that dt/RC = dv/(V – v)

Integrating both sides, we have

t = -ln (V – v) + A

RC

where A is the constant of integration

when t = 0, v = 0

30

∴ A = ln V

So that t = ln V .

RC V–v

∴ V = e t/RC

V–v

-t/RC

and v = V (1 – e ) volts (3.2)

Also i = C dv = CV . d (1 – e-t/RC)

dt dt

∴ i = V/R . e

-t/RC

(3.3)

3.2.2 Current and Voltage Decay in RC Circuit

Let the capacitor C in fig 3.1 be charged initially to V volts and then be discharged

through a resistor R as shown in figure 3.2

C R

By Kirchhoff’s law

iR + v = 0 or -v = C dv { i = C dv/dt}

R dt

So that dt/RC = -dv/v

Integrating both sides, we have

t = - ln v + A

RC

When t = 0, v = V, so that A = ln V. Hence

t = ln V/v

RC

So that V/v = et/RC

-t/RC

and v = Ve (3.4)

Also i = -v/R

The negative sign indicates that the direction of the discharge current is the reverse of

that of the charging current

∴ i = -V/R e-t/RC (3.5)

31

Time Domain Analysis Week 9

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Sketch the growth and decay curves in RC circuits

♦ Define time constant in RC circuit

♦ Solve problems involving transient in RC circuit

3.3 SKETCH FOR GROWTH AND DECAY CURVES OF CURRENT

AND VOLTAGE IN RC CIRCUIT

The sketch for growth of current and voltage in RC circuit is shown in figure 3.3

while the sketch for decay of current and voltage in RC circuit is as shown in fig 3.4

V

i,v

Charging current

Voltage across the capacitor

Voltage across the capacitor

T

Discharging current

t

i Fig 3.4

Fig 3.3

Consider fig 3.3 above. T is known as the time constant in RC circuit. It is given by

the expression

T = RC, (seconds) (3.6)

Time constant of an RC circuit is the time required for the voltage across

capacitor to increase from zero to its final value if it continued increasing at its initial

rate.

32

3.5 SOLVED PROBLEMS INVOLVING TRANSIENT IN RC

CIRCUIT

Example 3.1: A 20µF capacitor is charged to a p.d of 400V and then discharged through a

100,000Ω resistor. Determine:

(a) the time constant

(b) the initial value of discharged current

Solution

(a) T = RC = 100 000 x 20 = 2s

100 000

(b) Initial value of discharge current is

V/R = 400/100 000 = 4mA

Example 3.2: An 8µF capacitor is connected in series with a 0.5MΩ resistor across a 200V

d.c supply. Calculate:

(a) the time taken for the P.d across the capacitor to grow to 160V:

(b) the current and the P.d across the capacitor 4s after it is connected to the supply

Solution

-6

(a) T = RC = 0.5 x 106 x 8 x 10 = 4s

From v = V(1 – e-t/RC)

-t/4

⇒e = 0.2

From mathematical table

t/4 = 1.61

∴ t = 6.44s

(b) At t = 4s

-4/4

v = 200(1 – e ) = 200( 1 – 0.68) = 126.4V

-t/RC

and i = v/R e

= 400 e-1 = 147µA

Example 3.3: A 15µF capacitor in series with a 10KΩ resistor is connected across a 300V

d.c supply. The fully charged capacitor is disconnected from the supply and is discharged by

connecting a 11200Ω resistor across it terminals. Determine (i) the initial value of the

charging current, and (ii) the initial value of the discharge current.

