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REVISION AND SAMPLE MID-COURSE TEST ON CRITICAL THINKING

A. REVISION ON THEORY
Chapter 1: Introduction to Critical Thinking
1.1. What is critical thinking?
Exercise 1. Complete the definition of Critical thinking with expressions given
in the box below.

Critical thinking is the general term given to a wide range of cognitive skills and
intellectual dispositions needed to:
1. effectively identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments and truth claims
2. to discover and overcome personal preconceptions and biases
3. to formulate and present convincing reasons in support of conclusions
4. to make reasonable , intelligent decisions about what to believe and what to do
evaluate overcome reasonable intellectual convincing formulate identify
cognitive

Exercise 2. Name 6 standards for critical thinking


Clarity
Precision
Accuracy
Relevance
Consistency
Logical correctness
Completeness
Fairness
Exercise 3. Put each of the letters (A, B, C ...) for expressions in the correct box
of these four standards of critical thinking
A. to draw well-founded conclusions from the beliefs we hold
B. openminded
C. sketchy directions
D. free of distorting biases and preconceptions
E. prefer deep and complete thinking
F. avoid saying one thing and doing another
G. hasty jury deliberations
H. snap diagnoses
I. impartial
J. shallow and superficial thinking
K. avoid saying or believing that cannot both or all be true
L. to reason from asserted beliefs to conclusions that logically follow from them
M. prefer thorough and wide-ranging discussion of the issues
N. to reason correctly

Consistency (2)
Logical corectness (3)
Completeness (6)
Fairness (3)
1.2. The benefits of critical thinking Exercise 4. Put each of the letters (A, B, C ...)
of these expressions in the correct box of benefits of critical thinking
Critical thinking in the classroom
Critical thinking in the workplace
Critical thinking in life

A. avoid making foolish personal decisions


B. good thinking and communication skills
C. understanding the arguments and beliefs of others in the related issues in lessons
D. quick learners who can solve problems,
E. promote democratic processes by improving the quality of public decision
making
F. communicate their ideas clearly and effectively generalized thinking and
problem-solving skills
G. critically evaluating those arguments and beliefs in the related issues in lessons
H. avoid such mistakes by teaching us to think about important life decisions more
carefully, clearly, and logically
I. developing and defending one’s own well-supported arguments and beliefs
J. gather and analyze information from data for a project
1.3. Barriers to critical thinking
Exercise 5. Put each of the letters (A, B, C ...) of these expressions in the correct
box of barriers of critical thinking
Egocentrism
Sociocentrism
Unwarranted assumptions
Stereotypes

Relativism

Wishful thinking

A. hasty generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics


are assigned to all or virtually all members of the group
B. tendency to see one’s culture or group as being better than others and to
conform, often unthinkingly, to authority or to group standards of conduct and
belief
C. believing something because it makes one feel good, not because there is good
reason for thinking that it is true
D. the tendency to accept and defend beliefs that accord with one’s own self-
interest the tendency to overrate oneself
E. the view that truth is a matter of individual opinion
F. things we take for granted without good reason.

1.5. Characteristics of a critical thinker


Exercise 6. Put each of the letters (A, B, C ...) of these expressions in the correct
box of critical thinkers and uncritical thinkers.
Specification of critical thinkers and uncritical thinkers
A. Lack awareness of their own biases and preconceptions
B. Pursue truth and are curious about a wide range of issues.
C. Often base beliefs on mere personal preference or selfinterest
D. Base their beliefs on facts and evidence rather than on personal preference or
self-interest
E. Tend to engage in “groupthink,” uncritically following the beliefs and values of
the crowd
G. Fear and resist ideas that challenge their basic beliefs
H. Are aware of the biases and preconceptions that shape the way they perceive the
world
I. Pretend they know more than they do and ignore their limitations
J. Are intellectually honest with themselves, acknowledging what they don’t know
and recognizing their limitations
K. Are skilled at understanding, analyzing, and evaluating arguments and
viewpoints
F. Have a passionate drive for clarity precision, accuracy, and other critical
thinking standards
L. Tend not to persevere when they encounter intellectual obstacles or difficulties

Critical thinkers
Uncritical thinkers
Chapter 2: Recognizing Arguments • What is an argument?
Exercise 7. Put each of the letters (A, B, C ...) of these expressions in the correct
box of components of an argument

A. provide clues that conclusions are being offered


B. statements in an argument offered as evidence or reasons in support of another
statement
C. the statement in an argument that the premises are intended to support or prove
D. provide clues that premises are being offered
E. a sentence that can be viewed as either true or false
F. a claim to be defended with and composed of one or more premises and a
conclusion

Argument
Statement
Conclusion
Premise conclusion indicator
premise indicator

Exercise 8. Why reports, unsupported assertions, conditional statements,


illustrations and explanations are not arguments?
.....................................................................................................................................
...................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
...................................................

Chapter 3: Basic Logical Concepts Deduction and Induction


Exercise 9. Fill in the blank with the words/expressions that define deductive
argument claim and inductive argument claim.

