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III.OThe poets of different regions are in no way superior to Orissan

poets. Starting from the age of Atharvaveda till today innumerabe poets
have contributed to the domain of literature. Jagabandhu Singh in his
work Prachina-Utkala refers to Hunter's list of Orissan Sanskrit poets.
Kunjabihari Tripathy in his contribution of Orissa to Sanskrit literature,
Sri Kedarnath Mohapatra in Descriptive catalogue Vol-II (Orissa State
Musium) had given the list of Orissan authors and highlighted their
contributions. Contribution of Orissa to Sanskrit literature by Raghunath
Panda and Govinda Chandra Nanda is a good monograph of collecting
the list of orissan authors. Besides, in the same title Sri P.K. Panda wrote
a book on the same theme.


From 5th century to modern age by writing so many kavyas Oriya

poets have made Sanskrit literature so beautiful. Even if they have almost
disappeared in the dreadful jaws of death still then their names can win
victory over the pace of time in the world of the kavya.


Let us first of all take the case of Visnu Sarma, the compiler of
the world famous Regarding Visnu Sarma, Dr. De and Dr. Das
Gupta write thus, "There is no evidence at all of authorship; for the
name Visnu Sarman applied in the introduction to the wise Brahmana,
who instructs, with these stories, the ignorant sons fo King Amarasakti
of Mahilaropya in the Deccan is obviously as fictitious as the names of
king and the places'^SS)1

1. Bhagavata Sampradaya, Acharya Baladeva Upadyaya


BHATTA narayana

Now comes Bhatta Narayana, the author of the who

is claimed as a poet of Orissa by Pandits on the following grounds: -

(a) According to their theory, in the following two verses of the

last act of this drama, the term has got two meanings (i) Sri
Krshna, (ii) God Purushottama orJagannatha at Puri e.g.

m R^cri cRt

-nwi^dl I
■femT^RcT: "mmt ^TF% TOTRf* (Verse 45 of the last Act.)

«ftozn«R: I
4^ SHM^Rh fcT9r\||
festa 1ir-
okcRT^cft || (Verse 46 of the last Act.)
^rn:~ (^fcT ^fcf WtSli: I

(b) The great popularity of '<^fkisK in Orissa might be due
to its author being a native of this land. For this reason, Gajapati
Purushottama Deva of Cuttack (1466-1497) wrote one, 3#FR ^ulUi^K
Hi<i4>Hjn order to eclipse the glory of this work of Bhatta Narayana.


Establishment of a pitha by Sankara at Jagannath-puri forms a

land -mark in the history of Orissa, as it was followed by the revival of
Sankrit learning and literature in this area. In this age of revival, just
after a few years of Sankara's visit to this place, we find that the famous
drama by Murari was staged at Puri before an audience
of learned people at the time of a festival (yatra) of God Purushottama
(Jagannatha) the consort of Kamala, who was being worshipped in the
Tamala forest on the seashore, as will be evident from the speech of
the Surtadhara quoted below:-

_n_^ | 3^% Pj^ui 3ft 3ft d«|uik3dl cHIcfl- cWIdd*

u\: ^TdT-^T-^eW-4>^RcbI - Md 1 W WPRI: fPfrrOTCT WMT

gq^srtrr^mra^: (wrts^:)2


Krsna Misra is well known to the readers of Sanskrit literature as

the famous authors of the allegorical play, the prabodha-candrodaya
(PCU) or 'the Moonrise of True Knowledge'.


The poet has mentioned the following works written by him in

different cantos of his work e.g. (fourth canto)
(fifth canto) (sixth canto) (seventh canto)
3Huufcjc|uuJ'^ (ninth canto) (seventeenth canto) Hra^lftFftrfe:
(eighteenth canto) (twentysecond canto). He is said to
have written some other works, the names of which are not given here,
as they have not been finally accepted.


Govardhana Acharya is well-known for his work “sTT^qf

which has been printed and published by many institutions in India.
Many scholars are of opinion that he was a poet of the court of
Lakshmana Sena, the last independent Hindu king of Bengal. But this
theory, which is not based on convincing evidences is untenable as will
be shown below.

The conclusion made about both the Udayanas in the "History of

Bengal' is worth noting here for the consideration of scholars. "Sridhar's
famous contemporary Udayana who dates his Lakshnavali in saka
906(984 A.D) and who is the author of a sub-commentary entitled
Kiranavali on Prasastapada's Bhasya, as well as two independent
polemical works Kusumanjali and Atmatattavaviveka. He is sometimes
connected with Bengal by a tradition, which associates him with the

2. Visnu Krsnamurti of Orissa State Museum.


Bhaduri Brahmanas of North Bengal. But the unreliability of tradition is

indicated by Udayana's disparaging remarks about the Gauda
Mlmamsaka who in his opinion lacked a true knowledge of the Vedic

Udayana unknown to Sridhara Dasa, the author of

had nothing to do with Lakshmana Sena of Bengal and lived in Orissa
in the courts of two local chieftains under the Ganga kings, Raja Raja
II (1170-1190) and Aniyanka Bhima II (1190-1198). Similarly
Govardhana, not a single verse of whose is found quoted
in of Sridhara Das, did not adorn the court of Laksmana
Sena and the term ’ of his work can more appropriately
be applied to Pravara Sena, who is reputed as the author of
than to Lakshmana Sena.


Gitagovinda by Jayadeva is one of the most important works in

Sanskrit literature. It has got the largest number of imitations and
commentaries written by scholars of different parts of India, which testify
to its immense popularity and wide circulation in this country. But the
question of the birth place of Jayadeva is still a matter of controversy
among scholars. So an humble attempt is made here to find out its
solution. On the strength of a stanza in the first sarga of Gitagovind
quoted below many scholars have asserted that the five poets mention
in it belonged to Bengal and adorned the court of Laksmana Sena e.g.

%ii41 cbfewrier: ii
In the above stanza, Jayadeva only gives his own estimate about
four other poets, who might at best be taken to be his elder
contemporaries. But this verse does not imply directly or indirectly that

3. Jagannatha the krsna of Gitagovinda, Dr. Gopinatha Mohapatra, Utkal University

Itihasa Adhibesana, Bramhapur-1977.

all the five poets mentioned in it belonged to Bengal and adorned the
same court. It is only an example of poetic tradition followed by many
other poets of India as shown below.

Ravikirti, the author of the famous Aihole inscription of Pulakesi

II respectfully mentions the names of Kalidasa and Bharavi in the 57th
stanza of the prasasti.4


Let us now examine, who of the five poets mentioned in this

stanza belonged to Bengal and adorned the court of Laksmana Sena.
It has been convincingly proved before that Acarya Govardhana, spoken
of respectfully by Jayadeva had no connection with the court of king
Laksmana Sena and his family was flourishing in the Puri District of
Orissa under the patronage of local chieftains and Gariga sovereigns.
What to speak of Laksmana sena, no where in the G. G. there is any
definite or veiled reference to the effect that its author had adorned
the court or received the patronage of any king. On the other hand,
the saintly poet has taken pride in calling himself
e.g. a renowned master or great expert who could ably direct the dance
of his beloved wife Padmavatl to the tune of the songs which he used
to sing joyfully, inspired by deep devotion for his favourite God Krshna.
The earliest reference about this poet so far known is found in
written in old Hindi by Chand Bardai, who is generally assigned to the
13th century. In this work he is pictured not as a court poet but as a
great devotee, e.g.


From the last verse of the Chatesvara inscription(36) quoted

below, it is known that this prasasti was composed by one Kavi Bhaskara

4. Sakanda Purana, Purusottama Mohapatra, 19 Chapter, slok-13


dHl ^ Hlfd W\\ 4<{14

fa^l I
^c^I ^TRT TjfxH-
^ J-dlMRl =hfc): f^crl '*il*=b<l:ywi: II

Up till now, no work of Kavi Bhaskara has been discovered or

noticed. As the date of the inscription has been fixed in C.1220 A.D. its
author may be assigned to the first quarter of the 13th century.


We come to know of a poet Umapati from two contemporary

epigraphic records. He was also working as a general under the Gahga
king Bhanu I (126-12.8 and composed (in Saka year 1193 or 1271
A.D.) the inscription in the temple of Amaresvara, standing at the village
Boni in Bimalipatna taluk of the present Visakhapatna District of the
Andhra state, which then formed a part of the Orissan empire, extending
up to the Godavari in the south. His name is found in these two
verses(37) quoted below:

3JHiqfd <?HNcl JN<<JUuj<l=beH<=h

4TR WRT I4ii)cb I

-q<*>I^H'WI4'W II


Kaviraja Sarhkhadhara is most probably identical with the Orissan

Smrti writer Sarhkhadhara whose work was accepted as an
authority by the later Smrti writers of Utkala, Gauda and Mithila. The
earliest Smrti writter to quote from this work in his ‘7T?Rkchi'W is
Chandesvara Thakura of Mithila (c. 1300-1330)(41). According to
N.N.Vasu, Hemadri quotes from whereas the of
Debana Bhatta is quoted in it. On the strength of the internal evidence
furnished by the above works, Sarhkhadhara may be assigned to the
first half of the 13th century.

