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SPEEDAM 2010 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion

Analytical Methods for the Accurate Computation of Stator Leakage Inductances in Multi-Phase Synchronous Machines

A. Tessarolo * , D. Giulivo **

* Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering Department, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy ** Ansaldo Sistemi Industriali—Motors, Generators and Drives, Monfalcone, Italy

Abstract—Multi-phase machines are of increasing importance in today’s electric drives and generation systems. While in three-phase machines stator leakage flux phenomena are usually described with a single parameter, a higher number of independent leakage inductances is required as the number of phases increases. The impact of leakage inductances on multi-phase machine performance, especially in PWM inverter-supplied motors, is proved by many studies. Hence the need originates for the electromagnetic designer to have easy-to-use but sufficiently accurate calculation formulas giving the complete set of mutual inductance in a multi-phase machine. This paper aims at providing such formulas making abstraction of the particular phase arrangement in the stator winding and under the hypothesis of equal phase belts. The computation algorithms provided are assessed against measurements on actual machines wherever possible; otherwise accurate Finite Element (FE) analyses are used for validation.

Index Terms—AC motor drives, Inductance, Machine windings.

I. INTRODUCTION

The role of multi-phase machines in today’s electrical drives is highlighted by recent surveys on this topic [1], [2]. The advantages of using a number of stator phases higher than three are significant in many regards, like power rating enhancement, drive fault tolerance, performance improvement and the possibility of new multi-motor architectures [2]. Synchronous machines with multi-phase windings, in particular, are important wherever the electric machine size and performance requirements discourage the use of induction motors [1]. In three-phase machines, stator leakage flux phenomena are exhaustively accounted for through a single parameter in the dq0 equivalent circuit [3]. As the number of stator phases increases, however, the number of stator leakage inductances to be considered grows accordingly due to the mutual magnetic couplings among phases [4]. Recent and past studies have shown how stator leakage inductances may strongly impact on multiphase machine performance, especially under inverter supply. For example, circulation current harmonics which appear in multi-phase machines (like split-phase motors) when supplied by voltage-source inverters have an amplitude

978-1-4244-4987-3/10/$25.00 ©2010 IEEE

845

which mainly depends on stator leakage inductances [5], [6]. Also in multi-phase synchronous motors, supplied by Load-Commutated Inverters, these parameters play a remarkable role in determining the current dynamics during normal and abnormal commutation transients as discussed in [7]. Despite of their practical importance, stator leakage inductances in multiphase machine design and analysis are often approached through heuristic and coarse approximations. Examples of commonly used simplifications are: in [4] only self leakage inductances are accounted for, while mutual ones are ignored; in [5] the end-coil leakage inductance portion is supposed to be proportional to the slot leakage inductance one; finally, only slot leakage fluxes are considered in [8]; air-gap leakage inductances are neglected in the mentioned references and also in the testing procedures proposed in

[3].

The aforementioned approximations are partly due to the objective difficulty of accurately computing the parameters in issue analytically, i.e. without resorting to complete geometric models of the machine, to be processed though detailed and time-consuming Finite Element (FE) analyses [12]. Moreover, test procedures for measuring stator leakage inductances in synchronous machines are quite critical, even in case of ordinary three- phase windings [9]. This paper proposes a set of analytical techniques (partly original and partly derived from past cited works) that can be employed for a fast but sufficiently accurate computation of stator leakage inductances of multi-phase machines without using FE techniques. The proposed methods apply to any number of stator phases and hold for both symmetrical and asymmetrical winding configurations [2]. The assumptions are made that leakage inductances are not affected by magnetic saturation (which is reasonable except in fault and overload conditions [11]). Furthermore, the n-phase winding is supposed of double-layer imbricated-coil type with an integer number of slots/pole/phase and with n phase belts per pole. The proposed analytical techniques are validated against experimental measurements wherever possible. As an alternative FE simulations are used for assessment.

Fig. 1. Conventional phase arrangement scheme for an n -phase machine. (a) Position of phase

Fig. 1. Conventional phase arrangement scheme for an n-phase machine. (a) Position of phase axes, with angles in electrical radians; (b) double-layer short-pitch phase-belt arrangement.

