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Minimum Exploration Program

• How Much Exploration?


• How Many Borings?
• How Deep Should Borings Penetrate?
• How Often to Sample?
• When to Measure Water Levels?
• Driller’s Responsibilities?

Keep in Mind
• Soft Ground Conditions Require More
Detailed Exploration as Stability and
S ttl
Settlement tV
Values
l M
Mustt b
be E
Established
t bli h d
prior to Structural Foundation Design.
• Borings Must Extend into Competent
Soil or Rock (Depth Determined by
Structural Design Criteria)
• Shallow Auger Explorations Commonly
Made to Determine Depth of Unsuitable
Surface Soils and Topsoil.

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Highway Embankment
and Cuts
• Borings Typically Spaced 200’ to 400’
• At Least One Boring Per Landform

MINIMUM Program For Structure Site


NUMBER OF BORINGS
• ONE boring at EACH pier and
g
abutment under 100’ long
Abut. Pier Abut.

Stagger 50’
Borings
Boring
• TWO bborings
i att EACH pier
i andd
abutment over 100’ long, one at
each end
Abutment borings also used for 120’
Approach Embankment Design

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Depth Guidelines

Boussinesq Pressure Isobars


Square Continuous
1.5B 1B B/2 B/2 1B 2B 3B

1B 1B

2B 2B

3B 3B

4B 4B

5B

6B

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Boussinesq Pressure Distribution
q

B Square Footing
B 3/2 B 2B
.70q
.40q
.05q
½B
.34q
.24q
.09q
B ≤

.18q .14q .09q


3/2 B

.14q .10q .07q


2B

2:1 Pressure Distribution


q

1
2
B Δq = 0.44q

B/2

Δq = 0.25q
B

P P
ΔP = ΔP =
(B + Z ) 2 ( B + Z )( L + Z )

(Square Footing) (Rectangular Footing)

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Comparison of 2:1 and
Boussinesq Distribution
q

1
0.7q
2
Uq = 0.44q
B/2
2:1
0.34q
Uq = 0.25q
B
Boussinesq

Boring Depth for 10% and 5% of Induced Stress

Shape 10% Increase 5% Increase Length

Circle 2 3 Diameter

Square 2 3 Width

2:1 Rectangle 2 3 Short Width

4:1 Rectangle 4 5 Short Width

8:1 Rectangle 5 6 Short Width

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