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ECGR4112 Control Systems Theory II Exam 1 Spring 2017

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Multiple-choice answers should be within 5% of correct value
Show ALL work, even for multiple choice

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Student Academic Integrity. This code forbids cheating, fabrication or falsification of information,
multiple submission of academic work, plagiarism, abuse of academic materials, and complicity in
academic dishonesty.

Unless otherwise noted:


F{} denotes Discrete time Fourier transform {DTFT, DFT, or Continuous, as implied in problem}
F-1{} denotes inverse Fourier transform
F{} denotes Discrete time Fourier transform
ω denotes frequency in rad/sample, Ω denotes frequency in rad/second
j
s = σ + jΩ is the Laplace transform variable, z = r e ω is the z-transform variable
∗ denotes linear convolution
x*(t) denotes the starred transform of x(t) , X*(s) denotes starred transform of X(s)
Double-overbar as in 𝐴 denotes a matrix, single overbar as in 𝐶 denotes a column or row vector

See any useful tables/formulas that may be included in the exam

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

1. The causal LTI system with closed-loop pulse transfer


function GCL(z) having the pole/zero plot to the right is a
stable system. (Hint: determine the ROC from the plot.)

a) True b) False

2. The convolution of the two sequences x[n] = {1,2,3,0,0} and y[n] = {3,2,1,0,0} is

a) {1,4,6,6,3} b) {3,6,18,6,2} c) {3,8,14,8,3} d) none above

3. A system having the following Routh-Hurwitz table for Laplace transform X(s) is stable.

a) True b) False
1 -5
2 -6
-2 0
-6 0
-n
4. The z-transform of h[n]= 4 u[n] is H(z) =

! !
a) ; |z|>1/4 b) ; |z|>1/4
!!!/! !!!/!

!
c) ; |z|<1/4 d) none above
!!!/!

5. The starred transform of the output of the system below is Y*(s)=

a) 𝑋 ∗ 𝑠 𝐺1𝐺2⋇ 𝑠 b) 𝑇! 𝑋 ∗ 𝑠 𝐺1∗ 𝑠 𝐺2∗ 𝑠 c) 𝑋 ∗ 𝑠 𝐺1∗ 𝑠 𝐺2∗ 𝑠 e) none above

x(t), X(s) y(t), Y(s)


T0 G1(s) T0 G2(s)

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

6. A second-order system has the step response shown at the


right. (Hint: use the tables included in the exam.) The damping
ratio ζ =

a) 0.2 b) 0.5 c) 0.7 d) 1

7. In a phase-locked loop with a multiplier phase detector, decreasing the VCO coefficient Kv from
4 MHz/volt to 1 MHz/volt will change the damping coefficient ζ by a multiplicative factor of

a) 0.71 b) 1.4 c) 2 d) none above

!(!) !"/(!!!)
8. For a system with variable gain K>0 and = , the system is stable if
!(!) !!!"/(!!!)

a) 1<K<3 b) 0<K<2 c) K>1 d) none above

9. The w-transform of 1/(z+2) in a 2 sample/s system is

!!! ! !!!
a) b) c) d) none above
!!! !!! !"!!

10. The PID compensator D(w)=Kp + Ki/w + Kd w, below, has integrator coefficient Ki =

a) 0.0001 b) 0.1 c) 100 d) none above

dB

𝛺w

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

11. The dc response GH0(s)|s=0 of a ZOH in a 100 sample/s system is

a) 1/100 b) 100 c) 200π e) none above

12. In a in a 5 sample/s system with X(s)=3/s, the starred transform is X*(s) =

!! !/! !! !!/! !!
a) b) c) d) none above
! !/! !! !!!! !!/! !"! !!/!

s/2 s
13. In a in a 2 sample/s system with X*(s) = 3e /(2e -1) the z-transform is X(z) =

!! !/! !! !/! !!
a) b) c) d) none above
!!" !/! !! !! !/! !!! !! ! !!

14. The lag-compensator with Bode magnitude plot below has a zero at

a) 10 Hz b) 100 Hz c) 1000Hz d) none above

dB

Freq. (Hz)

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer
The Bode plot below shows a compensator as the dashed line, and the uncompensated system
open-loop response as a solid line, where system feedback is H(s)=1. (You must determine any
necessary missing phase of the uncompensated loop, assuming open-loop phase at 𝛺w = 1 is 0
degrees)

15. The compensator below is

a) PID b) lag c) lag-lead d) lead

16. When the compensator is included, the phase margin (to within +/11°) will be

a) 22.5° b) 45° c) 67.5° d) none above

17. When the compensator is included, the gain margin (to within +/5 dB) will be

a) 13 dB b) 23 dB c) 60 dB d) none above

dB

deg.