Vidyadhara is well-known to the world of Sanskrit scholars for
his work on 'Alankara' called Ekavali, which was printed and published
with the 'TaralapkS of Mallinatha in 1903 in the Bombay Sanskrit Series.
All scholars who have discussed about the importance of this work are
unanimous that its author Vidyadhara belonged to Orissa, as he has
sung the eulogy of his patron Narasirtiha Deva, king of Utkala in 314
verses composed by him as examples, But there is still controversy
regarding the identity of this Narasimha, as there were four rulers in
the Ganga family of Orissa bearing this name.


Krsnaananda Sandhivigrahika Mahapatra (or simply Krsnananda)

is famous for his Sahrdayanandamahakavya (SAM) which has been printed
and published a few times.


Visvanatha is well known among the Sanskrit scholars of the world

as the author of the famous poetical treatise The Sahityadarpana (SD).
From the SD itself quite a number of other literary compositions has
been found to his credit. Besides SD they are (i) Raghavavilasa, a
mahakavya, (ii) Kuvalayasvacaritakavya in Prakrit, (iii) Prabhavatf-
parinaya a napka, (iv) Candrakala, another napka, (v) Prasastiratnaval/,
a karambhaka in sixteen languages, (vi) Narasimhavijaya, a khandakavya,
(vii) Kamsavadha, a kavya, and (viii) Kavyaprakasadarpana, a
commentary on the Kavyaprakasa of Mammata.


Kavidindima Jivadevacarya was the royal preceptor and the chief

counsellor of Gajapati Prataparudra Deva, the famous Suryavarfisiruler
who flourished in between A.D. 1497-1540. He is famous for his literary
works like the Bhaktibhagavatamahakavya (BBM), the
Bhaktivaibhavanataka, (BVN), and the Utsahavatirupakam (UVR).


Some light on this great Sanskrit poet of Orissa and his works
was first thrown by Dr. V. Raghavan nearly a decade ago on the basis
of the information furnished by the concluding stanzas of each canto
of the We have been able to collect four palm-leaf
manuscripts of this work for our Museum, one of which contains 39
cantos and a few verses of canto 40, two have got 20 cantos (1-20),
and the fourth contains cantos (21-39) and 93 verses from canto 40,
where it ends abruptly. Thus the complete work has not yet been


Raya Ramananda is a well known name in the circle of the Vaisnava

devotees, poets and literateurs of Bengal and Orissa. His literary merits
chiefly depend upon the Jagarmathavallabha-nataka (JVN) written at the
behest of king Gajapati Prataparudra Deva of Orissa. No other Sanskrit
work of the poet has yet been noticed though he had some Oriya and
Brajaboli poems published recently by the Culture Department of Orissa


Gangadhara Misra is well known among the Sanskrit scholars of

the country as the famous author of Kausalananda-mahakavya (KAM)
which narrates the history of the valiant Vauhan family ruling over South
Kosala or the Sambalpur-Patna-Sonepur and Khariar regions of Orissa.


One of the greatest writers of this period was Kaviratna

Purusottama Misra. Like the famous Mallinatha of South India, he is
reputed to have written many commentaries, only three of which are
available in manuscripts in our Museum as yet. His Ska on two acts of
the 3h^<i^ of Murari is found in a manuscript (No.7) from which
relevant verses are quoted below. After the benedictory verses in praise

of the Tandava of Siva the author says thus:

3504104 nfeqii'Ki 150ft

o*TRssfei 1
His father was Ananda Misra, who was a versatile scholar.


wfelr %5Rf 1
3<lf<chloM fa^dMs&IWllsUlTTcf: ||

^*£5*5 f^cTS 4%cT^l%CR^^r -JcT-

To search for a complete Ska is being made, which is hoped to
be successful in near future.

His Ska on W^Tby wtol4) is called complete manuscripts

of which are preserved in the museum.

Hlci^l^q 1^JcT ?j4fivi|dl ^krHIcWai#-

43T 'fe MId^d tel qirqsf WTlfe* I

qW cRfyuitfis^r ^*-db3 -HIH, ll

Purusottama Misra claims that he wrote the first commentary
on <6'W3ciJt which he fondly hoped to be appreciated by the schoiars.The
hope of the author was fulfilled, because this commentary had wide
circulation throughout Orissa & Bengal as is proved by the discovery of
its manuscripts from different parts of this land.

The concluding verse of this Ska states that his elder brother
Srldhara Misra was proficient in different branches of learning like

Vyakarana, Kavya, A/arikara, Sankhya, Sruti, Smrti, Parana., Nataka,

Kosa etc.

'-W WPlcb 3<l«l 'chimin |

«fk M W«bHcH^W5*f*r5?lFral
5«ftcT ^T(fe JHciB dsiWebH.ll
But no works of either his father Ananda Misra, or his elder
brother Sridhara Misra, have so far been known or discovered.

He also wrote a commentary on the by the famous

poet Sriharsa, incomplete manuscripts of which are preserved in our
Museum. From this we know that the gotra of his family was Sandilya

clc'SJjTt: J^WkW-w ih

^TT^f^cftwffwmftTRT: II
The date of copy of one of his works being 1756 its author may
safely be placed at least 30 years before the date e.g. 1726 A.D.
Jagannatha Misra of Orissa has respectfully referred to Kaviratna Misra
(who was no other than Kaviratna Purusottam Misra ) in his work
which was compiled during the reign of Harekrsna Deva, Raja of Khurda
(1715-20 A.D.). On the strength of this evidence he can be tentatively
assigned to the last quater of the seventeeth century.

In a manuscript of^crte noticed by late Mm.H.P.Sastri, there

is a verse at the end, giving the date of composition of this work, which
is not found in the Museum manuscripts, e.g.


Vasudeva Ratha Somayaji is reputed as the author of

Gahgavamsanucarita (GVC) which is a marvelleous campukavya written
in Orissa. It was first brought to the notice of the scholars by H.P. Sastri
in his report on the search of Sanskrit manuscripts during 1895-1900.
Afterwards R. Subbarao, G. Ramdas, B. Seshagirirao and Raja L.N.
Harichandan Jagadeva refered to this work in their respective papers in
different volumes of the Journal of the Andhara Historical Research
Society. K.N. Mohapatra had made it more popular by his writtings both
in English and Oriya.

After Jagadava Purusottama Deva (1466-1497) A.D. had written

Abhinaba Gftagobinda, Jagannatha Ballabha was written by Raya
Ramananda (1497-1509) Udayanacarya had written annotation of
Naisadha and Piyusalahari written by Kavidindima,
Bhaktibhagavatamahakavya of Jlvadevacarya, Jivadevacarya had written
Bhakivaibhabanataka, Gopagovinda was written by Jayadevacarya,
Satanjiva Misra was the writer of Muditamadhaba (1650). Jatindra
Raghuttama Tirtha was the writer of Mukundaviiasam (1620 A.D.).
Nityananda Pandita was the writer of Sivaiiiamrta and Srikrsnalilamrta
Mahakavya (1690 A.D) Ramacandra khadga Raya was the writer of
Nabaharicarita (1730 A.D) Kabibhusana Gobinda (1760 AD) was the writer
of Samrddhamadhaba Naiaka. Kavicandra Kamala Locana Khadgaraya
(1780-1800) was the writer of Bajrayubuviiasa, Sahgita Cintamani and
Gita Mukunda. In 5th Century Purusottma Bhatta worth Chandagovinda,
Kaviraja Sankhadhara was the writer of Natakamelakam (Hasyarnavam),
Kavi Bidyadhara (13th Century) was the writer of "Ekavali" Alankara work,
Mahamahopadhyaya Candidasa was the writer of kavyaprakasa D/pika,
Sandhivigrahika Candrasekhara Mahapatra (1335-1378) was the writer
of Narasimha Bijaya Naiaka, Krsnananda Sandhivigrahika Mahapatra (14th
century) was the writer of Sahrdayananda Mahakavya, Cintamani Misra
(1530-1580) was the writer of Vanmayaviveka, Raghavananda
Sandhivigrahika Mahapatra was the writer of Usa Parinaya and