More precisely: experimental results are used to validate slot and end-coil leakage inductances by means of measurements on two high-power synchronous machines (a 12-phase round-rotor motor and a 6-phase salient 8-pole generator), following the testing guidelines provided in [3], [7], [10]; FE simulations are used to assess air-gap leakage inductances and for assessing the dependency of slot leakage inductances on the coil pitch.

II. A GENERALIZED APPROACH TO MULTI-PHASE WINDING SCHEMES

There are several kinds of multi-phase winding schemes [1], [2]. The main distinction is between symmetrical configurations (where phases are sequentially distributed over a double pole span) and asymmetrical configurations, the most important of which are the so called “split-phase” or “multiple-star” arrangements (where phases are grouped into multiple suitably-displaced three-phase sets). In this paper we try to make abstraction from the particular multi-phase scheme in establishing the algorithms for self and mutual inductance determination. For this purpose, we propose to map a generic n-phase winding (with n phase belts per pole) into an equivalent scheme with sequentially distributed phases arranged as per Fig. 1, similarly to what already done in [10], [13]. For illustration purpose, the mapping procedure is exemplified in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 respectively in the case of a dual-star and a symmetrical 5-phase windings. The former is mapped into a 6-phase and the latter into a 5- phase scheme, both having phase belts arranged sequentially as per Fig. 1. The phases of the original winding are mapped univocally into those of the equivalent scheme as per Table I and II.

TABLE I

MAPPING TABLE FOR DUAL-STAR WINDING

Original phase

U,1

U,2

V,1

V,2

W,1

W,2

Corresponding phase

 

1

2

5

6

3

4

 

TABLE II

 

MAPPING TABLE FOR FIVE-PHASE WINDING

 

Original phase

1

2 3

   

4

5

Corresponding phase

1

3 5

   

2

4

846

Fig. 4. Mapping a 5-phase winding into an equivalent 5-phase scheme.
Fig. 4. Mapping a 5-phase winding into an equivalent 5-phase scheme.

Fig. 2. Mapping a dual-star winding into an equivalent 6-phase scheme.

Once the winding is mapped into its equivalent scheme arranged as per Fig. 1, the problem reduces to

determining n leakage inductance values λ 0 , λ 1 ,

the generic λ k is the self inductance if k=0, while for k=1,

, n 1 it indicates the mutual inductance between two

phases displaced by k phase belts (i.e. by k /n electrical radians) apart. Each λ k can be expressed as the sum of three components λ s k , λ e k , λ a k which respectively represent the slot, end-coil and air-gap leakage components. In the following Sections, the focus is on separately determining analytical expression for such these leakage

,

λ n 1 :

components λ s

k , λ e k , λ a k .

III. SLOT LEAKAGE INDUCTANCES

Slot leakage fluxes are due to the field lines, produced by stator conductors, which do not pass the air-gap and cross the slot region for some of their length. In three-phase machines, self and mutual slot leakage inductances can be analytically computed by means of suitable slot permeance coefficients combined with

means of suitable slot permeance coefficients combined with Fig. 3. Mapping a 5-phase winding into an

Fig. 3. Mapping a 5-phase winding into an equivalent 5-phase scheme.

factors to account for the coil pitch [14]. The method has been extended to five-phase [15] and six-phase windings [6], [8]. In the proposed paper, a easy-to-handle analytical formula is derived to extend the computation for any number n of phases. The final expression proposed (whose derivation is given in Appendix A) is

λ

s

k

=

[

(

R 1

2 pq

2 pq

b

2

{(

L

t

k

n

(

1

+

L

b

r

)

)

δ

k

,0

+

(

1

)

(

R 1

+

δ

k

,0

k

nr

)

M

) ]}

tb

(1)

with the following set of definitions:

p:

number of pole pairs;

q:

the number of slots per phase belt;

b:

the number of parallel ways per phase;

L t : self-inductance (due to slot leakage flux) of a coil side lying in the top layer (air-gap slot side); L b : self-inductance (due to slot leakage flux) of a coil side lying on the bottom layer (opposite the air-gap); M tb : mutual inductance (to to slot leakage flux) of two coil sides lying in the same slot;

Kronecker symbol, such that δ i,j =1 if i=j and δ i,j =0 otherwise;

R(x) ramp function, such that R(x)=0 if x 0 and R(x)=x otherwise.