Freq. (Hz)

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u[n] 4 y[n]
5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer
For the system shown, the state variables are:
-1
𝑥[𝑛 − 1] Z
NOTE: 𝑥 𝑛 = 3
𝑥[𝑛] -1 x[n]
And:
𝑥 𝑛 + 1 = 𝐴𝑥 𝑛 + 𝐵𝑢[𝑛]
𝑦 𝑛 = 𝐶𝑥 𝑛 + 𝐷𝑢[𝑛] -1
Z
-1/4 2
x[n-1]

18. For the discrete-time state variable system defined above, 𝐴 =

1 0 0 1 0 1
a) b) c) d) none above
1 1/4 −1/4 −1 −1 −1/4

19. For the discrete-time state variable system defined above, 𝐶 =

a) [1, 3] b) [5, 3] c) [1, -1] d) none above

20. The discrete-time state variable system with the parameters above is observable.

a) True b) False

21. The discrete-time state variable system with the parameters above has closed-loop poles at z=

a) {-1,0.25} b) {0.25, -0.75} c) {0.5, 0.5} d) none above

22. For the system above using, the closed-loop dc gain Y(z)/U(z) is

a) -0.25 b) 2.25 c) 4.0 d) none above

23. If the state-variable feedback matrix K is to be designed so that all of the closed-loop poles are
located at z= -0.5, then K=

a) {0, 0 } b) {-0.11, .27} c) {-0.68, 2.45} d) none above

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

e(t), E(s) E*(s),E(z) Y(z) G (s) = G (s)G (s) c(t), C(s)


D(z) C P H0
T0 -sTo
=G (s)(1-e )/s
P

For the system above: D(z)=1+ z-1, GP(s)=1/(s+2), GH0(s)= (1-e-sTo)/s, T0=0.1

24. In the system above, GC(s) =

(!!! !!"# ) !! (!!! !!"# ) (!!! !!"# )


a) b) c) d) none above
!(!!!) ! ! (!!!) !! (!!!)

25. As in the class notes, for the system above define GC(s) = G’(s) (1-e-sTo). Then, G’(s)=

!!! ! !
a) !
b) c) d) none above
! (!!!) !(!!!) !! (!!!)

26. In the system above, the open-loop pulse transfer function (excluding ROC) is G(z)=C(z)/E(z)=

!! !(!!! !!"/! ) !(!!! !!"# ) (!!!)(!!! !!"# )


a) b) c) d) none above
!!(!!! !!"/! ) !(!!!)(!!! !!"# ) !!(!!! !!"# )

27. In the system above, the open-loop dc gain GOL(s)=C(s)/E(s) of the system is

a) -1/3 b) 1 c) 2 d) none above

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

r(t), R(s) e(t), E(s) E*(s),E(z) Y(z) G (s) = G (s)G (s) c(t), C(s)
Σ D(z) C P H0
To -sTo
=G (s)(1-e )/s
P

H(s)

For the system above: D(z)=z/(2z-1), GP(s)=2/s, H(s)=1/4, GH0(s)= (1-e-sTo)/s, T0=1/3

28. GC(s) =

!!! (!!! !!"# ) !(!!! !!"# ) !(!!! !!"# )


a) b) c) d) none above
!(!!! !!"# ) !! !!! ! !!"# ,

29. As in the class notes, for the system above define GC(s) = G’(s) (1-e-sTo). Then, G’(s)=

a) 2/(s𝑒 !!"#$ ) b) 2𝑇! 𝑒 !!"#$ c) 2/(𝑠 ! ) d) none above

30. The closed-loop pulse transfer function (excluding ROC) is GCL(z)=C(z)/R(z)=

!" !" !"#


a) b) c) d) none above
!"! ! !!"#!! (! ! !!) !! ! !!"!!

31. The closed-loop dc gain GCL(s)=C(s)/R(s) of the system is

a) 1 b) 8/3 c) 4 d) none above

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5 Points Each, Circle the Best Answer

r(t), R(s) e(t), E(s) E*(s),E(z) Y(z) -sTo c(t), C(s)


D(z) G (s) = (1-e )/s
Σ To C

H(s)

-1
32. If the system above has Y(z)/R(z)= 1+z , and if the input is the unit step r(t)=u(t), then the
signal y[n]=

! ! !! !!! ![!!!] ! ! !![!!!]


a) b) c) u n + u[n − 1] d) none above
! !

-1
33. If the system above has Y(z)/R(z)= 1+z , the dc gain of the system is C(z)/R(z)=

a) 0 b) 1/2 c) 2 d) none above

-1
34. If the system above has Y(z)/R(z)= 1+z , and if the input is the unit step r(t)=u(t), then the
output is c(t)=

(!!! !!/!! )!(!) ! ! !!(!!!! )


a) b) c) u t − u(t − 𝑇! ) d) none above
! !