Chandoviveka, Visvanatha Kabiraja Sandhivigrahika Mahapatra (14th

Century) was the writer of Sahityadarpana, Candrakaianatika,
Raghabavilasa, Prasasti Ratnabali, Kubalayasvacarita, Prabhavati Parinaya,
Kaviraja Ananta Dasa (15th Century) was the writer of the first annotation
of Sahityadarpana (Locana), Gopinatha Sandhivigrahika (1500 A.D) was
the writer of Parijataharananataka, Gajapati Kapilendradeva (1455) was
the writer of Parsuramavijaya, Abhinabagitagovinda Namamalika,
Gopalarcana Paddhati, Andavilasa, Dasagrivavadha, Janaki Pramoda,
Abhinava Venlsamhara, Kubalayasvacarita, Mukticintamani,
Durgotsabaviveka, Bhubanesvarl Puja Pallaba, etc. were written by
Purusottamadeva (1467 A.D) Gajapati Prataparudra Deva (1520) was
the writer of Sarasvativilasa, Pratapa Martanda, Nirnayasamgraha and
Kantaka Cintamani, Kavicandra Ray Divakara Misra was the writer of
Prabhavati Nataka, Bharatam.rta Mahakavya, Markandeya Misra (1475-
1565) was the writer of Prakrtasarvasvam, Dasagrivabaddha
Rayaramananda Pattanayak was the writer of Jagannatha Ballabha Nataka
at the period of Prataparudra Deva, Kanhai Khuntiya was the writer of
Mahabhavaprakasa, Paramanandu Dasa Kavikarnapura was the writer of
Caitanya Candrodaya Nataka, Mahamahopadhyaya Gobinda was the writer
of Pradyumna Sambhava, Cintamani Misra (1514 A.D) was the writer of
sambarari carita, Trisirobadha, Kadambari sara etc. Krsnadasa Badajena
Mohapatra (1559-1568) was the writer of Gitaprakasa, etc. all are
precious gemstone in the field of Sanskrit Literature of Orissa.

From Visnusarma, to Bhatta Narayana to Murari Misra, Krsna Misra,

and Sriharsa all the poets beginning from 6th century to 12th century
have become successful to make Sanskrit literature more prosperous.
From 12th century after Sriharsa Gobardhanacarya, Kavibhaskara
Jayadeva, Umapati etc. to Cintamani Misra and Krsnadasa Badajena, it
means all these poets till 16th century had engaged themselves in writing
the Granthas. They have great contribution to Sanskrit Literature. Again
between 16th to 18th century the poets, those who have become very
capable to earn glory, in the field of Sanskrit Literature, a brief information
regarding those poets can be given. In 1568-1607 A.D Ramachandra

Deva Gajapati (prathama) of Bhoi family had become the king. During
his reign in between 1539-1568 as he had re-established Sri Jagannatha,
so he is called as Abhinava Indradyumna. He himself had written a Nataka
by name Srikrsnabhaktavatsalya Carita. In 16th century those who had
written kavyas among them Gangadhara Misra was one among the other
who was the writer of Kosalanada Mahakavya of Sambalpur. Haladhara
Misra was the write of Basantotsava Mahakavya and Sangitakalpalata.
He had appeared in 17th century and added to the glory of Sanskrit
Literature in Orissa. Narasimha Misra (1659) wrote Bhanja Mohodaya
Natika, Bidyakara Purohita (1600 AD) was the writer of Narayana Sataka
Raghava Pandaviya and Hrdayalurasavaham Anadi Misra (1688) was the
writer of Manimala Natika, Krsnasricandana was the writer of Arthadutam,
Nityananda (18th century) was the writer of Sivalilam.rtam and Krsna
Lilamrtam Kaviratna Purusottma Misra (18th Century) was the writer of
Anargharaghava commentary, Hansaduta commentary and Sahgita
Narayana, Raghunatha Ratha was the writer of Natyamanarama
Sangitarnaba, Jagannatha Misra (1715-1721) was the writer of
Rasakalpadrma, Ragunatha Dasa (18th Century) was the annotator of
Vattikavya, Candu Rayaguru or Cayani Candrasekhara Rayaguru (1735)
was the writer of Madhuraniruddha Nataka, Braja Sundara Pattanayak
(18th Century) was the writer of Sulocanamadhava-campukavya and his
capable son Bakravaka Cakrapani Pattanayaka (1778 AD) was the writer
of Gundicacampu, kataksasataka, Netrasataka, Kaviraja Bhagabana Ratha
was the writer of Gundicaotsava varnana and Mrgayacampu, Rayaguru
Vasudeva Ratha Somoyajin (1800) was the writer of
Garigavarhsanucaritacampu, Kaviraja Harekrsna Purohita (18th Century)
was the write of Radhavilasa Mahakavya, Narahari Panda was the writer
of the famous Bramhaprakasika commentary of Meghaduta; Kabibhusana
Govinda Samantaraya was the writer of Suri Sarvasva Grantha;
Kavicandra Kamalalocana (18th Century) Khdagaraya was the writer of
Bajarayuvavilasa. Gopinatha Patra Kavibhusana (18th Century) was the
write of Kavi Cintamani, Lokanatha Tripati (1760) was the write of
Kavikanthabharana, Kaviratna Purohita was the writer of Pramudita

Govinda Nataka, Yadunathasimha Mahapatra (18th Century) was the write

of Abhinaya Darpana Prahara and Nilambara Acharya was the writer of
Candanayatracampu etc. All these poets before the arrival of the Britishers
to Orissa have appeared in the land of Orissa and contributed much to
Sanskrit literature.

As the Britishers ruled over Orissa in 19th Century A.D., it is a

fact that they showed more interest towards learning English and Sanskrit
seaming was pushed to the background. Still Soma Pandits were
continuously writing Sanskrit kavyas. The poets those who were writing
kavyas, among them were Narsimha Dasa, the writer of Godaranga
Vilasa, Damodara Dasa the writer of Utkanta Malika, Harisarma the writer
of Madhavacaritacampu, Bhubanesvara Misra Bada Panda the writer of
Ananda Damodaracampu, Kavicandra Bhubanesvara Rath was the writer
of Rukmini Parinaya, Sadasiva, the writer of Candanacampukavya,
Samanta Candrasekhara Simha, the writer of Sidhantadarpana,
Madhusudanatarka vacaspati (20th Century) the commentator of
Dvonyaloka, etc. were engaged in the composition of Sanskrit work and
in their spread and publication.


Many Sanskrit works appealing to common people had been

written in Orissa which were related to religious matter moral sayings.
Most of such kavyas were relating to Visnu, Krsna and Jagannatha. Later
Visnu and Krsna have been identified as Jagannatha. The treasure of
Sanskrit Literature of Orissa is so vast. That it is not possible to complete
an exhanstive survey.


In Sanskrit so many works had been written which were related

to moral sayings. By collecting different morals so many sukti granthas
have been compiled and published.


Orissa had been invaded often and as a result, a large number of


Sanskrit works had been destroyed. But whatever remaining works are
available, from that it appears that Orissa is very rich in this field.

One can see the beauty of imaginary things in Gitikavya (Lyric).

The main aim of Gitikavya (Lyric) is to describe the real feelings of love
and pleasures of the heart and mind of the reader.

For the subject matter of Gitikavya the poet does not go outside.
By using sweet and beautiful words the poet expresses his own feeling,
so that the reader becomes anxious to read it. By reading these the
reader becomes very happy.

Nature has provided feelings to create love in the mind of the

people. Thirst for water of cataka bird, thunder of cloud, candrika-pana
(enjoying of moonlight) etc. all these natural scenery that pleases the
heart and mind of the people are parts of the lyrics. 'Sattsai' and
'Gathasaptaati' being to this type of poetry. These Sanskrit lyrics have
become famous in Orissa and among them Bramha-Prakasika
commentary of Meghaduta is one. Following the "Rathayatra" and Bahuda
Yatra the poet has written it in a lyrical style. Changing the original
meaning the poet has expressed it in a different way. Like this Gkikas/yas
"Gkagovinda" is another unique creation.


GG is written by the famous poet Jayadeva of Orissa. The pure

love of Radhamadhava is like the act of mixing Jlva and Brahmn. This
Gkagovinda has twelve sargas. In this work the description of true love
has taken place. It is sung everyday in Jagannatha temple (Puri).
Jayadeva by writing this kavya himself sung this infront of the Lord
Jagannatha. The practice of music with devotional feelings was circulated
since 12th century A.D. Before a long period of time the worship of Krsna
Vasudeva was there in India.5 Again at the time of Kharabela "GajalaksmI
Puja" has become in Orissa. "Laksmi and Madhava Upasana" had been
started as an image of worship of "Laksmi Narayana". In Bhubanesvara

5. Gitagovinda, 1/2/7, 1/2/1, 1/1, 1/2/10, 2/1.


Anantavasudeva had been worshipped. Krsna was regarded as 'visnu7.

So the worship of Visnu and Krsna was also performed.6 All these acts of
worship were performed there from 12th Century onwards. Jagannatha
had been mentioned as Krsna and Jagadisa since then Jayadeva has
shown devotional obeisance for Jagannatha by using the word Jagadisa
again and again.7 According to Jayadeva Jagannatha is the Visnu-Krsna-
Hari. So in the Gkagovinda he hadidentified Laksmipati Narayana with
Madhava-krsna.9 On the whole it can be said that the Purusottama-Visnu-
Jagannatha is no other than Gopalakrsna.