The derivation of (1) is reported in Appendix A. As concerns parameters L t , L b and M tb , they can be difficult to find analytically for a generic slot shape. Nevertheless, for rectangular slot cross sections (typical of high-power machines wound with flat turns) a simple expression can be given for them as follows:

(2)

with the following definitions:

N:

L:

w s :

h s :

h

μ 0 : magnetic permeability air;

δ i,j :

N

2

L

μ

0

(

h

s

Kh

c

)

/ w

s

number of turns per coil; useful core length; slot width; slot height; individual coil height;

c :

κ:

5/3 to compute L t , 2/3 to compute L b , 3/2 for M tb .

The derivation of (2) is omitted for the sake of brevity since it follows well-established methods for computing classical slot permeance factors [14].

IV. END-COIL LEAKAGE INDUCTANCES

A method for computing end-coil leakage inductances in three-phase turboalternators is proposed in [16] based on Neumann integrals and on the principle of mirror images to account for the magnetic core effects. An extension of the method to poly-phase windings, along with a refinement of self leakage inductance computation, is proposed in [10], where also some experimental validation results are presented considering 6-phase, 9- phase and 12-phase machines. For the extensive

analytical procedures to determine end-coil leakage inductances λ e k reference is then made to [10].

V. AIR-GAP LEAKAGE INDUCTANCE

The air-gap leakage inductance is due to the stator- produced flux lines that partly flow through the air-gap but do not contribute to the fundamental of the air-gap field. In other words, the air-gap field is the consequence

of the spatial harmonics (excluding the first) of the air-

gap field produced by a stator phase.

The approach proposed for the analytical air-gap leakage inductance computation is based on the winding function theory extended to machines with possibly non- uniform air-gap [18]. According to this theory, the total mutual inductance (including both leakage and useful fluxes) between the i-th and j-th phases due to air-gap flux can be computed as:

847

M

i

,

j

=

R L

μ

0

2

π

P(x

0

x )W (x)W (x)dx

r

i

j

(2)

where:

x r :

R:

L:

W i (x):

rotor position; air-gap average radius; useful core length; phase winding function of phase i; air-gap permeance function.

P(x):

Analytical expressions for P(x) and W i (x) are proposed in the following subsections.

A. Permeance function The permeance function P(x) is the inverse of the reluctance function, which expresses the reluctance

opposed by the air-gap to stator flux passing as a function of the angular coordinate x. In round-rotor machines with no air-gap slot openings, P(x) is a constant equal to the reciprocal of the air-gap width. In general, P(x) should account for possible rotor saliencies and stator slot openings as well. For this purpose P(x) is written as:

P

(

x ) =

P

sal

(

x ) P

slot

(

x

)

g

(3)

where

g

P sal (x):

P slot (x):

The factor P sal (x) can be estimated based on the approximation that the air-gap width, in salient pole machines, results from superimposing a constant and a sine wave with a period equal to a pole pitch (i.e. π in electrical radians), that is:

(4)

The value of D can be determined considering that, in the hypothesis of sinusoidal winding distribution [i.e. W i (x)cos(x)] and neglecting slotting effects [i.e. P slot (x)=1], the self inductance M i,i of a generic phase i,

minimum air-gap width; factor accounting for saliency effects; factor accounting for slotting effects.

P

sal

(x)

=

1

+

Dsin(2x)

Fig. 4. Phase self inductance of a salient-pole machine as a function of the rotor

Fig. 4. Phase self inductance of a salient-pole machine as a function of the rotor position neglecting higher-order harmonics.

computed from (2), must take the well-known profile shown in Fig. 4, where L md and L mq are phase inductances along d and q axes. By imposing such condition one finds:

D =

L

mq

L

md

L

md

(5)

Concerning slotting effects, quite accurate results have been found using Weber approximation for the air-gap field dips caused by slot openings [19]. This approximation leads to write:

by slot openings [19]. This approximation leads to write: Fig. 5. FE-analysis of a salient-pole machine

Fig. 5. FE-analysis of a salient-pole machine (dual-star 8-pole) for the determination of its air-gap field profile.