33

Solution

(i) Initial value of charging current, I0 = V/R = 300 = 30mA

10 x 103

(ii) The initial value of discharging current is given by

i = V/R, where R = 11200Ω

∴ i = 300 = 26.7mA

11200

34

Time Domain Analysis Week

10

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Derive expression for the growth and decay of voltage and current in RL circuit

♦ Sketch curves for growth and decay of current and voltage in RL circuit

♦ Define time constant in RL circuit

3.6 DERIVATIONS OF FORMULAE FOR CURRENT AND

VOLTAGE GROWTH ANF DECAY IN RL CIRCUIT

3.6.1 Current and Voltage Growth in RL Circuit

Consider the circuit shown in figure 3.5 and suppose i amperes to be the current t

seconds after the switch is closed, and di amperes to be the increase of current in dt

seconds. Then rate of change of current is

di/dt ampere per second

and induced e.m.f is

L di/dt volts

i

Switch

L

V

R

V = Ri + L di/dt (3.7)

so that V – Ri = L di/dt

and V/R – i = L/R . di/dt

But V/R = final value of current = I

∴ R dt = di .

L I–i

Integrating both sides, we have

Rt/L = -ln (I – i) + A

Where A is the constant of integration

35

When t = 0, i = 0, so that, A = ln I.

∴ Rt/L = -ln(I – i) + ln I

= ln I .

I–i

-Rt/L

Hence I – i = e

I

∴ i = I(1 – e

-Rt/L

) (3.8)

The voltage across the inductance,

VL = L di/dt

-Rt/L

= L d/dt [ I (1 – e )]

-R/L . t

VL = IR e (3.9)

3.6.2 Current and Voltage decay in RL circuit

Consider the circuit shown in figure 3.6. When the switch is moved from position X

to Y, the battery voltage is short circuited. Hence, since battery is cut off from the

circuit, applying Kirchoff’s law yield.

R L

X

Switch

Y

V

Fig 3.6

0 = Ri + L di/dt

∴ Ri = -L di/dt

The negative sign indicate a decaying current, hence

(R/L) dt = -1/t dt

Integrating both sides, we have

(R/L) t = -ln i + A

where A is the constant of integration

At the instant of closing switch, t = 0 and i = I, so that

0 = -ln I + A

∴ (R/L) t = ln I – ln i

Hence I/i = e-Rt/L

-Rt/L

and i = I e (3.10)

Also, VL = L di/dt

36

-Rt/L

= L [d/dt {Ie }]

VL = -IR e-Rt/L (3.11)

3.7 SKETCH FOR GROWTH AND DECAY CURVES OF CURRENT

AND VOLTAGE IN RL CIRCUIT

The sketch for growth of current and voltage in RL circuit is shown in figure 3.7

while figure 3.8 depicts the sketch for decay of current and voltage in RL circuit

Voltage across i

i,vL

the inductance

Decaying current

Growing current in an

inductive circuit t

inductor

t

VL Fig 3.8

Fig 3.7

The time constant of an RL circuit is define as the time during which current

would have reached its maximum value had it maintained its initial rate of rise.

The expression for the time constant in an RL circuit is given by

T = L/R (3.12)

37

Time Domain Analysis Week

11

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Explain the need for connecting a resistor in parallel with an inductor

♦ Solve problems involving transient in RL circiuits

3.9 ESSENCE OF CONNECTING A RESISTOR IN PARALLEL

WITH AN INDUCTOR

R L

A S

B

E

RD

Let us consider the circuit shown in figure 3.9. A discharge resistor RD is connected in

parallel with the inductive circuit. When the switch S is connected to A, the current

becomes E/R. When the switch is moved to position B, the circuit is disconnected

from the supply.

When the position of the switch is change from A to B, the circuit in the

inductive circuit is switched off and a voltage is induced in it. Arcing is produced at

the time of charging the position of the switch and there is a possibility of damaging

the insulation because the induced voltage may be many times greater than the

applied voltage. To avoid this arcing, a discharge resistor RD is connected as shown in

figure 3.9

3.10 SOLVED PROBLEMS INVOLVING TRANSIENT IN RL

CIRCUIT

Example 3.4: A coil having a resistance of 4Ω and a constant inductance of 2H is switched

across a 20V d.c supply. Calculate:

(a) the time constant

(b) the final value of the current

Solution

(a) T = L/R = 2/4 = 0.5s

38

(b) I = V/R = 20/5 = 5A

(a) Determine the mathematical expression for the variation of the current in the inductor

following the closure of the switch at t =0 on to position 1

(b) The switch is closed on to position 2 when t = 100ms, determine the new expression

for the inductor current

1 2

R1 = 10Ω

10V R = 15Ω

L = 0.1H

Fig 3.10

Solution

(a) For the switch in position 1, the time constant is

T1 = L/R1 = 0.1/10 = 10ms

-3

∴i1 = I(1 – e-t/T) = 10/10 (1 – e-t/10x10 )

-t/10x10 -3

= (1 – e ) amperes

(b) For the switch in position 2, the time constant is

T2 = L = 0.1 = 4ms

R1 + R 10 + 15

2 t/4x10-3

∴i2 = Ie-t/T = 10/10 (e- )

-3

-t/4x10

=e amperes

Example 3.6: A coil having 10Ω resistance and 14H inductance is connected across a

d.c voltage of 140V. After the current has reached its final value, how much time it would

take for the current to reach a value of 8A after switching off the supply.

39

Solution

-t/T

i = Ie

where i = 8A, and T = L/R = 14/10 = 1.4s

and I = V/R = 140/10 = 14A

∴ 8 = 14 e

-t/1.4

⇒ e-t/1.4 = 8/14

∴ t = 0.783s

40

Magnetic Coupling Week

12

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Describe magnetic coupling

♦ Define mutual inductance

♦ Derive an expression for mutual inductance between two coils

4.1 MAGNETIC COUPLING

R1 R2

i1 I2

φ12

φ1 φ2

Coil 1 Coil 2

Figure 4.1 shows magnetic coupling between two coils. In this case, a portion of the

magnetic flux established by one coil interlinks the other. In this case, energy is

transferred from one circuit to the other through the medium of magnetic flux that is

common to both.

From fig 4.1, φ1 is the total flux produced by i1, and φ2 is the total flux

produced by i2, and φ12 is the magnetic flux that linked both coils

The mutual inductance between two coils is defined as the Weber-turns in one coil

due to current through the other coil

41

4.3 DERIVATION FOR MUTUAL INDUCTANCE BETWEEN TWO

COILS

Consider fig 4.1. The induced voltage in coil 2 due to a change in flux can be written

as (by faraday’s law)

e2 = N2dφ12 (4.1)

dt

where N2 is the number of turns in coil 2

Also, e2 is proportional to the rate of change of i1, that is

e2 α di1 or e2 = M di (4.2)

dt dt

In equation (4.2), M is the constant of proportionality known as mutual inductance

between two coils. It is measured in Henry (H)

Equating equation (4.1) to (4.2) we have

N2 dφ12 = M di1

dt dt

⇒ M = N2 dφ12 (4.3)

di1

42

Magnetic Coupling Week

13

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Describe the polarity of coupled coils

♦ Define coefficient of coupling

♦ Derive an expression for the coupling coefficient

4.4 POLARITY OF COUPLED COILS

Polarity of coupled coils could be determined by dot convention. Dot convention is

very useful to determine the nature of mutually induced e.m.f instead of showing the

actual mode of the winding. If the dotted terminals of the winding correspond to each

other, the mutually induced e.m.f is positive otherwise it is negative. Figure 4.2

clearly explains the sign or polarity of mutually induced e.m.f.

M positive M negative

M negative M negative

43

4.5 COEFFICIENT OF COUPLING

Coefficient of coupling is defined as the ratio of mutual inductance M to the square

root of the product of inductances of coil 1 and coil 2.

In figure 4.1, let the two inductively coupled coils 1 and 2 have the number of turns

N1 and N2 respectively. Their individual coefficients of self induction are,

L2 = N2 and L2 = N2 .

L/µ0µrA L/µ0µrA

The flux φ1 produced in coil 1 due to a current I1 ampere is

φ1 = N1 I1 .

L/µ0µrA

Suppose a fraction K1 of this flux i.e K1φ1 is linked with coil 2. Then

M = K1 φ1 x N2 where K ≤ 1.

I1

Substituting the value of φ1, we have,

M = K1 x N1 N2 (4.4)

L/µ0µrA

Similarly, the flux φ2 produced in coil 2 due to I2 ampere is

φ2 = N2 I2 .