Following Gkagovinda so many kavyas had been written in Orissa.

These include Abhinavagkagovinda of Purusottama Deva and Jagannatha-
Ballavanataka of Rayramananda Pattanayak by way of imitation of
Gkagovinda. Piyusalaharkiaffka of Jayadeva Acarya has also been written
by imitating Gkagovinda. In 16th Century A.D. during the reign of
Prataparudra the Nafaka had been acted in Jagannatha temple.10
Jagannatha Ballabha Nataka of Rayaramananda had also been acted in
Jagannatha temple. So it appeares that Jagannatha temple was a central
place for all the cultural activities and a famous theater stage.


Mainly kavyas are of two types. Sravya and Drsya. By listening

only the reader gets pleasure from Sravyakavya. But by seeing the play
one can get pleasure from Drsyakavya. Generally in Sanskrit"Nataka" is
regarded as Rupaka. It is again divided into ten parts. Among those
'Rupakas7, 'Nataka7 is one kind of 'Rupaka’. The other forms of Rupakas
are 'Prakarana'Bhana7, 'Byayoga', 'Prahasana', 'Dima', 'Samabakara',
'Bithi7, 'Ahka7 and Thamrga7.11

6. yadi hari smarane sarasammanah, Gigagovindam, (3rd-gita)

7. (^) 3# VRcRft Wlcra qgrftifrcdh TT5S iWKfMddl
■■HWitef: i srrarf i
C©) Anargha Raghava of Murari Mishra, Probodha Candrodaya of Krsna Misra
had been acted during the yatra of Jagannatha in Purusottama Ksetra is grant
of many people.
8. Dasarupaka, SD, by Visvanatha Kaviraja, Ch-VI
9. Infra, p.
10. C.N. Tripathy, CKAAA, p.273 .
11. Sahityadarpana, Visvanatha Kaviraja, 6/307-08

It is seen that Orissan Society is reflected through 'Nataka' in the

compositions of Sanskrit. In Sanskrit Drama one can find two types of
language. One is Sanskrit which is used for the educated person and
the great characters. Another one is spoken language of the common
people, Prakrta or regional language. Low class people can understand
Sanskrit language through there knowledge of prakrta language.

Indian tradition says- It means- An actor is the

successful poet. The dramatist in stead of giving importance on the
subject matter and description of character, has given importance on
Rasa. According to them Rasa is the soul of kavya and the Srhgararasa
usually gets praminence in Sanskrit Drama.

On the whole it can be said that 'Natakas' are influenced by

Ramayana, Mahabharata and Vedavedanga. The Natyakara by collecting
ingredients from ancient Purana compiles the subject matter and include
different subordinate feeling of the society. So it can be considered that
the subject matters which are used in the 'Nataka' are mainly Indian.

Murari Misra was a great famous 'Natyakara' of Orissa. He had

written Anargha-Raghava which is based on 'Ramakathd. In this Nataka
one can find the poet in him.


This Nataka is very popular in Orissa. Madhusudana Misra is the

writer of Mahanataka. SD cited many quotations from Mahanataka. The
popularity of Mahanataka may be the cause of these extractions. With
the help of a number of slokas this 'Mahanataka' was written like
Mahakavya was there before in Orissa. Jayadeva had also written
Gkagovinda in slokas. If there was no 'Gadyasamlapa' in Gkagovinda
still then it could be acted. In 16th Century'Jagannatha Ballabha Nataka'
of Ramananda was also there with numbers of slokas.


In the 11th Century Krsna Misra had written

'Prabodhacandrodayanataka'. In the knowledge (Viveka) intellect (Buddhi)

and mind (Manas) etc. appeared on the stage as Characters. The

language of this 'Nataka' is very simple. It contains six ankas (acts). In
the same line of compositions, vyahogas were written to the people,
such literature include Parasurama-vijaya of Gajapati Kapilendradeva and
Abhinaba Venisamhara of Gajapati Purusottamadeva.


Most probably the style of campu writing has been developed through
the inscriptions, which usually precedes the beginning of real campu
literature in 10th century A.D. Some of the important campus are dealt
with chronologically here.

Nalacampu and Yasastilakacampu are ascribed to 10th century A.D.

Bhagavatacampu, Bharatacampu, Jivandharcampu, Ramayanacampu,
(Campu Ramayana) are dated to 11th century A.D. Purudevacampu belongs
to 13th century A.D., Madha vacaritacamp u,12 Yatirajavijayacampu belong
to 14th century A.D. Acaryavijayacampu is ascribed to 14th-15th century
A.D. Parijatahara nacampu, Nrsimahacampu of Daivajna surya,
Madhavacampu, Virabhadracampu, Anandvrndavanacampu,
Ramanujacampu, Vasucaritacampu, Yatrapravandhacampu,
Anandkandacampu, Nathamunivijayacampu, Acaryadigvijayacampu are
dated to 16th century A.D. Bhagavatacampu, Vidvanmodatarahginicampu,
and Mandaramarandacampu belong to 16^ -17th century A.D.
Godaparinayacampu, NHa ka nth a vija ya campu, Anandakandacampu of Mitra
Misra, Draupad/parinayacampu, Madrakanyaparinayacampu,
Skivavilasacampu, Baikunthavijayacampu, Keralabharanacampu,
Nrsimhacampu, of Kesava Bhatta are dated to 17th century A.D.
Banasuravijayacampu, Saurimayuramahatmyacampu belong to 17th-18th
century A.D. Gangavataranacampu, Sankaracetovilasacampu,
Dharmavijayacampu, Anandarahgavijayacampu, Srinivasa campu,
Bhosalavamsavalicampu, Ramacandra citracampu are ascribed to 18th
century A.D. Kumarasambhavamcampu belongs to 19th century A.D.

12. Kavi Cintamani, Gopinatha patra kavibhusana, 4th Kirana-lst sloka


Kavimanoranjakacampu is ascribed to 19th-20th century A.D.

CandrasekharacampOls dated to 20th century A.D.

Thus, a rough survey of some of the important campus has been

done chronologically. The beginning of the 16th century is regarded as the
golden age of campu literature.13 Because more than 200 campus have
been written in this period. From 17th to 19th century onwards, a few campus
are written. This is the decadent age of campu literature. The poets have
diverted their mind to write campus in regional languages.

IIX.4 The discussion on the form of campu in Sanskrit literature of


Campu is a well known style of Sanskrit literature. The greatness of

Gadya is present here in the campus in a developed form. So by the
combination of words and meanings (srsf) an best excellent kavya is
created. So Bhamaha said-

cbi°qn” Expressing the similar feelings it has been said

in Agni Purana that:

In Rasagaiigadhara, Pandita Raja Jagannatha has given importance

on the beautiful combination of words. He wrote-

Kavikulatilakakalidasa has given importance, on the word "Vagartha"

(^FTsf) in the begnning of his kavya Raghuvamsa. The Natyacarya Bharata
calls the convension adorned with beautiful Ritikavya. Giving the importance
on this statement indirectly the Alankarikas had felt that kavya cannot be
written only by Sabdartha (word and meaning). The imaginative poet creates
a sweet and beautiful kavya by the arrangement of beautiful, sweet and
soft words and this type of the kavya always touches the heart and mind
of the reader.So Dvani, Riti, Rasa, Guna, Bakrokti and Alamkara etc. were

13. Purnachandra Bhasakosa, Gopala Praharaja


needed in the kavya. Aiamkarika Kuntaka said- “cisblRb: =FI^I

Visvanatha Kaviraja has mentioned in SD that:- UhcH=b =bi°4H.”

Anandabardhana has written in Dvanyaloka-‘%T°^ -Wlc^l

Vamanacarya has given the importance of 'Rfci' and said-‘(llcklc^i

'Rfci' does not mean simply "style" an expressing way. The outer
greatness of Rfci is the 'composition of famous word' and an inner greatness
of Rfci is quality. (Guna) So Rfci is mainly based on Gum (quality). In Sanskrit
literature without seeing the special difference between Rfci and ornamental
form the poet has given it a combined form.

In support of Sanskrit kavya and ornamented ideal, Sanskrit literature

of mediaeval period, which is there in Orissa, has become able to create a
new tradition. This statement does not appear untruthful.

In view of the eastern Alarhkarikacampu should be included with

'khandakavyaAccording to Visvanatha Kaviraja khandakavya is-

‘ ‘*nrr

^cjU^cRJoii ^Cf cblcii ^ n”14

It means according to Visvanatha-Khandakavya can be created in

any language or any secondary dialect. But there should not be
"sargabandhanaThere should not be so many joined words (sandhi words)
and long story. On the whole a composition which is created by following
any part of the kavya is called Khandakavya. In the 17th century Aiamkarika
Gopinatha Patra Kavi Bhusana of Orissa has given his opinion in his


14. Sahityadarpana, Visvanatha Kaviraja, 6/36

15. Kavi Chintamani, Gopinatha Patra Kavibhusana, 4th Kirana-lst sloka.

According to his opinion- In Khandakavya there should; not be sarga.

