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1. A case-control study of 1500 participants looked at the association between Femara and uterine cancer.
The study included 678 cases. There were 148 cases and 68 controls taking Femara. Fill in the 2x2 table
below.

Uterine Cancer
Femara Yes No
Yes
No

1a. Calculate the odds ratio of the above study.

OR =

1b. Interpret the measure of association.


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2. The incidence of developing Pneumonia is compared in two groups, one who smokes using cigarettes
(A), the other who do not smoke (B). In Group A, there were 84 reported Pneumonia cases in a population
of 3,000 and in Group B, 87 reported cases in a population of 5,000. Fill in the table

Develop Pneumonia Do not develop Total Incidence of


Pneumonia Disease

2a. Calculate the odds ratio of the above study.

RR =

2b. Interpret the measure of association.


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3. A case-control study of 2600 samples looked at the association between Nano Silver and Kidney Failure.
The study included 958 cases. There were 320 cases and 85 controls taking Nano Silver. Fill in the 2x2
table below.

Kidney Failure
Nano Silver Yes No
Yes
No

3a. Calculate the odds ratio of the above study.

OR =

3b. Interpret the measure of association.


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4. Calculate the odds ratio for the following matched pairs case-control study.
200 pairs where the case is exposed and the control is not.
50 pairs where the control is exposed and the case is not.
130 pairs where cases and controls are exposed.
85 pairs where cases and controls are unexposed.

OR =

5. The following is a classic 2x2 table:


Case Control
Exposed 12 15
Unexposed 17 13

a. The odds of being a case among the exposed:


b. the odds of being a case among the unexposed:

c. Calculate OR=

d. Based on this table, and the formula from c, what would an odds ratio of 0.8 mean?
1.0? 3.2 mean?
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e. Interpret the Measure of Association?


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6. An investigator conducts a study to determine whether there is an association


between caffeine intake and Alzheimer’s disease. He assembles 240 incident cases of
AD samples and 360 controls from the general population. After interviewing all
subjects, he finds that 77 of the cases had high daily intake of caffeine (exposed) prior
to diagnosis and 260 of the controls had low daily intake of caffeine (unexposed) prior
to the date of the matched case’s diagnosis.
a. Assemble the 2x2 table for this study using the information given.

b. Calculate the odds of being a case among the exposed

c. Calculate the odds ratio for disease given exposure to high daily intake of
caffeine (versus low daily intake of caffeine).

d. What does the odds ratio indicate?

7. The investigator is examining wound infections after incidental appendectomy. The risk of
wound infection in each exposure group is estimated from the cumulative incidence. The relative
risk (or risk ratio) is an intuitive way to compare the risks for the two groups. The table below
shows how the risk ratio was calculated in the study examining the risk of wound infections when
an incidental appendectomy was done during a staging laparotomy for Hodgkin disease. Fill in
the Table.

Had Incidental Wound Infection No Total Cumulative


Appendectomy? Wound Infection Incidence

Yes 9 184

No 1 87

7a. Calculate the odds ratio of the above study.

RR =

7b. Interpret the measure of association.


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8. The Physicians' Health Study (a randomized clinical trial) was begun in order to test whether
low-dose aspirin was beneficial in reducing myocardial infarctions. The study population
consisted of over 22,000 male physicians who were randomly assigned to either low-dose aspirin
or a placebo (an identical looking pill that was inert). They followed these physicians for about
five years. Some of the data is summarized in the 2x2 table shown below. Fill in the Table:

Treatment Myocardial No Total Cumulative


Infarction Infarction Incidence

Aspirin 139 10, 861

Placebo 239 10,761


8a. Calculate the odds ratio of the above study.

RR =

8b. Interpret the measure of association.


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9. A study was conducted to examine risk factors for spontaneous pneumothorax (collapsed
lung), including use of car air fresheners. 430 emergency room cases were identified from Florida
hospitals in 2016, and 1204 controls were sampled from the patients admitted to the emergency
room for broken bones or lacerations. It was found that 110 of the cases and 214 of the controls
used a car air freshener regularly. The remaining cases and controls did not use air fresheners in
their car.
a. Assemble the 2x2 table for this study using the information given.

b. Calculate the odds of being a case among the unexposed

c. Calculate the odds ratio for disease given exposure to regular car air freshener
use compared to no air freshener use.
OR=

d. What does the odds ratio indicate?

10. A state epidemiologist wanted to investigate stomach cancer and shellfish consumption. She
conducted a study with 150 stomach cancer cases and 150 controls, pair-matched on age and
gender. After conducting the study, it was found that there were 42 pairs in which both cases
and controls ate shellfish more than 3 times per week (exposed), and 31 pairs in which both cases
and controls ate shellfish less than once per month (unexposed). There were 32 pairs where the
control ate shellfish more than 3 times per week and the case rarely at shellfish, and 45 pairs
where the case at shellfish more than 3 times per week and the control at shellfish rarely.
a. Construct the appropriate 2x2 table for this study using the information given.

b. Calculate the pair-matched odds ratio for stomach cancer from exposure to
eating shellfish regularly compared to eating shellfish rarely.

c. What does this odds ratio indicate?