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IJudiciary branch the system of courts that interprets

and applies the law in the name of the state,

ensuring equal justice under law,the judicial branch has
the power to change laws through the process of judicial

Legislative branch made up of the two houses of

Congress the senate, the house of representatives, the
important duty of this branch is to make laws that voted
on Congress. >
The executive branch executes and enforces law,
holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Constitution the basic principles and laws of a nation,
state, or social group that determine the powers and
duties of the government and guarantee certain rights
to the people in it.
Political parties an organized group of people, often
with common views, who come together to contest
elections and hold power in the government.
The Constitution of the Philippines is the constitution or
supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines. Its final
draft was completed by the Constitutional Commission
on October 12, 1986 and was ratified by a nationwide
plebiscite on February 2, 1987.
Fundamental Law
The constitution of a state or nation; the basic law and
principles contained in federal and state constitutions
that direct and regulate the manner in which government
is exercised.
A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials,
typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive
branch. Members of a cabinet are usually called
Cabinet ministers or secretaries. The function of a
Cabinet varies: in some countries it is a collegiate
decision-making body with collective responsibility, while
in others it may function either as a purely advisory body
or an assisting institution to a decision making head of
state or head of government. Cabinets are typically the
body responsible for the day-to-day management of the
government and response to sudden events, whereas
the legislative and judicial branches work in a measured
pace, in sessions according to lengthy procedures.
The Chief Justice of the Philippines (Filipino: Punong
Mahistrado ng Pilipinas) presides over the Supreme
Court of the Philippines and is the highest judicial officer
of the government of the Philippines. The current chief
justice is Lucas Bersamin, who was appointed by
President Rodrigo Duterte on November 28, 2018.
An amendment is a formal or official change made to
a law, contract, constitution, or other legal document. It
is based on the verb to amend, which means to change
for better. Amendments can add, remove, or update
parts of these agreements. They are often used when it is
better to change the document than to write a new one.
The police are a constituted body of persons
empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the
lives, liberty and possessions of citizens, and to prevent
crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the power
of arrest and the legitimized use of force.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the
communication of a false statement that harms the
reputation of, depending on the law of the country,
an individual, business, product, group, government, relig
ion, or nation.[1]
Under common law, to constitute defamation, a claim
must generally be false and must have been made to
someone other than the person
defamed.[2] Some common law jurisdictions also
distinguish between spoken defamation, called slander,
and defamation in other media such as printed words or
images, called libel.[3]
Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a
crime under which convicted persons are to remain in
prison either for the rest of their natural life or until
The State of the Nation Address is an annual address by
the President of the Philippines to a joint session of the
Congress of the Philippines.
Taxes are involuntary fees levied on individuals
or corporations and enforced by a government entity -
whether local, regional or national - in order to finance
government activities. In economics, taxes fall on
whomever pays the burden of the tax, whether this is the
entity being taxed, like a business, or the end consumers
of the business's goods.
barangay is the smallest administrative division in the
Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village,
district or ward. ... The word barangay originated from
balangay, a kind of boat used by a group of Austronesian
peoples when they migrated to the Philippines.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the
freedom of an individual or a community to articulate
their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation,
censorship, or legal sanction.
bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or
a charter of rights, is a list of the most
important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose
is to protect those rights against infringement from
public officials and private citizens.
Bills of rights may be entrenched or unentrenched. An
entrenched bill of rights cannot be amended or repealed
by a country's legislature through regular procedure,
instead requiring a supermajority or referendum; often it
is part of a country's constitution, and therefore subject
to special procedures applicable to constitutional
amendments. A bill of rights that is not entrenched is a
normal statute lawand as such can be modified or
repealed by the legislature at will.
treaty is an agreement under international law entered
into by actors in international law, namely sovereign
states and international organizations. A treaty may also
be known as an (international) agreement, protocol,
covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters,
among other terms.
Pork barrel is a metaphor for the appropriation of
government spending for localized projects secured
solely or primarily to bring money to a
representative's district. The usage originated
in American English.[1] In election campaigns, the term is
used in derogatory fashion to attack opponents.
However, scholars use it as a technical term regarding
legislative control of local appropriations.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or
process by which a non-citizen in a country may
acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.[1] It
may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any
effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve
an application or a motion and approval by legal
authorities.[2] The rules of naturalization vary from
country to country but typically include a promise to
obeying and upholding that country's laws,[3] taking and
subscribing to the oath of allegiance, and may specify
other requirements such as a minimum
legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national
dominant language or culture. To counter multiple
citizenship, most countries require that applicants for
naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they
currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually
causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host
country and by the original country, will depend on the
laws of the countries involved.
Writ Habeas corpus is a recourse in law through which a
person can report an unlawful detention or
imprisonment to a court and request that the court order
the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to
bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the
detention is lawful.
The Commission on Audit, abbreviated as COA, is an
independent constitutional commission established by
the Constitution of the Philippines. It has the primary
function to examine, audit and settle all accounts and
expenditures of the funds and properties of the
Philippine government.
civil service commission is a government agencythat is
constituted by legislature to regulate the employment
and working conditions of civil servants, oversee hiring
and promotions, and promote the values of the public
service. Its role is roughly analogous to that of the human
resourcesdepartment in corporations. Civil service
commissions are often independent from elected
monarchy, democracy, oligarchy, authoritarianism,
and totalitarianism.
1asMonarchy was the most common form of
government until the 19th century. Monarchy is a form
of government in which a single family rules from
generation to generation.
Democracy is defined as a form of government in which
power belongs to the people.
Oligarchy is a form of government in which all power
resides with a few people or in a dominant class or group
within the society.
An autocracy is a system of government in which
supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one
person, whose decisions are subject to neither external
legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular
control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup
d'état or mass insurrection).
Aristocracy "excellent", and "power") is a form of
government that places power in the hands of a small,
privileged ruling class
government is the system or group of people governing
an organized community, often a state.[1]
In the case of its broad associative definition,
government normally consists of legislature, executive,
and judiciary. Government is a means by which
organizational policies are enforced, as well as a
mechanism for determining policy. Each government has
a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing
principles and philosophy.

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the

custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign
state or belonging to a nation.
political system defines the process for making
official government decisions. It is usually compared to
the legal system, economic system, cultural system, and
other social systems.
"nation" refers to a group of people who feel bound into
a single body by shared culture, values, folkways, religion
and/or language. A "state" just refers to a patch of land
with a sovereign government.
Preamble We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring
the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and
humane society, and establish a Government that shall
embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the
common good, and develop our patrimony, and secure
to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of
independence and democracy under the rule of law and
a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and
peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.