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# ECGR4112 Control Systems Theory II Exam 1 Spring 2017

Name: _____________________________________

## Do NOT begin until told to do so

Make sure that you have all pages before starting
NO TEXTBOOK, NO CALCULATOR, NO CELL PHONES/WIRELESS DEVICES
Open handouts, 2 sheet front/back notes, NO problem handouts, NO exams, NO quizzes
DO ALL WORK IN THE SPACE GIVEN
Do NOT use the back of the pages, do NOT turn in extra sheets of work/paper
Multiple-choice answers should be within 5% of correct value
Show ALL work, even for multiple choice

Students have the responsibility to know and observe the requirements of The UNCC Code of
Student Academic Integrity. This code forbids cheating, fabrication or falsification of information,
multiple submission of academic work, plagiarism, abuse of academic materials, and complicity in

## Unless otherwise noted:

F{} denotes Discrete time Fourier transform {DTFT, DFT, or Continuous, as implied in problem}
F-1{} denotes inverse Fourier transform
F{} denotes Discrete time Fourier transform
j
s = σ + jΩ is the Laplace transform variable, z = r e ω is the z-transform variable
∗ denotes linear convolution
x*(t) denotes the starred transform of x(t) , X*(s) denotes starred transform of X(s)
Double-overbar as in 𝐴 denotes a matrix, single overbar as in 𝐶 denotes a column or row vector

## See any useful tables/formulas that may be included in the exam

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

## 1. The causal LTI system with closed-loop pulse transfer

function GCL(z) having the pole/zero plot to the right is a
stable system. (Hint: determine the ROC from the plot.)

a) True b) False

2. The convolution of the two sequences x[n] = {1,2,3,0,0} and y[n] = {3,2,1,0,0} is

## a) {1,4,6,6,3} b) {3,6,18,6,2} c) {3,8,14,8,3} d) none above

3. A system having the following Routh-Hurwitz table for Laplace transform X(s) is stable.

a) True b) False
1 -5
2 -6
-2 0
-6 0
-n
4. The z-transform of h[n]= 4 u[n] is H(z) =

! !
a) ; |z|>1/4 b) ; |z|>1/4
!!!/! !!!/!

!
c) ; |z|<1/4 d) none above
!!!/!

## x(t), X(s) y(t), Y(s)

T0 G1(s) T0 G2(s)

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

## 6. A second-order system has the step response shown at the

right. (Hint: use the tables included in the exam.) The damping
ratio ζ =

## a) 0.2 b) 0.5 c) 0.7 d) 1

7. In a phase-locked loop with a multiplier phase detector, decreasing the VCO coefficient Kv from
4 MHz/volt to 1 MHz/volt will change the damping coefficient ζ by a multiplicative factor of

## a) 0.71 b) 1.4 c) 2 d) none above

!(!) !"/(!!!)
8. For a system with variable gain K>0 and = , the system is stable if
!(!) !!!"/(!!!)

## 9. The w-transform of 1/(z+2) in a 2 sample/s system is

!!! ! !!!
a) b) c) d) none above
!!! !!! !"!!

10. The PID compensator D(w)=Kp + Ki/w + Kd w, below, has integrator coefficient Ki =

## a) 0.0001 b) 0.1 c) 100 d) none above

dB

𝛺w

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

## 12. In a in a 5 sample/s system with X(s)=3/s, the starred transform is X*(s) =

!! !/! !! !!/! !!
a) b) c) d) none above
! !/! !! !!!! !!/! !"! !!/!

s/2 s
13. In a in a 2 sample/s system with X*(s) = 3e /(2e -1) the z-transform is X(z) =

!! !/! !! !/! !!
a) b) c) d) none above
!!" !/! !! !! !/! !!! !! ! !!

14. The lag-compensator with Bode magnitude plot below has a zero at

## a) 10 Hz b) 100 Hz c) 1000Hz d) none above

dB

Freq. (Hz)

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer
The Bode plot below shows a compensator as the dashed line, and the uncompensated system
open-loop response as a solid line, where system feedback is H(s)=1. (You must determine any
necessary missing phase of the uncompensated loop, assuming open-loop phase at 𝛺w = 1 is 0
degrees)

## 15. The compensator below is

16. When the compensator is included, the phase margin (to within +/11°) will be

## a) 22.5° b) 45° c) 67.5° d) none above

17. When the compensator is included, the gain margin (to within +/5 dB) will be

a) 13 dB b) 23 dB c) 60 dB d) none above

dB

deg.

