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This paper is aimed to describe about the renewable energy sources and their uses in modern era.

We are going to explain different types of energy sources that we are going to study in the

curriculum ‘Renewable Energy (EC802C)’. Some of them are: Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Hydel

Energy, Bio Energy, Bio-diesel, Tidal Energy, Wave Energy, Geo -Thermal Energy, Fuel Cell,

Magneto Hydrodynamics etc. Renewable energy is energy from sources that are naturally

replenishing but flow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the

amount of energy that is available per unit of time. As the population is increasing day by day, all

these non-renewable sources and their study are gaining more significance.


Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input

required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic

development and per capita energy consumption. Simply speaking more developed a country,

higher is the per capita consumption of energy and vice-versa. India’s per capita consumption of

energy is only one eighth of global average. This indicates that our country has low rate of per

capita consumption of energy as compared to developed countries.

There are two major types of energy sources:

● Renewable Energy

● Non-renewable Energy


There are two main disadvantages with conventional energy: pollution and concentration.

Pollution is in many forms throughout the process. The worst and most enduring is emissions-

related climate change, well proven and fully discussed. But pollution also occurs throughout the

supply chain of extraction, refining, transportation, storage and use.

Concentration is that the sources are concentrated in certain countries, producing a network of

global haves and have-nots. This extends within countries: the resources tend to be controlled by

the few rather than the many, and tend to be used mainly to benefit those few and damn the rest -

or at least, let them enjoy the scraps from the table. All this gives rise to corruption and political

instability, both within countries and between them, and major power jostling distorting global



SOLAR ENERGY: This form of energy relies on the nuclear fusion power from the core of the

Sun Under this programme, solar photovoltaic cells are exposed to sunlight and in the form of

electricity is produced. Photovoltaic cells are those which convert sunlight energy into electricity.

In year 1999-2000, 975 villages were illuminated through solar energy. Under Solar Thermal

Programme, solar energy is directly obtained. Sunlight is converted into thermal power. Solar

energy is used for cooking, hot water and distillation of water etc.

WIND ENERGY: This type of energy can be produced by harnessing wind power. It is used for

operating water pumps for irrigation purposes. Approximately 2756 wind pumps were set up for

this purpose. In seven states, wind power operated power houses were installed and their installed

capacity was 1000 MW. India has second position in wind power energy generation.

TIDAL ENERGY: Energy produced by exploiting the tidal waves of the sea is called tidal energy.

Due to the absence of cost effective technology, this source has not yet been tapped.

BIO ENERGY: This type of energy is obtained from organic matter. It is of two types:

1. Bio Gas: Bio Gas is obtained from Gobar Gas Plant by putting cow dung into the plant.

Besides producing gas this plant converts gobar into manure. It can be used for cooking,

lighting and generation of electricity. 26.5 lakh bio gas plants had been established by the

year 2003-04. They produce more than 225 lakh tonnes of manure. About 1828 large

community bio gas plants have been established in the country.

2. Bio Mass: It is also of a source of producing energy through plants and trees. The purpose

of bio mass programme is to encourage afforestation for energy. So that fuel for the

generation of energy based on gas technique and fodder for the cattle could be obtained,

56 MW capacity for the generation of bio mass energy has been installed.

HYDRO (WATER) ENERGY: Hydro energy, of course, is tapped from the many large-scale

hydroelectric dams we’re all familiar with. But there’s also small-scale hydro technology, wave

power technology, tidal power technology, pumped-storage hydro technology, run-of-river hydro

technology, ocean thermal energy technology, osmotic energy technology, marine current energy


GEO-THERMAL ENERGY: The thermal energy, in the form of heat, that rises from the earth’s

core to where we stand on the ground is known as geothermal energy. Hopefully, it will grow in

use considerably in the years to come — it’s clean, widely available, and consistent/stable.


● Eco-friendly

● Renewable

● Stabilized global energy prices

● Low maintenance cost

● Health and Environmental benefits.


● High upfront cost

● Not sufficient generation of electricity

● Geographical constraints

● Less storage capability


When it comes to renewable energy, the positives outweigh the negatives. Transitioning to

renewables on a personal, corporate, or governmental level will not only help one save money but

also promote a cleaner, healthier environment for the future.

Installing solar panels is one of the easiest ways to go green. By signing up on the Energy Sage

Solar Marketplace, one can compare multiple quotes from local, pre-screened installers to see what

solar costs and savings for his/her property. The quotes will also include estimates of the amount

of carbon dioxide emissions that will offset over 20 years, and what this equates to in both trees

planted and gallons of gasoline burned.

That is it is very important to know study about various renewable energy sources and then

practically implement them with our engineering knowledge for the betterment of the society.