In this Kavya one should leave the description about moon etc. In
Khandakavya at first there should be number of slokas. Even if this
campukavya is composed in the Khandakavya in a order still then it has
some difference. Sanskrit Alamkarikas and commentator in order to explain
the word 'camptf have accepted so many ways and they have reached at
a truth.

“^pp3-¥-fe ^trt to get light V- to to fflm ^ariFsr” An

elaborate composition in prose and verse16

Some have translated this word and say-^^H^ld ^fcT It means

Khandakavya which makes the heart lustrous is regarded as campu. Another
opinion regarding this campu is-^Hc^oM ^ild $Id
It means Khandakavya' which is able to make the heart astonished,
delighted, sacred and surprised is regarded as campu.

Alamkarika and commentator Visvanatha Kaviraja has written “to

M'dlc^ch to make the defination of campu so clear. Campu
is an admixture form of Gadya and Padya. The pleasure which one can get
from the admixture of Gadya and Padyakavya, that pleasure one can not
get only from Gadya or only from Padya. At last it appears that having so
many meanings this fact has been reached in a target place18.

Some have compared the campu, which is a beautiful admixture

form of Gadya and Padya with the garland made of Tulasi and coral. It
appears that the arrival of Gadya is there to break the order of Padya,
which comes again and again. According to S.N. Dasgupta- The campus
have neither the sinewy strength and efficiency of real prose, nor the weight
and power of real poetry- The form no doubt affords scope for versatility,
but the campu written as a rule, has no original voice of its own. It means
in the composition of campu there is no mightiness and cleaverness.19 An

16. Purnachandra Bhasakosa, Gopala Praharaja

17. Sahityadarpana, Visvanatha Kaviraja, 6/36.
18. (*&) ^i
0®) to wro M^r^lci i ^ cn^diwciclk

(*!) Hsk-wl <rtlcldl^^Idl»ltoiaT Sraicf I^IWl I

19. A History of Sanskrit Literature Vol.-I, p. 495

argument has been raised regarding the composition of campu. There is

no newness in campO. The campu writers always do not write the campu
to keep the independence of the creator in a tradition in which the words
are fraternal with popular meanings.

If there is no newness in the composition of campu, then without

any obstacle it could be written for hundreds and hundreds of years. If
one consider it from the psychological point of view then it appears now a
days the consciousness regarding campurasa and it's newness which is
extending over unlimited space are not a universal but regarded as having
the properties of individuality. For this reason Rakesh Gupta says:-

"So that the purpose which is served by the poetic excellences and
the dramatic devices is not of generalization, it is rather that of
particularisation".20 To think about the flow of rasa which is an admixture

form of Gadya and Padya of campukavya one should take the mind of a
great hearted person, country and time in to consideration, without taking
all these matters in to consideration it will be invain an effort to discuss
about the form of campu.

There is less time to show the mightiness of Gadya in the composition

of campukavya. First of all the expansion of Gadya was not there again.
Secondly the acquaintance of Gadya was Gaum. So they did not give any
importance on Gadya, mainly in the presentation they have given
importance on the poetical performance and theatrical performance. They
were thinking about the feeling of rasa of a good-hearted person. The
language of campu is not simply Padya and Gadya. The Padyas of campu
depend on music (*nfki) so it always keeps up its sweetness. For the
translation of kavya one should keep the part of the experience of rasa in
front of his eye.

20. Psychological studies in Rasa, Alligarh, 1950, p. 37


------- The part of feeling of rasa includes:

—— Kavya
— 1. Substance of subject
— 2. Capable language
— 3. Artistic form of work
— 4. External decoration
-i-5. Dependent on enviroment
---------i) Country and time of the composition of Kavya
--------- ii) Country and time of good-hearted person
——Good-hearted person
— 1. Favourable feeling of mind
— 2. Acceptable power
— 3. perfection
—I— Each activities of good-hearted person
— 1. Sympathetic (Sariivedanatmaka)
— 2. Against Sympathetic (Prativedanatmaka)
— 3. Having the properties of creating from memory
— 4. Anxiety
— 5. Exciting Feeling of consideration
— 6. Feelings of investigation
Taking all these subordinate feelings into consideration one should
decide the meaningful qualities and meaningless qualities of campu. Of
course before that one should consider the historical expansion of campu.

The historical value of the Kavya

While discussing Sanskrit literature, it appears that the composition

of real historical kavyas is very less in number. Whatever information one
can get regarding the historical kavya those are not regarded as the real
historical kavya. Like this whatever historical kavyas are available in that
one cannot get full historical informations, but the description of the state
of some famous royal family, king, kingship etc. are there. Among those
non-historical works includde Harsacarita of Banabhatta, Gaudabaha and
Vikramankadebacarita of Vakpati Raja. Nava sahasanka carita of Padma

Gupta, Rajatarangini of Kallhana, Baradmbika Parinayacampu of

Tirumallamba, Mathuravijaya of Gangadev, Somapalavijaya of Jalahna,
Kumarapalacarita of Hemapala are some of campu works written on the
historical foundation. It appears that historical kavyas written in Orissa are
very rare.

The poet Vidyadhara of 13th Century had written an Alarhkara by

name Ekabali. He had given information of his patron named Narasirtiha
Deva Prathama (1238-1264) who was the powerful king of Utkal. Historical
facts one can get about the Yavana kings of Bengal and regarding Muslim
kings who have fought against Delhi Sultan Hamira. Alongwith this these
facts have also given information about the poet Narasirtiha Deva's reign
and his fame.

From Srikrsna Bhaktavatsalyacarita Vyayoga, which is containing one

anka. One can get the information regarding Gajapati Ramachandradeva
Cprathama) Khurdha (1568-1600). Even if this Vyayoga is very small still
was an historical ingredient it gives information about an invasion of powerful
Muslim on the Hindu king of Orissa.

Another historical kavya was Kosalananda Mahakavya. It was written

by Gangadhara Misra. This work has described on the Cauhan family of
kosala kings. In this kosala state Cauhana kings from 13th century to
beginning of 17th century have reigned.

Like that another historical kavya was 'Bhanja Mohadayam1 Kaviraja

Nilakantha Misra. On the basis of famous historical kavya GVC this 'Bhanja
Mohadyam' kavya is written. It is mentioned by the conversation between
two Yaksas. Between them one was named as Ananga Kalebara and another
was Priyamvada. Getting the course from Kubera both of them got down
in India as husband and wife. In this the writer has mentioned about the
history of royal family of Kendujhara.

This GVC has written in Orissa as a famous historical Campukavya.

Maha Mahopadyaya Haraprasad Sastri had given information of this kavya .
The historical value, which was there in seventh chapter of this kavya

21. (a) Report on the search of Sanskrit, MSS, 1895-1900, p. 18-19

(b) Descriptive catalogue of son MSS, Vol.-IV, 1923, p. 2

Prof. Sesagiri Rao, had examined that. He had discussed about the royal
family of Paralakhemundi.22 G.Ramadasa Pantula had done evaluation of
this historical kavya in his two prabandhas.23 According to his opinion

Ramaraja was in Kambila State. In this kavya so many historical facts

regarding Birakesari Deva of Puri and Athagada State have been described.
The other historical informations are not based on true statement. So in
the view of historical value this GVC is not different from others.

III.5 The tradition of Sanskrit Campu of Orissa.

The inspired poets of Vedic period did not think that they should be
conscious about the division or acquaintance in literature. Mainly
Tattvadarsana and Brahmadarsana were there in front of them. Just after
that kavya and Mahakavya yugas appeared there. It is possible that in
that period campu division of Khandakavya cannot be popular when kavyas
and Mahakavyas had got the importance. When the time becomes so
conscious to make clear the large body of the kavya at that time, it is
quite natural that no one is interested to show the newness in the
arrangement of the small past. At that time padya had got the importance
but Gadya had not got any importance. Of course one can see the admixture
form of Gadya and Padya style in the Vedic literature, Bandha, Jataka and
Upanisada etc. But it can be clearly said that the consciousness about the
composition of campu was not there at that time.

But regarding historical matter of campu one can see the first
example from Ramayanacampu of Bojaraja. In the view of facts one cannot
see any fixed rules in it. It appears that Bhoja's campu had not become so
popular. The Alamkarikas of ancient India are silent regarding the 'Angika'
and 'Atmika' form of campu. Bhamaha, Dandi and Vamana etc. have not
discussed about of the form of campu. For that only perhaps "/Va/a CampH'
of Tribikrama Bhanja has been accepted as the ancient campu of Sanskrit
literature. This Nala campu has been described basing the love of Nala and

22. J.A.H.R- Society Vol.-II, part-3 to 4

23. J.A.H.R- Society Vol.-VI, part-1 to p. 12
24. The prachi Vol.-I, part-I, p. 20

Damayanti. This campu has seven ucchasass. It is known that this poet
has also written Madalasacampu. It means from 10th century AD the tradition
of composition of campu had been started. It appears that in the end of
17th century composition work of campu may be gradually broken.