Freq. (Hz)

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u[n] 4 y[n]
5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer
For the system shown, the state variables are:
-1
𝑥[𝑛 − 1] Z
NOTE: 𝑥 𝑛 = 3
𝑥[𝑛] -1 x[n]
And:
𝑥 𝑛 + 1 = 𝐴𝑥 𝑛 + 𝐵𝑢[𝑛]
𝑦 𝑛 = 𝐶𝑥 𝑛 + 𝐷𝑢[𝑛] -1
Z
-1/4 2
x[n-1]

## 18. For the discrete-time state variable system defined above, 𝐴 =

1 0 0 1 0 1
a) b) c) d) none above
1 1/4 −1/4 −1 −1 −1/4

## a) [1, 3] b) [5, 3] c) [1, -1] d) none above

20. The discrete-time state variable system with the parameters above is observable.

a) True b) False

21. The discrete-time state variable system with the parameters above has closed-loop poles at z=

## a) {-1,0.25} b) {0.25, -0.75} c) {0.5, 0.5} d) none above

22. For the system above using, the closed-loop dc gain Y(z)/U(z) is

## a) -0.25 b) 2.25 c) 4.0 d) none above

23. If the state-variable feedback matrix K is to be designed so that all of the closed-loop poles are
located at z= -0.5, then K=

## a) {0, 0 } b) {-0.11, .27} c) {-0.68, 2.45} d) none above

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

## e(t), E(s) E*(s),E(z) Y(z) G (s) = G (s)G (s) c(t), C(s)

D(z) C P H0
T0 -sTo
=G (s)(1-e )/s
P

For the system above: D(z)=1+ z-1, GP(s)=1/(s+2), GH0(s)= (1-e-sTo)/s, T0=0.1

## (!!! !!"# ) !! (!!! !!"# ) (!!! !!"# )

a) b) c) d) none above
!(!!!) ! ! (!!!) !! (!!!)

25. As in the class notes, for the system above define GC(s) = G’(s) (1-e-sTo). Then, G’(s)=

!!! ! !
a) !
b) c) d) none above
! (!!!) !(!!!) !! (!!!)

26. In the system above, the open-loop pulse transfer function (excluding ROC) is G(z)=C(z)/E(z)=

## !! !(!!! !!"/! ) !(!!! !!"# ) (!!!)(!!! !!"# )

a) b) c) d) none above
!!(!!! !!"/! ) !(!!!)(!!! !!"# ) !!(!!! !!"# )

27. In the system above, the open-loop dc gain GOL(s)=C(s)/E(s) of the system is

## a) -1/3 b) 1 c) 2 d) none above

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

r(t), R(s) e(t), E(s) E*(s),E(z) Y(z) G (s) = G (s)G (s) c(t), C(s)
Σ D(z) C P H0
To -sTo
=G (s)(1-e )/s
P

H(s)

For the system above: D(z)=z/(2z-1), GP(s)=2/s, H(s)=1/4, GH0(s)= (1-e-sTo)/s, T0=1/3

28. GC(s) =

## !!! (!!! !!"# ) !(!!! !!"# ) !(!!! !!"# )

a) b) c) d) none above
!(!!! !!"# ) !! !!! ! !!"# ,

29. As in the class notes, for the system above define GC(s) = G’(s) (1-e-sTo). Then, G’(s)=

## !" !" !"#

a) b) c) d) none above
!"! ! !!"#!! (! ! !!) !! ! !!"!!

## a) 1 b) 8/3 c) 4 d) none above

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

## r(t), R(s) e(t), E(s) E*(s),E(z) Y(z) -sTo c(t), C(s)

D(z) G (s) = (1-e )/s
Σ To C

H(s)

-1
32. If the system above has Y(z)/R(z)= 1+z , and if the input is the unit step r(t)=u(t), then the
signal y[n]=

## ! ! !! !!! ![!!!] ! ! !![!!!]

a) b) c) u n + u[n − 1] d) none above
! !

-1
33. If the system above has Y(z)/R(z)= 1+z , the dc gain of the system is C(z)/R(z)=

## a) 0 b) 1/2 c) 2 d) none above

-1
34. If the system above has Y(z)/R(z)= 1+z , and if the input is the unit step r(t)=u(t), then the
output is c(t)=

## (!!! !!/!! )!(!) ! ! !!(!!!! )

a) b) c) u t − u(t − 𝑇! ) d) none above
! !