Deductive arguments claim If the premises are true, then the conclusion must be
true
If the premises are true, then the conclusion probably true

The conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.

The conclusion follows probably from the premises.

It is impossible for all the premises to be true and the conclusion false.

It is unlikely for the premises to be true and the conclusion false.


It is logically inconsistent to assert the premises and deny the conclusion;

It is logically inconsistent to assert the premises and deny the conclusion;

if you accept the premises, you must accept


the conclusion is probably true if the premises are true.

Exercise 10. Name 4 tests for determining an argument as deductive or inductive


The indicator word test
The strict necessity test
The common pattern test
The principle of charity test

Common patterns of deductive reasoning

• hypothetical syllogism
• categorical syllogism
• argument by elimination
• argument based on mathematics
• argument from definition

Exercise 11. Name common patterns of deductive reasoninng

Exercise 12. Name common patterns of inductive reasoning.

B. PRACTICE

Exercice 1. Write an argument (your own one) for the logical pattern or form
below.

Premise 1: If A then B. Premise 2: A. Conclusion: Therefore, B.


Exercice 2. Write down the logical pattern or form for the following argument:
Premise 1: If we don’t stop for gas soon, then we’ll run out of gas. Premise 2: If we
run out of gas, then we’ll be late for the wedding. Conclusion: Therefore, if we
don’t stop for gas soon, we’ll be late for the wedding.

What is the name/kind of this argument?

Exercice 3. Write down the logical pattern or form for the following argument:

Premise 1: If we’re in Sacramento, then we’re in California. Premise 2: We’re not


in California. Conclusion: Therefore, we’re not in Sacramento.

What is the name/kind of this argument?

Exercice 4. Write down the logical pattern or form for the following argument:

Premise 1: All oaks are trees. Premise 2: All trees are plants. Conclusion: So, all
oaks are plants.

What is the name/kind of this argument?

Exercice 5. What kind of argument is it? Provide your explanation for determining
the kind of argument.

Premise 1: Six montshs ago I met a farmer from Iowa, and he was friendly.
Premise 2: Four months ago I met an insurance salesman from Iowa, and he was
friendly. Premise 3: Two months ago I met a dentist from Iowa, and she was
friendly. Conclusion: I guess most people from Iowa are friendly.
Exercice 6. What kind of argument is it? Provide your explanation for determining
the kind of argument.

Premise 1: If Amy comes to the party, Ted will come to the party. Premise 2:
Amy will come to the party. Conclusion: Therefore, Ted will come to the party.

Exercice 7.
What kind of argument is it? Provide your explanation for determining the kind of
argument.

Premise 1: Cats are animals. Premise 2: Tom is a cat. Conclusion: Therefore,


Tom is animal.

Exercice 8.
Premises: a. Anything that meows is a cat. b. Dogs don't meow. c. All cats meow.
d. Most cats meow.

Choose one of the premises given above to complete the following deductive
argument.

Premise 1: .......................................................... Premise 2: Puff is a cat


Conclusion: So Puff meows.

Exercice 9.
Premises:
Choose one of the premises given above to complete the following inductive
argument. You may add an indicator word to make the inductive argument explicit.

Premise 1: .......................................................... Premise 2: Puff is a cat


Conclusion: So Puff ...................... meows.

Exercice 10.
Premises:

a. Cheerleaders get in free to the football games. b. Cheerleaders are expected to


attend all football games. c. Suzy is dating Tom, who is the football captain. d. All
cheerleaders attend all football games.

Choose one of the premises given above to complete the following deductive
argument.

Premise 1: .......................................................... Premise 2: Suzy is a cheerleader


Conclusion: So Suzy goes to all the football games.

Exercice 11.

Premises:

a. Cheerleaders get in free to the football games. b. Cheerleaders are expected to


attend all football games. c. Suzy is dating Tom, who is the football captain. d. All
cheerleaders attend all football games.
Choose one of the premises above given to complete the following inductive
argument. You may add an indicator word to make the inductive argument explicit.

Premise 1: .......................................................... Premise 2: Suzy is a cheerleader


Conclusion: So Suzy................. goes to all the football games.

Exercice 12.
Premises: a. The garbage is a bad thing for Spot to get into. b. Whenever Spot
gets into the garbage, Dick hits him. c. Whenever Dick hits Spot, Spot was in the
garbage. d. Spot got into the garbage.

Choose one of the premises above given to complete the following inductive
argument. You may add an indicator word to make the inductive argument explicit.

Premise 1: .......................................................... Premise 2: If Spot gets into the


garbage, Dick will hit him with a newspaper Conclusion: So Dick will hit Spot.

Exercise 13.

Premises: a. Only Presidents make important speeches on television. b. When the


President makes an important speech on television, he's on every channel. c. When
the President is on every channel on TV, he's making an important speech. d.
Presidents only make important speeches.
Choose one of the premises given to complete the following inductive argument.
You may add an indicator word to make the inductive argument explicit.

Premise 1: .......................................................... Premise 2: The President is on


every channel on television Conclusion: So he must be making an important
speech.