In the latter period Yasastilakacampu is a remarkable work, which

was written by Digambara Jaina Samadeva Suri. In this campu one can
find a description regarding a Yajna/'Bhagavata campG' is a great creation
of a poet, who has made himself known as Abhinava Kalidasa. It is divided
into six ucchvasas. Nagakanya Udaya Sundari and prince Malaya Vahana's
love story is described here. "Bharata camptf' which was written by Ananta
Bhatta is also fit to be remembered. In this campu substance of the story
of Mahabharata has been changed in some extent. Laksmaria Suri had
written Ramayana campu. By taking some part of Ramayapa story he had
presented it in a dramatic style in his campGkavya "Gopala CampW of
Vaisnava Jlva Gosvami and Anandavmdavana campu of Kavikarnapura have
been based on Radha-krsna-lila. It has been accepted as the famous and
respectable works of Vaisnava "parijata harana campG' written by Sesakrsna
is also a famous work, which is fit to be mentioned. It has been divided
into five chapters. Taking away of "Parijata flower from heaven by Srikrsna
has been described here. In this period "NUakanfha campG' which was
written by Nilakantha Dixit is also fit to be remembered. This campu has
five chapters. The glory of Siva has been described in this campu. Two
Sanskrit manuscripts of the poet Venkatacarya has been discovered. These
have been preserved in the state museum of Orissa. These two campus
are "Varadabhyudaya campu" and Visvagunadarsa-campu". Except these
two the name Uttara Ramacarita campG', Ramanuja campu, Cola campu,
Mandara Maranda campu and Srinivasa campu are mentionable.

In ancient Bengal and Hindi literature the movement of campukavya's

form was not there. In the modern age "Yasodhara" which was written by
Maithili Sarana Gupta has been accepted as the first campu in Hindi
literature. It appears that lots of campu have been written in South Indian
Literature than North Indian literature.

According to Chhabinatha Tripathy, the commencement of Bhakti

Dhara was there in South India. The foundation of religion was strong.
They were not in a dying condition with the invasion of the Britishers.
Secondly in this period the kings of that place have given shelter to the
poets. First of all campukavyas had been written for preaching of religion.
But later on being inspired by literature campukavyas had been written. As
the poets had got the patronage of the kings so they had done lot of praise
of the King's power in their kavyas. If one will consider this book
"campukavya ka alocanatmaka aur aitihasika adhyayana"26 then it does not
appear that "Gangavansanucaritacampukavya" of Vasudeba Ratha Somayaji
was appeared as an unexpected kavya. The poet was also there in Southern
part of Orissa. So one can easily guess it that he was so acquainted with
the flow of kavyas and with the South Indian feelings.

The Campukavya in Orissa

Chhavinatha Tripathy has studied critically and historically the

Campukavyas and enumerated 245 campus among which 46 campu are
written in North India. The rest of the campus have been written in South
India27. S.K.De has said that campus form of composition is popular and
largely cultivated in South India28. But Tripathy has not dealt with a single
campu of Orissa. Perhaps by that time (1965) the Orissan publication had
not come to lime light. However most of the Orissan campus have been
highlighted ahead. Orissa has possessed a considerable number of campus
some of which are written in Sanskrit and others are in bilingual style29.

There are three important places in India, which have a lot of campu-
writings to their credit. They are Vijayanagar of morden Karnataka, Tanjore
of Tamilnadu and Travancore of Kerala. Besides this there are other places
which have also their contributions to campu literature, such as -Mysore
(Karnataka), the Oracha State 30 (Orissa). Vardavana State (West Bengal)

25. Dr. Janaki Baliabha Mohanti, Oriya Gitikavya, Grantha Mandir, 1966, p. 169
26. Chaukhamba Sanskrit Series Banarasi, 1965, A.D., Grantha Drastabya
27. C.N. Tripathy, p. 12 (Prefeace)
28. S.N. Dasgupta and S.K. De., AHSL, p. 435
29. Sanskrit and Oriya
30. C.N. Tripathy, CAAA, p. 274

and the like. The Sanskrit campus of Orissa are as follows:


This is an unpublished campu written by the poet Hari Sarma, the

son of Pindika. It seems that this is the earliest group of campus, written
in Orissa. Most probably, this campu belongs to the last part of the 14th
century A.D.31


This is another archaic campu written in Orissa by Kavicandra Raya

Divakar Misra who was flourished during the reign of Prataparudra Gajapati
(1497-1533-34 A.D.). Kavicandra title has been conferred to him by
Prataparudra Deva. But the poet was partronised by both Purusottama Deva
(1466-1497 A.D.) and Prataparudra Deva32. The campu is not available now.


The author of this campu is Cakarpani Pattnaik, the contemporary

of Virakisora Deva (1736-79 A.D.). He finished the composition of the campu
on the 16th October 1778 A.D.33 The work consists of 107 verses with prose


Kaviraja Bhagavan Brahma, the rival of Cakrapani Pattnaik also wrote

a campu bearing the same title. This has been mentioned by Nilamani
Mishra.35 Being contemporary of Cakrapani, the author of campu belongs
to 18th century A.D. The text contains 117 verses with prose lines.36


This campus is written by Kaviraja Bhagavan Brahma and thus

belongs to 18th century A.D. There are 58 verses mixed with prose
passages.37 The campu is otherwise known as Mrgaya-caritacampu.

31. Infra, p.
32. H.K. Mahatab, HO, p. 331
33. N. Mishra, OSLL, p. 75
34. B. Panda, OSI, p. 183
35. N. Mishra, OSLL, p. 95
36. B. Panda, OSI, p. 188
37. Ibid, p. 188


Nilakantha Misra is the author of this campu. He is the court poet of

Balabhadra Bhanja (1764-1792 A.D.), the king of Kendujhara. The campO
deals with the historical facts of that royal dynasty. It is added with Oriya
verses of four quarters in cautisa style.38


The author is this campu is Nilambara Acarya (18th Century A.D.).39

It is consists of 167 verses along with prose pieces.40 The subject matter
of the campudeals with the enchanting Candanayatra (festival) of Lord
Jagannatha during the month of Vaisakha (April and May). But peculiarity
of the campu is that it begins with the imprecatory verse of Lord Siva,41
the Nataraja.


This is the most important historical campu written in Orissa by

Vasudeva Ratha Somayaji the contemporary of Purusottama
Anangabhlmadeva (1728-1776 A.D.) and Virakesari Deva I (1736-93 A.D.)
of Bhoi dynasty. This monumental work of Orissa is divided into 10 chapters.
Like Visvagunadarsa campu, V/rabhadravijaya campu, Tattvagunadarsa
campu, Gangagu nada rsa campu, Vidvanmodataranginicampu and Srinivasa
campu, this GVC is written in conversation style between hero Vidyarnva
and heroine Lilavati. These two characters have come on pilgrimage from
south of the river Godavari to Puri of Orissa in order to witness the famous
car-festival of Lord Jagannatha.42 On their way of coming, they have
described the royal dynasties of Khallikota, Athagada, (Ganjam), Dharakote
of Orissa and lake Cilika. Again they have enjoyed warm reception by the
king Purusottama Anangabhlmadeva of Khemundi. The father of the poet
is Govinda Ratha. The poet himself adorned the royal court of king
Raghunatha and Jagannatha Haricandana of Athagarha (Ganjam). The

38. B. Samal & R. Caini, KCC, p. 146

39. K.C. Behera, KCC, p. 91
40. B. Panda, OSI, p. 188
41. (i) K.N. Mahapatra, DCSMO, p. 55 (Vol.-Ill)
(ii) N. Mishra, OSLL, p. 98
42. (i) K.N. Mahapatra, DCSMO, p. 37 (Vol.-II)
(ii) GVC, ed, by P. Mishra

campuls consists of 766 verses with prose passages. It has described not
only historical facts but also geographical features like flora and fauna,
rivers, mountains navigation, voyages etc.43

From the study of this campu nobody can venture to say that, the
State of Orissa lags behind in campu literature.


This is the third Gundicacampu, written in Orissa by Kavicandra

Pitambara Misra, the commentator of Narayana-sataka. \N.\N. Hunter has
enumerated his name in his: A History of Orissa.**The consists of 100
verses with prose pieces.45


It is known that Ujjvia Ratha, the father of Kavisurya Baladeva Ratha

has written the above mentioned campu in Sanskrit.46


This Sanskrit campu is also attributed to Ujjala Ratha. He was a

court-poet of the king of Bada Khemundi in the Ganjam district and he was
highly honoured by the king due to his two campus.