L/µ0µrA

Suppose a fraction K2 of this flux i.e K2φ2 is linked with coil 2 then

M = K2 φ2 x N1

I1

= K2 x N1 N2 (4.5)

L/µ0µrA

Multiplying eqtn. (4.4) and (4.5), we get

M2 = K1K2 N12 x N22 = K1K2L1L2

L/µ0µrA L/µ0µrA

Putting √(K1K2) = K, we have M = K√(L1L2)

∴K= M (4.6)

√(L1L2)

where K is the coefficient of coupling.

44

Magnetic Coupling Week

14

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Define an ideal transformer

♦ Draw the equivalent circuit of an ideal transformer

♦ Explain with the aid of a diagram an equivalent circuit of a practical transformer

4.7 IDEAL TRANSFORMER

An ideal transformer is one with perfect coupling (K = 1).

I1 P I2

S

V1 load

V2

Z1 Z2

X1 I11 X2 I2

I1 R1 P S R2

I1 Z1 I0

E1 E2 I2 Z2

R X To load

V1 IC V2

Img

Ideal transformer

Fig 4.6: Equivalent circuit of a practical transformer

primary and secondary windings of the ideal transformer, R1 and R2 are resistances

equal to the resistances of the primary and secondary windings of the practical

45

transformer. Similarly, inductive reactances X1 and X2 represent the reactance of the

windings due to leakage flux in the practical transformer.

The inductive reactor X is such that it takes a reactive current equal to the

magnetizing current Img of the practical transformer. The core losses due to hysteresis

and eddy currents are allowed for, by a resistor R of such value that it takes a current

Ic equal to the core loss of the practical transformer. The resultant of Img and Ic is Io,

which is the current the transformer take on no load.

46

Magnetic Coupling Week

15

At the end of this week, the students are expected to:

♦ Solve problems involving magnetic coupling s

4.10 SOLVED PROBLEMS INVOLVING MAGNETIC COUPLING

Example 4.1: If a coil of 150turns is linked with a flux of 0.01wb when carrying current of

10A, calculate the inductance of the coil.

Solution

L = Nφ = 150 x 0.01 = 0.15H

i 10

Example 4.2: Two coils having 30 and 600turns respectively are wound side by side on a

closed iron circuit. If the mutual inductance between the coils is 0.226H, and the change of

current in the first coil is 20A in 0.02s, find the e.m.f induced in the second coil

Solution

e2 = M di/dt = 0.226 x 20/0.02 = 226V

Example 4.3: The coefficient of coupling between two coils is 0.75. There are 250turns in

coil 1. The total flux linking coil 1 is 0.4mWb, when the current in this coil is 3A. When i1 is

changed from 3A to zero linearly in milliseconds, the voltage induced in coil 2 is 70V.

Calculate: (a) the self inductance of coil 1 (b) the mutual inductance between the two coils.

Solution

(a) L1 = N1φ1 = 250 x 0.4 x 10-3 = 3.4 x 10-3H

i1 3

(b) e2 = M di, ∴ M = e2 dt = 70 x 3x 10-3 = 70 x 10-3H

dt di 3

Example 4.4: Two coils X and Y have self inductance of 12H and 20H respectively, the

mutual inductance between the coils being 8.5H. Find the coupling coefficient between the

two coils

Solution

K= M = 8.5 = 0.55

√(LXLY ) √(2 x 20)

47

Example 4.5: The current in the primary winding of a pair of mutually coupled coil is 5A,

and the primary flux of 6mWb links with the secondary winding. If the secondary winding

has 950turns and the primary winding current is reduced to zero in 4ms, determine: (a) the

average value of the e.m.f induced in the secondary winding (b) the mutual inductance

between the two coils

Solution

(a) e2 = N2 dφ2 = 950 x 6 x 10-3 = 1425V

dt 4 x 10-3

(b) M = e2 dt, whee dI1 = 5 – 0 = 5A

dI1

∴ M = 1425 x 4 x 10-3 = 1.14H

5

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