C. Numerical example and assessment

α The aforementioned analytical expressions are

illustrated and assessed by applying them to a salient pole

synchronous machine whose cross-section is shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 6 shows the comparison between the air-gap flux density profiles produced by a stator phase energized with current I and obtained in two independent ways:

form the FE solution of the model and using the winding

and permeance function approach. For the latter method,

the flux density is computed as:

(10)

where the permeance function P(x) and the winding function W i (x) of the energized phase are computed as per the previous subsections. The comparison is shown in the

β

cos

2 mod ( x π / Z ) Z , 2 2
2
mod
(
x
π
/
Z
)
Z
, 2
2

P

slot

(

x

)

=

1

2

(6)

where Z is the number of slots per pole pairs and non- dimensional coefficients α, β depend on slot opening w s , tooth width w t and air-gap width θ as follows:

α = w

t

/ w

s

,

β =

(

1 u

)

2

21 + u

(

2 )

u =

w

s

, 2 θ

+

2 w s 1 + . 2 θ
2
w
s
1
+
.
2
θ

(7)

If also the rotor surface were slotted, an additional factor should be included in (3) to account for that.

B. Winidng funcion The winding function of a machine circuit expresses the spatial MMF distribution produced in the air-gap by a unity current flowing in that circuit. By summing the contributions of all the active conductors of a phase and using Fourier series decomposition, the following expression of W i (x) is obtained:

W

i

(

x

)

A

h

=

h

=

= 8

1,3,5,7,

Nn

q

b

A

h

1

h

2

h

cos

sin

h

π

2

n

x

sin

i

1

n

π

hr

π

2

(8)

(9)

where:

N:

number of series-connected turns per coil;

r:

coil to pole pitch ratio.

It is remarked that the first term (h=1) of (8) represents the fundamental of air-gap MMF produced by a phase, while the other terms represent the higher-order space harmonic components of the MMF field.

B

(

)

x

=μ

0

P ( x

x

r

)

W

i

(

x ) I

field. B ( ) x = μ 0 P ( x − x r ) W

Fig. 6. Comparison of air-gap profiles obtained analytically and from FE simulations (Fig. 5).

848

two cases when the energized phase axis is aligned to either the d or q axes (Fig. 5). It can be seen that in both cases the accordance between analytical and numerical results is satisfactory, which confirms the appropriateness of the proposed winding and permeance function formulations to study the air-gap field of salient-pole synchronous machines.

D. Computation of air-gap inductances

The winding function W i (x) given by (8) and (9) can be decomposed as follows:

W

i

(

x

)

=

A

1

cos

x

i

1

n

π

(11)

so as to separate the fundamental (first term) from the higher-order harmonics. By substituting (11) into (2) and also making use of (4) and (6), the expansion is obtained reported at the bottom of the page. In such expansion two terms are isolated: the first considers only the contribution of MMF fundamental without slotting effects, the second (equal to the sought air-gap leakage

inductance

+

h

=

3,5,7,

A

h

cos

h

i

1

x

n

π

λ

a

k

) collects all other contributions.

VI. NUMERICAL FE VALIDATIONS

In this Section FE analyses are employed to numerically check the correctness and accuracy of the calculation formulas provided for slot and air-gap leakage inductances. The reason why FE analysis are used in addition to experimental assessments (Section VII) consists of the large flexibility of the FE method, which enables to simulate a wide variety of design solutions (for example changing the coil pitch), while actual machines used for experiments inevitably offer a limited range of validation cases. Unfortunately, the FE method is not extendable to validate end-coil leakage inductance computation unless one resorts to 3D modelling approaches, which are beyond the scope of this work.

approaches, which are beyond the scope of this work. Fig. 7. Models of (a) quadruple-star round