-1
35. If H(z)=0.01 z and To=10-6 s for the system below, and for the direction of DAC current as
shown, the input impedance in ohms seen at the point V at an input frequency of 490 kHz is

a) 100+j100 b) j50π c) -j50π d) none above

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∞ σ + j∞
1
X(s) = L { x(t)} = ∫ x(t)e
−(σ + jΩ)t
dt x(t) = ∫ X(s)est ds
0−
j2π σ − j∞
∞ 1 ∞
G(Ω) = ∫ g(t)e− jΩt dt g(t) = ∫ G(Ω)e jΩt dΩ
−∞ 2π −∞


1
X(z) = Ζ { x[n]} = ∑ x[n]z −n
x[n] =
2π j ∫
! X(z)z n−1 dz
n=−∞

cos ( A ) cos ( B ) = 0.5 cos ( A − B ) + 0.5 cos ( A + B )


sin ( A ) cos ( B ) = 0.5 sin ( A − B ) + 0.5 sin ( A + B )
sin ( A ) sin ( B ) = 0.5 cos ( A − B ) − 0.5 cos ( A + B )
e jθ = cos(θ ) + j sin(θ )

quadratic formula:
−b ± b 2 − 4ac
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ⇒ x =
2a

Discrete-time Function z-transform


δ [n] 1
z
u[n] ; z >1
z −1
z
nu[n] ; z >1
( z − 1)2
z
a nu[n] ; z >a
z−a
az
na nu[n] ; z >a
( z − a )2
z 2 − z cos (ω 0 )
cos (ω 0 n ) u[n] ; z >1
z 2 − 2 cos (ω 0 ) + 1
z sin (ω 0 )
sin (ω 0 n ) u[n] ; z >1
z − 2 cos (ω 0 ) + 1
2

Damping ratio, ζ Percent overshoot


0 100%
0.2 50%
0.5 16%
0.7 4%
>1 0%

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Laplace Trans. Contin. Time Sampled Function z-transform.
X(s) x(t) x[n]=x(nTS ) X(z)
1 δ (t) − −
1 z
u(t) u[n] ; z >1
s z −1
1 zTS
tu(t) nTS u[n] ; z >1
s2 ( z − 1)2
1 z
e− at u(t) e−naTS u[n] ; z > e−aTS
( s + a) z − e−aTS
1 ze−aTS TS
te− at u(t) nTS e−naTS u[n] ; z > e−aTS
( s + a )2 (z − e ) −aTS 2

z (1− e ) ;
−aTS
a
s ( s + a)
(1− e − at
)u(t) (1− e −naTS
) u[n] ( z − 1)( z − e ) −aTS
z >1

s z 2 − z cos ( Ω 0TS )
cos ( Ω 0t ) u(t) cos ( nΩ 0TS ) u[n] ; z >1
s + Ω02
2
z 2 − 2z cos ( Ω 0TS ) + 1
Ω0 z sin ( Ω 0TS )
sin ( Ω 0t ) u(t) sin ( nΩ 0TS ) u[n] ; z >1
s + Ω02
2
z − 2z cos ( Ω 0TS ) + 1
2

2x2 matrix inverse and determinant


−1 −1
⎡ a b ⎤ 1 ⎡ d −b ⎤ ⎡ 2 0 ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 0 ⎤ ⎡ 1/ 2 0 ⎤
⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ; example : ⎢ ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥=⎢ ⎥
⎣ c d ⎦ ad − bc ⎣ −c a ⎦ ⎣ 1 3 ⎦ 6 − 0 ⎣ −1 2 ⎦ ⎣ −1 / 6 1 / 3 ⎦

a b
= ad − bc
c d

Greek:
αβγδχεφηιϕκλµνοπθρστυϖωξψζ ΑΒΧΔΕΦΓΗΙϑΚΛΜΝΟΠΘΡΣΤΥςΩΞΨΖ
∀∗+−→°±≥×∂•÷≠≡⊕⊗⊃⊂∠∇∏√⇒⇔∑≤∞≈

Useful constants, etc:


e ≈ 2.72 π ≈ 3.14
e2 ≈ 7.39 e4 ≈ 54.6
e-0.5 ≈ 0.607 e-0.25 ≈ 0.779
1/e ≈ 0.37 √2 ≈ 1.41
e-2 ≈ 0.135 √3 ≈ 1.73
e-4 ≈ 0.0183 √5 ≈ 2.22
√7 ≈ 2.64 √10 ≈ 3.16
ln( 2 ) ≈ 0.69 ln( 4 ) ≈ 1.38
log10( 2 ) ≈ 0.30 log10( 3 ) ≈ 0.48
log10( 10 ) ≈ 1.0 log10( 0.1 ) ≈ -1
1/π ≈ 0.318 cos(π / 4) ≈ 0.71
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