This campuls written by the famous Orissan poet Kavisurya Baladeva

Ratha. He belongs to last part of 18th century A.D. to the first part of the
19th century A.D. The text consists of 37 verses with prose lines.47 The
peculiarity of this campu is that, like Bhanjamahodaya campu, this campu
is added with 34 Oriya verses, written in cautisa style. It is a general view
of Orissan critics on campu literatue is that; Baladeva Ratha has epoched
a new style in campu literature of Orissa, by adding Oriya verses into the
Sanskrit text. But it seems to me doubtful after going through the page
146 of KCC, ed. By co-authors: B. Samai and R. Caini that; Nilakantha

43. N. Misra, OSLL, p. 91

44. Ibid, p. 81
45. B. Panda, OSI, p. 188
46. B. Samai & R. Caini, KCC, p. 147
47. B. Panda, OSI, p. 183

Misra might be the first author of this style, because he belongs to 1764-
92 A. D,48


This campu is written by Bhuvanesvara Misra Badapanda. He

belongs to 19th Century.50


Bamanda is located at Deogarh in Sambalpur district of Orissa. This

is an immortal work of Bhuvanesvara Misra Badapanda.51 It was published
in 1889 for the first time at sudhala Press, Bamanda.52


The author of this campu is Bhuvanesvara (Misra) Badapanda,53 a

sincere lover of nature. The campu is named after Mahanadi, the largest,
deepest and holy river of Orissa. The native place of the poet is Tigiria. But
he was a court-poet of the king of Bamanda.54


This campu is attributed to Bhuvanesvara Badapanda55 of 19th century



This campu is composed by Purusottama Ratha. It was published

for the first time in 1896 at Raiya Press (? Cuttack) and was dedicated to
kavivara Radhanatha Roy.56


The author of the campu is Yadunatha Simha. It was published for

48. N. Mishra, OSLL, p. 93

49. Ibid, p. 105
50. K.C. Behera, KCC, p. 91
51. K.B. Tripathy, CUSL, p. 15
52. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 213
53. K.B. Tripathy, CUSL, p. 15
54. N. Mishra, OSLL, p. 105
55. K.B. Tripathy, CUSL, p. 15
56. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p, 213

the first time in the year 1896 at Cuttack Printing Press,57 the peculiarity
of this campu is that, it is added with 34 Oriya verses in cautisa style like
Kisoracandrananda campuof Kavisurya Baladeva Ratha.58


A few years back it has been discovered by G.C. Nanda, Lecturer in

Sanskrit, Ranapur College in the district of Puri. It is attributed to Sri
Harihara Surapratapa Simha, who was flourished during the last decades
of 19th century in Orissa. It is a peculiar campu in Sanskrit full of Orissan
character. Its first verse as a well a curnaka begins with the letter 'a' and
ends with 'ksa' consisting of fifty verses and forty eight curnakas. The
subject matter is nothing but the love story between Srikrsna and Radha.


It is attributed to Sadasiva Misra Sarma. The campu was published

in 1900 A.D. for the first time at Darpana Raja Press.60 The author is
otherwise known as Mahamahopadhyaya Sadasiva Kavyakantha.61 The text
consists of 80 verses commingling with prose lines.62


This campu is attributed to Jagannatha Misra Tarka Samkhya

Nyayatirtha. It was published for the first time in the year 1910 on account
of the ceremony of bearing the sacred thread (vratopanayana) of the son
of the king of Svarnapura.63


This campu is written by Sudarsana Misra Nyaratna. It was published

for the first time in 1913 A.D. at Bamanda and it was composed on account
of marriage ceremony of the prince of Bamanda (Sambalpur) with the
princes of Khariala in Kalahandi district.64

57. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 213

58. Ibid, p. 214
59. G.C. Nanda, ACAS, p. 12 (ch-II.B)
60. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 214
61. N. Mishra, OSLL, p. 105
62. B. Panda, OSI, p. 188
63. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 213
64. Ibid


This campu is ascribed to Bhagirathi Misra.65 Firstly, it was published

in 1913 A.D. at Sura Pratapa Press in the district of Dhenkanaia.


The author of this campu is Somanatha Sarangi of an unknown date.

There are 36 verses in this campu admixed with prose lines.66


It is attributed to Cakrapani Dasa. This campu is otherwise known

as Ramayaniya-Ratnasataka.


This campu has been written by Raja Bisvanathadev.67


The author of this campu is Kulamani Maharana. It is a recent

publication of 1981 A.D. from Annapurna Prakasani, Cuttack.68


The name of the author is not known.69


The name of the author is not known.70

Some of the above Sanskrit campus have contained with them Oriya
verses in cautisa style.71

Thus so many literary works are lying hidden in this region without
getting proper scope to mingle with the main stream of Indian literature.
Had it not been the case, campu literature of Orissa must have come to

65. B. Samal & R. Caini, KCC, p. 146

66. B, Panda, OSI, p. 188
67. K.B. Tripathy, CUSL, p. 15
68. K. Maharana, Niladrisa campu
69. G.C. Nanda, ACAS, p. 3 (ch-III)
70. Ibid
71. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 214

the notice of Chhavinatha Tripathy, a well-known critic of Campu-Kavya of

the present time.

Sanskrit is the mother of all regional languages in India. The influence

of Sanskrit campus is witnessed in the Oriya literature. So many Oriya
works bearing the name campu are seen. But it is very difficult to determine
the exact date of Oriya campu writings. So far as the sources are available
it is known that campu writing in Oriya started after 18th century A.D. It is
sure that many campu writers of Orissa were motivated by the popularity
of Oriya version of Kisoracandranana campu and wrote campus in
that cautisa style.72 Some of the Oriya campus are enumerated below.

1. Ramayana Campu

Banamali Pattnaik is the poet of this campu, which was composed

in 1754 A.D. If it be so, the Kisoracandranana campu of Kavisurya Baladeva
Ratha will be later than Ramayana Campu. The campu is otherwise kknown
as Bhojaraja Campu or Rama Campu. Though it is written by Banamali, it
is ascribed (Bhanita) to Hari.

2. Kisoracandranana Campu

The well-known author of this campu is Kavisurya Baladeva Ratha.

It is a peculiar combination of Sanskrit and Oriya languages. The Oriya
version does not contain any prose line. The subject matter of Oriya portion
relates to the king of Athagarh (Ganjam).74

3. Jhulana Campu

It is written by Kisoracandra Rajendradeva of 19th century. It is

lack of prose lines.

72. In this style of Oriya, the first stanza of a Oriya poem beings from the Oriya
letter ka, next stanza from kha and thus stanzas continue up to the letter
ksa. So there are 34 stanzas in a poem.
73. (i) N. Mishra, Odia Gitikavyara Bhumi O Bhumika, p. 94
(ii) K.C. Behera, KCC, p. 92
74. D. Dasa, Kavisurya Kavyavibha, p. 41
75. K.C. Behera, KCC, p.93

4. Vrndavanacandrananda Campu
The poet of this campu is Govinda Rayaguru of 19th century.76 There

is no prose piece in it.

5. Jivana Campu

This campu is written by Damodara Pattanaik. It was published for

the first time in 1888 at Cuttack Printing press.77 It is without prose.

6. Vrndavanacandravinoda Campu

This has been written by Mahendra Simha Samanta, It was published

for the first time in 1895 at Ray Press in Cuttack. The last cover page
bears the printing of free of cost.78 It is a most important campu in Oriya

which follows the mixim of the campu literature of Sanskrit. That means it
consists of both prose and verse. The poet is an inhabitant of Khandapara
of the puri district. According to J.B. Mohanty, this campu is really written
by Pitavasa Simha. But it is ascribed (Bhanita) to Mahendra Simha. The
poet6 himself has told his text as Prakrta Natya Pravanda. Like Sanskrit
drama it contains benedictory verse. Nandi and then the dialogue of
sutradhara in Sanskrit language. Just after it prose and verse composition
in Oriya follows up to the end. The prose portion of it is written in Cumaka
style of Sanskrit prose. There are 3 acts without the division of scenes.
There is no other symptom of drama. So it will be proper to say drama
instead of campu. It is assumed that when KCC of Baladeva Rathd was in
vogue in the form of lyrical drama, the poet Mahendra Simha might be
tempted to write his campu in that style. However, it is the first Oriya

7. Vanavihara Campu

The campu is attributed to Gopala dasa, the disciple of Bihari Dasa,

who was an abbot of Gopala Jew Matha in Sambalpur. This text was printed
for the first time in 1905 at Cuttack Printing Company, Cuttack.82

76. K.C. Behera, KCC, p.93

77. B.Samal and R. Chaini, KCC, p. 147
78. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 217
79. K.C. Behera, KCC, p.93
80. N. Mishra, Odia Gitikavyara Bhumi O Bhumika, p. 94
81. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 217
82. G. Dasa, Vanavihra campu

8. Premalahari Campu

This is a work of Harihar Misra, which was published for the first
time in 1904 A.D. The author was the Head Pandit of Training School, Khurda
and an inhabitant of Viranarasimhapura of Puri district.

