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Statistical Tests:

Comparison of Two Groups

Lecture Handouts
St. Luke’s College of Nursing
SY. 2017 - 2018
Statistical Tests
Level of Measurement
Interval / Ordinal Nominal
Ratio
Describe one Median,
Mean, SD Proportion
group IQR
Compare one
One-
group to a Wilcoxon
sample Binomial test
hypothetical test
t-test
value
Determine the Pearson Spearman Chi-square test of
correlation / Correlation, Correlation Association,
association Relative Risk,
Linear Logistic
regression Regression,
Statistical Tests
Level of Measurement
Interval / Ordinal Nominal
Ratio
Compare three or One-way Kruskal- Chi-square
more unmatched ANOVA Wallis test test of
groups Homogeneity
Compare three or Repeated Friedman Cochrane Q
more matched measures test
groups ANOVA
Compare two Mann- Chi-square
Unpaired
unpaired groups whitney test of
t-test
test Homogeneity
Compare two Paired Wilcoxon McNemar’s
paired groups t-test test test
Chi Square (χ2)
The chi-square test of is used
when we wish to find out whether two or more
populations (unpaired groups) have the same
proportions for the different categories of
particular variable in the nominal scale.

e.g.
“comparison of the proportion of students who passed the Nursing
Licensure Exam (NLE) among those who studied in SLCN and those
who studied in University of Brighter East (UBE).”
χ2 test of Homogeneity
SLCN UBE
(110 students) (95 students)

105 5 85 10
pass fail pass fail
95.45% 89.47%
e.g.
“comparison of the proportion of students who passed the Nursing
Licensure Exam (NLE) among those who studied in SLCN and those
who studied in University of Brighter East (UBE).”
Hypothesis Testing: Steps
1. State the null and alternative Hypothesis

α = 0.05
α = 0.01

4. Make a statistical Decision

5. Interpret
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity

Populations
What is the value of P1?
SLCN = 95.45%

UBE = 89.97%

What is the variable of interest? NLE passers

Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 1
H0: P1 = P2
“the proportion of SLCN students who passed the NLE is the
statistically the same with UBE.”

Ha: P1 ≠ P2
“the proportion of SLCN students who passed the NLE is
statistically different with UBE.”

Step 2
Level of Significance: α = 0.05
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : SPSS encoding (by frequency)
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : SPSS encoding (by frequency)
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : SPSS encoding (numerical labelling - school)
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : SPSS encoding (numerical labelling - result)
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : p-value
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : p-value
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : p-value
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 3 : p-value

p-value = 0.101
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 4

Probability Value (p-value) Decision

Level of
α = 0.05 Do not reject H₀
Significance
p-value 0.101
The p-value 0.101 is greater than α = 0.05
Hypothesis Testing: Chi Square
test of Homogeneity
Step 5

Interpretation:
“There is no sufficient evidence to conclude
that the proportion of students who passed
the NLE from SLCN is significantly different
from UBE.”
McNemer’s Test
Assesses if a statistically significant change in
proportions have occurred on a dichotomous
nominal trait at two time points on the same
population (paired groups).
(statisticssolution.com)
Also used for “before and after” experiments.

e.g.
“comparison of the proportion of diabetics elderly women before
and after eating ampalaya for 1 month in Brgy. Bantayog.”
McNemer’s Test
Two time points
Time 1 Time 2
1 month

Same population = 156 elderly women

P1 = 51 same population
P2 = 20
(32.69%) (12.82%)

e.g.
“comparison of the proportion of diabetic elderly women before
and after eating Ampalaya for 1 month in Brgy. Bantayog.”
Hypothesis Testing: Steps
1. State the null and alternative Hypothesis

α = 0.05
α = 0.01

4. Make a statistical Decision

5. Interpret
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test

Populations
What is the value of P1?
Time 1 = 32.69%

Time 2 = 12.82%

What is the variable of interest?

DM statƵs
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 1
H0: P1 = P2
“the proportion of Diabetics among elderly women in Brgy. Bantayog
is significantly the same with its previous proportion before eating
ampalaya.”

Ha : P1 ≠ P2
“the proportion of Diabetics among elderly women in Brgy. Bantayog
is significantly different with its previous proportion before eating
ampalaya.”

Step 2
Level of Significance: α = 0.05
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 3 : SPSS encoding (excel format)
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 3 : SPSS encoding (numerical labelling)
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 3 : p-value
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 3 : p-value
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 4

Probability Value (p-value) Decision

Level of
α = 0.05 Reject the H₀
Significance
p-value 0.000
The p-value 0.000 is less than α = 0.05
Hypothesis Testing: McNemer’s
Test
Step 5

Interpretation:
“The proportion of diabetics among elderly
women in Brgy. Bantayog is statistically
different with its previous proportion
before eating ampalaya. It is now
significantly lower compared to 1 month
ago.”
t-test
Hypothesis testing for the difference
between two sample means.

The variables of interest

(outcome/dependent variable) is
quantitative and was measured using
interval or ratio scale.
Paired t-test
Use in difference testing of means between
two related samples.

Left versus Right experiment.

Paired t-test
Two related samples
“Left vs. Right” experiment:

Sample 1 Sample 2
Similar characteristics
e.g.
same weight, gender,
age (+ 2), nationality
e.g.
“Comparison of average number of absences in a month
of students from Kramer National High School, and
Santos National High School.”

Criteria: student census, % gender, ave. age

Paired t-test
Two related samples
“Before and After” experiment:
Interv
Measurement 1 ention Measurement 2

e.g.
“Comparison of average Volatile Organic Compound
(VOC) level in parts per billion (ppb) in 5 days before
and after using Aloe Vera plant as an air purifying
agent during office hours.”
Bungcag et.al. (2016). Undergrad Thesis. TUA-SLCN Batch Leviticus
Paired t-test
Two related samples
“Before and After” experiment:
Interv
Measurement 1 ention Measurement 2

µ1 = 216.75 ppb A V µ2 = 183.22 ppb

σ1 = 83.34 L E σ2 = 47.35
O R
E A

Bungcag et.al. (2016). Undergrad Thesis. TUA-SLCN Batch Leviticus

Paired t-test
SPSS Encoding (excel format)
Paired t-test
SPSS (Analyze)
Paired t-test
SPSS (p-value)
Unpaired t-test
To compare the means from two
samples that are unrelated or
independent from each other.

e.g.
“comparison of the systolic blood pressure
(mmHg) of employees in department A and
department B of Compact, Inc.”
Unpaired t-test

Department A Department B

e.g.
“comparison of the systolic blood pressure
(mmHg) of employees in department A and
department B of Compact, Inc.”
Unpaired t-test
SPSS Analyze
Other References
Lecture notes on Statistical Inference: Sampling Distribution of Two
Means and Hypothesis Testing for Two Means for Biostatistics 201 by
K.L. Cochon, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UP Manila
College of Public Health, 2013.

Lecture notes on Test of Hypothesis for Homogeneity & Association for

Biostatistics 201, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UP
Manila College of Public Health, 2013.

Lecture notes on Data Processing and Analysis for Biostatistics 206 by E.

Estrella, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UP Manila
College of Public Health, 2016.

Statistical Testing for Dummies. Fundamentals of Research. CBGS Marine

& Environmental Science.