-1
35. If H(z)=0.01 z and To=10-6 s for the system below, and for the direction of DAC current as
shown, the input impedance in ohms seen at the point V at an input frequency of 490 kHz is

## a) 100+j100 b) j50π c) -j50π d) none above

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∞ σ + j∞
1
X(s) = L { x(t)} = ∫ x(t)e
−(σ + jΩ)t
dt x(t) = ∫ X(s)est ds
0−
j2π σ − j∞
∞ 1 ∞
G(Ω) = ∫ g(t)e− jΩt dt g(t) = ∫ G(Ω)e jΩt dΩ
−∞ 2π −∞

1
X(z) = Ζ { x[n]} = ∑ x[n]z −n
x[n] =
2π j ∫
! X(z)z n−1 dz
n=−∞

## cos ( A ) cos ( B ) = 0.5 cos ( A − B ) + 0.5 cos ( A + B )

sin ( A ) cos ( B ) = 0.5 sin ( A − B ) + 0.5 sin ( A + B )
sin ( A ) sin ( B ) = 0.5 cos ( A − B ) − 0.5 cos ( A + B )
e jθ = cos(θ ) + j sin(θ )

−b ± b 2 − 4ac
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ⇒ x =
2a

## Discrete-time Function z-transform

δ [n] 1
z
u[n] ; z >1
z −1
z
nu[n] ; z >1
( z − 1)2
z
a nu[n] ; z >a
z−a
az
na nu[n] ; z >a
( z − a )2
z 2 − z cos (ω 0 )
cos (ω 0 n ) u[n] ; z >1
z 2 − 2 cos (ω 0 ) + 1
z sin (ω 0 )
sin (ω 0 n ) u[n] ; z >1
z − 2 cos (ω 0 ) + 1
2

## Damping ratio, ζ Percent overshoot

0 100%
0.2 50%
0.5 16%
0.7 4%
>1 0%

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Laplace Trans. Contin. Time Sampled Function z-transform.
X(s) x(t) x[n]=x(nTS ) X(z)
1 δ (t) − −
1 z
u(t) u[n] ; z >1
s z −1
1 zTS
tu(t) nTS u[n] ; z >1
s2 ( z − 1)2
1 z
e− at u(t) e−naTS u[n] ; z > e−aTS
( s + a) z − e−aTS
1 ze−aTS TS
te− at u(t) nTS e−naTS u[n] ; z > e−aTS
( s + a )2 (z − e ) −aTS 2

z (1− e ) ;
−aTS
a
s ( s + a)
(1− e − at
)u(t) (1− e −naTS
) u[n] ( z − 1)( z − e ) −aTS
z >1

s z 2 − z cos ( Ω 0TS )
cos ( Ω 0t ) u(t) cos ( nΩ 0TS ) u[n] ; z >1
s + Ω02
2
z 2 − 2z cos ( Ω 0TS ) + 1
Ω0 z sin ( Ω 0TS )
sin ( Ω 0t ) u(t) sin ( nΩ 0TS ) u[n] ; z >1
s + Ω02
2
z − 2z cos ( Ω 0TS ) + 1
2

## 2x2 matrix inverse and determinant

−1 −1
⎡ a b ⎤ 1 ⎡ d −b ⎤ ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1/ 2 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ; example : ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥
⎣ c d ⎦ ad − bc ⎣ −c a ⎦ ⎣ 1 3 ⎦ 6 − 0 ⎣ −1 2 ⎦ ⎣ −1 / 6 1 / 3 ⎦

a b
c d

Greek:
αβγδχεφηιϕκλµνοπθρστυϖωξψζ ΑΒΧΔΕΦΓΗΙϑΚΛΜΝΟΠΘΡΣΤΥςΩΞΨΖ
∀∗+−→°±≥×∂•÷≠≡⊕⊗⊃⊂∠∇∏√⇒⇔∑≤∞≈

## Useful constants, etc:

e ≈ 2.72 π ≈ 3.14
e2 ≈ 7.39 e4 ≈ 54.6
e-0.5 ≈ 0.607 e-0.25 ≈ 0.779
1/e ≈ 0.37 √2 ≈ 1.41
e-2 ≈ 0.135 √3 ≈ 1.73
e-4 ≈ 0.0183 √5 ≈ 2.22
√7 ≈ 2.64 √10 ≈ 3.16
ln( 2 ) ≈ 0.69 ln( 4 ) ≈ 1.38
log10( 2 ) ≈ 0.30 log10( 3 ) ≈ 0.48
log10( 10 ) ≈ 1.0 log10( 0.1 ) ≈ -1
1/π ≈ 0.318 cos(π / 4) ≈ 0.71
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