Fig. 7. Models of (a) quadruple-star round rotor machine; (b) dual-star salient-pole machines. Phase names are indicated for a winding layer and over a pole span.

employed to assess (1) in case of the dual-star (6-pahse) and quadruple-star (12-phase) synchronous machines (subsequently considered for experimental tests too) whose cross sections are shown in Fig. 7. The use of FE method enables to easily change the coil pitch so as to validate (1) over the entire range of interesting r values. For the FE assessment of slot leakage inductances, auxiliary points (P b , P t ) are included in the model at each slot opening (Fig. 8). Then, for any stator coil with sides C b and C t (Fig. 8), its flux linkage due to slot leakage field is computed from FE analysis as follows:

A.

Unlike end-coil leakage fields, slot leakage one is confined in the core region and can be accurately determined with 2D FE techniques. These are next

Slot leakage inductances

NL

[

A

1

P

C

z

(

b

z

A

(

x y dxdy

,

)

1

C

z

A

(

x y dxdy

,

)

 

(14)

)

Cb

A

z

(

P

t

)]}

Ct

 

M

i

,

j

=

RL

μ

0

2π

2

A

1

0

cos

x

i 1

n

π

cos x

j 1

π

1

[

+

D

sin(2

x

2

x

r

)

]

dx

+

λ

a

i

j

(12)

 

n

 

λ

a

i

j

=−

2

R

β

L

μ

0

2

π

2

A

1

cos

x

i 1

n

π

cos x

j − 1 π [ 1 n
j − 1
π
[
1
n

+

D

sin(2

x

2

x

r

]

) cos

2 Z mod ( x − x , 2 π / Z ) r 2
2
Z
mod
(
x
x
, 2
π
/
Z
)
r
2

α

dx

 

+

RL

 

0

2

π

r

0

h

h

m

= 3,5,7,

= 3,5,7,

A

cos

h

x

n

π

A

m

cos

n

π

[

1

+

D

sin(2

x

2

x

r

)

]

1

2

β

cos

x

x

2

i 1

m x

i 1

Z

mod

(

, 2

π

/

Z

)

2

α

dx

(13)

μ

0

 

849

Fig. 8. Sides ( C b , C t ) of a stator coil and

Fig. 8. Sides (C b , C t ) of a stator coil and auxiliary points (P b , P t ) introduced for leakage inductance computation

flux linkages thus obtained is assumed equal to the air- gap leakage inductance and compared to the analytical estimation through (13). The results of the comparison, reported in Fig. 10, show a good accordance between the numerical and

analytical evaluations both in the case of the salient-pole machine and in the case of the round-rotor one. It is however to be considered that, in a salient-pole machine, the air-gap leakage inductance is slightly dependent on the rotor position as can be seen from (13), so diagrams

of Fig. 10a refer to a particular rotor position.

where: C coil cross-section area, N number of turns per coil, L useful core length, A z vector potential (z component) resulting from FE analysis. In fact, the first term in square brackets is proportional to the total coil flux linkage, while the second term is proportional to the total coil flux linkage minus the portion due to slot leakage field. The comparison between analytical and FE simulation results is shown in Fig. 9 (each circle corresponds to a FE simulation), showing a very good matching.

B. Air-gap leakage inductances In order to validate the expression (13) for air-gap leakage inductances, the generic stator phase “i” of the example machines (Fig. 7) is energized with unity current in the FE model and the vector potential A z (x) on the air- gap circumference is saved. The “air-gap flux linkage” of phase j is computed using the values of A z in the points P below the slots where conductors of phase j are contained (Fig. 8), with the appropriate sign, so as to catch only the air-gap flux linkage. The procedure is repeated twice:

once taking the actual values of A z (x) and once taking only the fundamental of A z (x). The subtraction of the two

VII. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATIONS

Some dedicated testing activities are performed on the two multiphase synchronous machines whose cross sections are shown in Fig. 7 so as to obtain leakage inductance measurement values to compare with computation results. Measurements are mainly collected

on the wound stators with the rotor removed, according to the testing guidelines provided in [9]. Because these guidelines apply to three-phase machines, an extension to

a multiphase stator configuration is necessary. For this

purpose, the methodology already described in [7], [10] is

followed: basically, while a stator phase is supplied with an AC current I, the open-circuit induced voltage is measured on the other ones. This enables to determine phase self and mutual inductances (λ rr k ) with the rotor removed. As discussed in [3], each inductance λ rr k with the rotor removed can be written as:

λ rr k = λ s

k + λ e k + λ b k

(15)

where λ s k +λ e k is the slot plus end-coil leakage component and λ b k is the term due to the flux passing through the stator bore. This latter term can be easily determined (as

−4 −4 6 × 10 4 × 10 −4 −4 4 × 10 2 ×
−4
−4
6
× 10
4
×
10
−4
−4
4
× 10
2
× 10
−4
2
× 10
0
−4
0
2
× 10
−4
− 2
× 10 −4
4
×
10

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

−3 1 × 10 −4 5 × 10 0 − 5 × 10 −4 0.5
−3
1
× 10
−4
5
× 10
0
− 5
× 10 −4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
5 × 10 0 − 5 × 10 −4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Fig. 9.
5 × 10 0 − 5 × 10 −4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Fig. 9.
5 × 10 0 − 5 × 10 −4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Slot leakage phase inductances (self and mutual) as functions of the coil pitch for the 12-phase machine (a, b) and for the 6-phase machine (c). Solid line diagrams are from analytical computation [eq. (1)], circled points are from FE analysis.

0,0003 0,0002 0,0001 0 012345 -0,0001 analytical -0,0002 fem -0,0003 henries henries
0,0003
0,0002
0,0001
0
012345
-0,0001
analytical
-0,0002
fem
-0,0003
henries
henries

2,50E-05

2,00E-05

1,50E-05

1,00E-05

5,00E-06

0,00E+00

-5,00E-06

-1,00E-05

-1,50E-05

-2,00E-05

analytical fem 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
analytical
fem
0
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
11

k

analytical fem 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 k k

k

Fig. 10. Air-gap leakage inductances λ a k computed analytically and from FEA: (a) for the 6-phase machine; (b) for the 12-phase machine.

λ a k computed analytically and from FEA: (a) for the 6-phase machine; (b) for the

850

Fig. 11. Search coil placed removed. in the stator bore in a test with rotor

Fig. 11. Search coil placed removed.

in the stator

bore in

a

test

with

rotor

proposed in [16]) by means of FE analysis as well as the slot leakage term λ s k : the FE model is accurately calibrated for this purpose with a search coil placed in the stator bore (Fig. 11). Once λ rr k , λ b k and λ s k are known, the end-coil leakage inductances λ e k can be finally determined by difference from (15). The values obtained with the described procedure are compared in Fig. 12 with those obtained with the proposed analytical computations [air-gap leakage components (from Fig. 10) are also added to visualize the entity of the various leakage flux contributions]. Fig. 12 shows a satisfactory agreement.

VIII. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper the analytical calculation of stator leakage inductances in multi-phase machine with n phases (either symmetrically or asymmetrically distributed) is addressed. Analytical expressions are proposed to compute slot and air-gap leakage inductances based on machine design data, while for the end-coil contribution reference is made to previous works. The formulas for slot and air-gap leakage inductances are assessed by

means of FE analysis taking into account different numbers of phases and coil pitch values. Measurements on a 6-phase (dual star) and 12-phase (quadruple star) machines with the rotor removed are also presented and compared with analytical results. All the validations presented (both through measurements and FE simulations) show a satisfactory matching with analytical predictions.