9. Jatiya Campu

It is ascribed to Samanta Syamavandhu Dasa. It was published for

the first time in 1908 on behalf of Utkal Sevasrama by Ananda Mahanty, a
native of Vaselisahi, Puri.84 It follows KCC of Baladrva Ratha in each verse.
The poet quotes, the verses of KCC in his own work.

10. Brahmajnana Campu

This campu has been composed by Ananta Baba. It was published

for the first time in 1924. Baba Ananta is a devoted saint of Alekha Dharma,
which originates from the land of Orissa and expands to other sides of
India. This campu is otherwise known as Alekha Bhajanamala.

11. Mohanananda Campu

Nityananda Prakasa Brahmacari is the composer of this campu, which

was published in the year 1927 for the first time. It strictly follows the
Sanskrit campu kavya by adding prose portion to it.

12. Mahimabhajana Campu

This campuis attributed to Ananta Carana Baba ofMahima Dhama.

It was published for the first time in 1932.

13. Kisorari Vilasa Campu

The author of this campu is Navakisora Mahanty. It ws published

for the first time in 1933.

83. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 215

84. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 215
85. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 216
86. (i) A. Baba, Philosopy of Mahima Dharma, Pp. 1-6
(ii) B. Baba, Satya Mahima Dharma,
87. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 216
88. D. Dasa, Kavisurya kavya-vibha, p. 121
89. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 216
90. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 215

14. Samanyta-Sambahana Campu

This campu has been written by Nirdhuma Dhumaketu Mistri. The

real name of; the poet may be Gopinatha Simhadeva. It was published
in; the year 1937 for the first time at Mukura Press, Cuttack. It strictly
follows the practice of Sanskrit campu literature. The campu is composed
of in mixed style of prose and verse. It is also an important Oriya campu.
The campu is written in dialogue style like Sanskrit campus, viz.,
Gangavamsanucaritam (campu-kavyam). Visvaqunadarsa campu, Virbhadra
Vijaya campu etc. The two characters are lord Virupaksa Bahavalindra Simha
and servant Shyamasundara Omapatiraya. The humorous sentiment
predominates the text. The peculiarity of the campu is that, the Oriya verses
of it, as if, follow the Sanskrit prosody. The prose portion also styled as
Curnakas of Sanskrit prose.94

15. Catakacandrahasa Campu

This is an immortal work of Kantakavi Laskmikanta Mahaptra of

Bhadrak subsivision in the district of Balasore. There, he has placed a
duplicate name of himself s Kapivara Hanumanta Nakal Navis. The year of
composition of the campu is 1943. It strictly follows the practice of Sanskrit
campu and contains both prose and verse.

16. Jivan Campu

The composition of this campu has been done by Lalmohana

Pattanaik.Its time is 1947.96 It strictly follows the Sanskrit campu-kavya
by a line prose lines into Oriya verses.

17. Sri Radhamadhava Campu

It is attributed to A.Ramamurtti Behera. This is composed in 1951.
It has no prose line.

91. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 215

92. K.C. Behera, KCC, p.93
93. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 219
94. K.C. Behera, KCC, p.93
95. B.Samal and R. Chaini, KCC, p. 148
96. D. Dasa, Kavisurya kavya-vibha, p. 121
97. K. Maharana, Niladrisa campu
98. Supra, p.

18. Kisoricandrananda Campu

It is composed by Srimati Sundaramani Pattnaik in 1957. There is
no prose in it.

19. Baidehisa Campu

This campu has been written by Kulamani Maharana in 1977.100 It

is composed of verses only.

20. Niladrisa Campu

It is a nice campuy composed by Kulamani Maharana. Like KCC there

are oriya verse with the Sanskrit text.101

21. Radhagovinda Campu

This campuis attributed to Bisvanatha Devavarma.

22. Dvipadi Damodara Campu

The campO is ascribed to Damodar Sahoo.103

23. There is a campu of Raghunatha Rayaguru which is not


24. Rasaraja Campu

This Oriya campu has been ascribed to Basanta Kumara Dasa. It is

also written in a peculiar style. The verses are written beginning from the
letter a up to ksa.

In Orissa, the Oriya version of Kisoracandranana campu has a wide

popularity among the campus. But according to the definition of campu
kavya of Sanskrit literature, it cannot be regarded as campu. If the difinition
of campu will be campavati iti campuh i.e., which makes the mind
enchanted, then it may be considered as campu. Usually rhetoricians follow
the kavyas as grammarians follow the language. Here the view of great

99. Supra, p.
100. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 215
101. D. Dasa, Kavisurya kavya-vibha, p. 121
102. J.B. Mohanty, OGK, p. 215
103. Siddhanatakaunudi, 3/105
104. D. Dasa, Kavisurya kavya-vibha, Pp. 44-122

grammarian Bhattoji Diksita is worth mentioning. Nirankusah kavayah i.e.,

the poets are unrestricted. There are a few campus in Oriya literature which
strictly follow the practice of campu kavyas of Sanskrit. They are
Premasagara Campu, Mohanananda Campu, Jivana Campu of Lalmohana
Pattnaik, Vrndavanacandravinoda Campu, Catakacandrahasa Campu and
Samanta Sambhavana Campu. Theses are some of the Anger counted
campus of Oriya literature. Other works bearing the name campu are not
campus in the true sense of the term. Rather those can be terminated as
cautisa. Among the cautisa some are caupadi cautisa in which one stanza
consists of 4 quarters. Beyond this category, there is peculiar Oriya poetry
named as Rasa-raja camu which starts its stanza from the letter 'a' and
ends in 'ksa\ So from the fluctuations it can be assumed that there is no
hard an fast rule of campu in Oriya literature. The critics like S.K. Brahma
speaks that there is no campu in Oriya literature. It is erroneous. For
eminent Oriya critics.

On the whole if there was caupadi and cautisa style in the campu
Grantha by name "Kisora Chandranana Campu" but mainly it is a
campukavya. If this kavya had the collection of Oriya and Sanskrit Gadya
' and Padya still then this kavya may be of an acquaintance of method may
be an acquaintance of skill. In Sanskrit tradition also he has given more
importance on oriya poem by combining Gadya and Padya. That is successful
writing of the poet. In the later period all the campu writers in Oriya literature
are influenced by Kavisurya. In Oriya literature Kavisurya by writing a campu
in a changeable method, which pleases to others, becomes a victor of an
imperishable fame.

Sanskrit Oriya Campukavya written in Orissa

Si. The Name The Name of

No. of the kavya Publisher the poet

1. Ananda Brndabana Campu Bhubanesvara Mishra,

2. Bhoja Mohadaya Campu Nilakantha Mishra
3. Bamana Campu Purusottama Rath
4. Brndabana candrabinoda Campu Binoda Campu, Mahendre
Simha Samanta
5. Brndabana Candranana Campu Gobinda Ray Guru
6. Brahmhagyana Campu Ananta baba
7. Baidehisa Campu Kulamani Moharana
8. Candoma yatra Campu Nilambara Acharya
9. Candan Campu Sadashiva Misra Sarma
10. Cahataka Candrahasa Campu Kantakavi Laksmikanta

11. Duipadi Damodara Campu Damodara Sahoo
12. Cangavamsanucarita Campu Vasudeva Ratha Somayaji
13. Gundica Campu Bhagabana Panda
14. Jhulana Campu Kishore Candra Rajendra
15. Jibana Campu Damodara Pattanayak
16. Jibana Campu Harihara Misra
17. Jatiya Campu Samanta Samabandhu Das
18. Jibana Campu Laimohana Pattnayak
19. Kishore Condrananda Campu Baladeva Rath
20. Kisori Bilasa Campu Nabakishore Mahanti
21. Kishori Candranana Campu Sundaramani Pattanayak
22. Mrgaya Campu Bhagaban Panda
23. Mohanananda Campu Nityananda Prakash
24. Mahima bhajana Campu Ananta Carana baba
25. Naba kisora Campu Bhagirathi Misra
26. Prem Sagara Campu Yudunatha Simha
27. Parinaya Campu Sundarsana Misra Myuyaratna
111 .

28. Premalahari Campu Harihara Misra

29. Premodaya Campu Baladeva Rath
30. Rama Gita Campu Somanatha Sarangi
31. Ratna Sataka Campu Chakrapani Das
32. Rama Campu Utjjvala Rath
33. Radhagobinda Campu Bisvanatha Deva Barma
34. Rasa raja Campu Basanta Kumar Das
35. Radhamadhab Campu A Ramakrsna Behera
36. Ratnakara Campu Baladeva Rath
37. Satjanananda Campu Utjjvala Rath
38. Samanta Sambhahana Campu Gopinatha Simha Deo
39. Uttsava Tarangini Campu Jagannatha Misra
Tarka Sankyanyaya Tirtha

"W*T* W1.......
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