You are on page 1of 11

TOPIC 1: ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

By the end of this topic students should be able to:


1 Classify the principle of electrical installation, fire protection, mechanical
transportation, telecommunication and building automation systems in designated
services area in buildings (C3, PLO 1)

Topic outline:
• Introduction
• Electricity distribution
• Circuit design
• Cable capacity and voltage drop
• Safety cut-outs
• Electrical distribution within a building
• Conduit and trunking
• Graphical symbols for installation diagrams

1.1 Introduction to terms for electrical supply and installation


1 Conductor

2 Insulators

3 Resistance
4 Transformer

5 Substation

6 Circuit

7 AC current
8 DC current

9 Single phase supply

10 Three phase supply


1.2 Electrical distribution
- An electrical grid power system can be broadly divided into the generators that supply
the power, the transmission system that carries the power from the generating centers
to the load centers, and the distribution system that feeds the power to nearby homes
and industries

- Simplified diagram of the transmission and distribution of electricity to the consumer:

- Stages of a power network:


o Generation: _____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

o Primary transmission: _____________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

o Secondary transmission: ___________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
o Primary transmission: _____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

o Secondary transmission: ___________________________________________


_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

1.3 Electrical distribution within a building


- The most ___________________ to run energy in building

- To ______________________________________________ to run appliances and


equipment.

- Electricity is ___________________________ carried by the free movement of


electron (positive) and (negative).

- Electrical energy is measured in three basic unit i.e __________________________.

- Volt (V) : ____________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

- Ampere (A): __________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

- Watt (W): ____________________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

- The _________________________ is another important electrical unit for measuring


the properties of conductors and insulators
- REGULATION: To protect the building from the risk of fire and safeguard the
occupants or users of electricity from electrocution and burns, certain regulations
have been drawn up to the control the design and erection of electrical services.It
should comply the building by law, Electric Regulation 1994 and TNB's Electricity
Supply Application Handbook

- CONSIDERATION: _________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

- The purpose of electrical installation in buildings is to supply and distribute electric


power according to the requirements of the building.

- Secondary Distribution Substation


o The local secondary power distribution substations are either _____________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
o In every secondary distribution substation voltage transformation at
various stages of the power system network is performed by step-down
transformers, which are equipped with _______________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
o All these equipment are installed in substation distribution boards (or panels),
which are located closed to the secondary distribution transformer and within
the substation (room) chamber.
o Most of domestic or small scale commercial consumers with power
requirements up to 200 kW - 300 kW is usually supplied from local
distribution system of the electric authority as SPN or TPN
- Differences between single & three phase supply
- Distribution board (DB):
o A distribution board (or panelboard) is a component of an
electricity supply system which divides an electrical
power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a
protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a
common enclosure.
o The DB is to distribute the electrical supply to the
electrical fixtures.
o A steel box or cabinet with a door is used to house DB.

1.4 Circuit design


- Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many
different ways. The two simplest of these are called series and parallel and occur very
frequently. Components connected in series are connected along a single path, so the
same current flows through all of the components.
- A circuit composed solely of components connected in series is known as a
_________________; likewise, one connected completely in parallel is known as a
_______________________.
- Series circuits: ________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

- Parallel circuits: _______________________________________________________


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
1.5 Conduit and trunking
- In order for the electricity to be distributed within the building, the electricity travels
through lines.
- The following explain features of these lines:
o conductors
o insulation
o Bus bar
o cable
- Circular conduit systems are used to carry insulated cables and should last the service
period of the building.
- The space occupied by the cable must not exceed 40% of the cross-sectional area of
the inside of the conduit to allow for ventilation to remove the heat generated by cable
resistance
- Rectangular galvanized sheet steel or PVC trunking is used where large-cable
carrying capacity is needed.
- These must not be filled to greater than 45% of their cross-sectional area with cables.
- Surface-mounted trunking can be incorporated into the interior decoration and up to
three separate cable compartments are used for different services, including
telecommunications, computer, power and lighting cables.
- Trunking may be installed under raised timber flooring, within the concrete floor slab
or screed, in a grid, branch duct or perimeter distribution arrangement.
1.6 Safety cut-outs
- The two dangers arising from the use of electricity are electrocution and fire.
- Electrical installation must have features, which give personal and fire safety.
- These features include:
o _________________________
o _________________________
o _________________________
o _________________________
- Switchgear is a general term covering switching and interrupting devices and their
combination with associated control, metering, protective and regulation devices.
- Every installation must be controlled by one or more main switches for connecting
and disconnecting the electricity supply to the circuits.
- In big installation the switchgear are so sophisticated that they are fitted in separate
cabinet called Switch Board (SB)

1.7 Graphical symbols for installation diagrams