APPENDIX A

In this Appendix the derivation of (1) is illustrated. With the mapping procedure discussed in Section II, any double-layer n-phase winding with coil to pole pitch r can be represented as sketched in Fig. 13a. For the sake of simplicity, Fig. 13a illustrates a 2-pole machine (the extension to a generic number of pole pairs is straightforward). Given two generic and distinct phases i and j, such that k=|i j|, their respective phase belts may or may not overlap depending on the coil pitch (changing the coil pitch is equivalent to “sliding” one winding layer keeping the other fixed). Let us call Z' i,j the overlapping fraction of phase belts with equal sign belonging to phases i, j and Z'' i,j the overlapping fraction of phase belts with opposite signs belonging to phases i, j. For example, it is evident from Fig. 13a that if r=1 (full pitch winding) there is no overlapping between the phase belts of the two phases, so Z' i,j =Z'' i,j =0. Conversely, a complete overlapping of the phase belts with equal sign (i.e. “+i”, “+j” and “ i”, “ j”; Z' i,j =1) occurs for coil pitch values r such that:

(

π 1

r

)(

=

π /

n

)

i

j

(A1)

while a complete overlapping between phase belts of

Computed analytically Computed from measurement and calibrated FEA 0,0015 0,0015 air-gap air-gap 0,0013 0,0013
Computed analytically
Computed from measurement and calibrated FEA
0,0015
0,0015
air-gap
air-gap
0,0013
0,0013
end-coil
end-coil
0,0011
0,0011
slot
slot
0,0009
0,0009
0,0007
0,0007
0,0005
0,0005
0,0003
0,0003
0,0001
0,0001
-0,0001
-0,0001
012345
012345
-0,0003
-0,0003
-0,0005
-0,0005
k
k
Computed analytically
Computed from measurement and calibrated FEA
5,00E-04
5,00E-04
air-gap
air-gap
4,00E-04
4,00E-04
end-coil
end-coil
3,00E-04
3,00E-04
slot
slot
2,00E-04
2,00E-04
1,00E-04
1,00E-04
0,00E+00
0,00E+00
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
-1,00E-04
-1,00E-04
-2,00E-04
-2,00E-04
k
k
henries
henries
henries
henries
-2,00E-04 k k henries henries henries henries Fig. 12. Slot ( λ s k ), end-coil

Fig. 12. Slot (λ s k ), end-coil (λ e k ) and air-gap (λ a k ) leakage inductances for (a) the 6-phase machine and (b) the 12-phase machine, from the proposed analytical method (left side graphs) and from measurements and calibrated FE analysis (right-side graphs).

851

Fig. 13. (a) Conventional n -phase winding scheme; (b) Z' i , j and diagrams.

Fig. 13. (a) Conventional n-phase winding scheme; (b) Z' i,j and diagrams.

Z'' i,j

opposite signs (i.e. “+i”, “ j” and “ i”, “+j”; Z'' i,j =1) occurs for those coil pitch ratios r such that:

(A2)

Based on similar geometric considerations, the diagrams reported in Fig. 13b are obtained for the functions Z' i,j and Z'' i,j . Because Z' i,j and Z'' i,j do not depend on i, j individually but only on k=|i j|, it is convenient to write them as Z' k and Z'' k . Analytically, these functions can be written in the form:

()

π 1

r

= π

()

π /

n

i

j

(A3)

k

where R(x) is the ramp function. What proved above enables us to say that the two phases i and j have 2pqZ' k shared slots where they have equal directions and 2pqZ'' k shared slots where they have opposite directions. Calling M tb the mutual inductance between two coil sides lying in the same slot, the mutual slot leakage inductance will then be:

(A5)

which is to divided by b 2 in the case when there are b parallel ways per phase. Considering (A3) and (A4), the expression (1) is then proved for the case ij i.e. k0 (mutual inductance). For the self inductance case (k=0), the contribution is to be added of the self slot leakage inductance of each coil side. Calling L t and L b such self inductances respectively for a coil side placed in the top or bottom layer, this contribution will be:

(A6)

since each phase has 2pq coil sides lying in the top layer and 2pq lying in the bottom layer. Furthermore we have

(A4)

Z

k =

Z

− k ( 1−
k
(
1−

R 1

R

(

) ) n ( 1 − r ) − nr
)
)
n
(
1
r
)
nr

k ′′ =

2 pq Z ′ − Z ′′ M

k

k

tb

(

)

(

2 pq L

t

+ L

b

)

to consider possible slots occupied by coil sides of the same phase: each of such slots gives a contribution of 2M tb . This ends the proof of (1) also for the self leakage inductance case (k=0).

REFERENCES

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[2]

[4]

[5]

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