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CEGE3021: Fluids and Engineering Analysis

BEng/MEng Course Examinations - 2017

Time allowed: 3 hours

Number of sections: TWO

Answer each section in a separate book

The use of an electronic calculator is permitted in this examination

CEGE3021

1

TURN OVER

Section A: Choose a minimum of 2 questions

Question 1 The ﬂow over a model spillway is 98 L/s per meter of width. The scale of the model spillay to the prototype is 1:20.

(a)

 Which non-dimensional parameter would you use to scale your model? brief justiﬁcation. Provide a [6 marks]

Froude number. Ratio of inertia and gravity force F r =

U

gy

(b)

What does the model ﬂow rate represent for the prototype (i.e. at full scale)? [8 marks]

1 L/s = 0.001 m 3 /s. Therefore 98 L/s per meter width is equal to q = 0.98 m 3 /s / m

The length ratios are given as L m /L p = 1/20 and L p /L m = 20

Fr =

U

gy

as U = q/y F r =

q

gy 3

Hence

q

m

1

g 2 y

3

2

m

=

q p g 2 y

1

3

2

p

Re-arrange

q p = q m (

m ) 3

y

p

y

2 = 0.098 × 20 3

2

= 8.765 m 3 /s/m = 8765 L/s per meter

(c)

Explain how non-dimensional analysis can be used to derive the spillway discharge equation

q = C d gH 3

where q is the discharge per unit width, C d is the discharge coeﬃcient, g is gravita- tional acceleration and H is the water height above the spillway crest.

[6 marks]

What are the independent variables? Two

The dependent variable is q[L 2 T 1 ],. approaches

2

H[L] and g[LT 2 ] - treat C d as a constant (no dimensions). Hence 3 parameters and 2 dimensions. Hence 1 non-dimensional group (Π 1 ).

H[L] , g[LT 2 ], ρ[ML 3 ] and µ [MLT 1 ]. Hence 5 parameters and 3 dimensions. Hence 2 non-dimensional groups (Π 1 and Π 2 ).

Let Π 1 = qH a g b ρ c and Π 2 = µH a g b ρ c

Ensure Π 1 and Π 2 are non-dimensional and we get Π 1 = QH 3 2 g 2

µH

1

7

2

g 1 2 ρ 1 . As Π 1 = ϕ2 ) let ϕ2 ) = C d .

Hence q = C d gH 3

2

and Π 2

=

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CONTINUED

2

Question 2 A viscous ﬂuid ﬁlls a narrow gap between two horizontal glass plates. The top plate is accelerated horizontally.

(a)

(b)

Starting from the horizontal Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation write down the simpliﬁed RANS equation for this problem. Justify your simpliﬁcations. [8 marks]

∂u

∂t

+ u u + v u + w u = 1

∂x

∂y

∂z

∂p

ρ ∂x

)
+ g x + ν∇ 2 u − ( ∂u ′ u ′
+
+
∂x
∂u ′ v ′
∂y
∂u ′ w ′
∂z

2d (x, y)

No w or v velocity components

No gravity component g x

No turbulence

Uniform horizontally (/continuity) u

∂x

= 0

∂u

∂t

=

1

∂p

∂y 2

∂x + ν 2 u

ρ

If the plates are spaced a distance b apart and the top plate ﬁnally moves at a steady U 0 , determine a general expression for the velocity proﬁle between the two plates. [12 marks]

= 0. Therefore 1

∂p

ρ ∂x

= ν 2 u

∂y 2

∂t

As ∂p/∂x is independent of x We can integrate. Let ν = µ/ρ

(c)

∂u

∂y

= y

∂p

µ ∂x

u = y 2

∂p

2µ ∂x

+

+

C Cy + D

Use the boundary condition that u = 0 at y = 0 and u = U 0 at y = b

hence 0 = D and U 0 = b 2

Hence C = U 0

u

∂p

2µ ∂x

+ Cb + D

b

∂p

∂x

∂p

2µ ∂x

b

1

2µ (y 2 b 2 )

=

+ U 0 y

b

Assume no external pressure gradient is applied ﬁnd the volume ﬂow rate through the glass plates given U 0 = 50 mm/s and b = 5 mm

Assume ∂p/∂x = 0, hence u = U 0 y

q =

b

0

udy =

0

b

b

U 0 y

b

dy = u 0

2

b

= 20×5

2

125 mm 2 /s

=

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3

TURN OVER

Question 3 If 1.4 m 3 /s of water ﬂows uniformly in a channel of width 1.8 m at a water depth of 0.75 m. A section contracts smoothly to 1.2 m width.

(a) What is the critical water depth for this ﬂow?

[4 marks]

Fr =

U

gy =

q

gy 3

q

) 1

= Q/b = 1.4/1.8 = 0.7777 m 2 /s At F r = 1 at y = y c hence y c = ( q 2 3 =

g

( 0.777 2

9.81

)

1

3 = 0.40 m

 (b) Is the ﬂow subcritical or supercritical? [2 marks] y > y c , hence the ﬂow is subcritical (c) What is the change in water surface elevation at contraction? [7 marks]

E

E

U 1 = Q/A = 1.4/(0.75 × 1.8) = 1.037 m/s

E

Also continuity Q = U 1 b 1 y 1 = U 2 b 2 y 2

Hence U 2 = Q/(b 2 y 2 ) = 1.4/(1.2y 2 ) = 1.167/y 2

E

y 2 = 0.737 m (subcritical) or 0.377 (supercritical) y 2 cannot be less than y c

hence y 2 = 0.737 m. drop

2 = E 1

= y + U 2

2g

1 = 0.75 + 2×9.81 = 0.8048 m

1.037

2

2

2 = y 2 + U 2g = y 2 + 0.06943/y

2

2

2

Change in water-surface elevation = 0.75 0.737 = 0.013 m

(d) Explain how you would determine the maximum contraction without causing the ﬂow to choke?

[7 marks]

The speciﬁc energy at the contraction must be minimum

Take the minimum energy equation

E = y +

At E min = dE/dy = 0 hence

q 2

2gy 2

dE

dy

= 1

q 2

gy 3

Hence y c = ( q 2

g

)

(1/3)

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4

CONTINUED

Hence q = y

As Q = Bq, hence B = Q/q = 1.4/1.8 = 0.777 Maximum contraction is 1.8-0.777 = 1.02 m

3

c

g = 0.4 3 × 9.8 = 0.777 = 1.8 m 2 /s

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5

TURN OVER

Section B: Choose a minimum of 2 questions

Question 4 Consider the symmetric matrix A deﬁned by

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1. Find the eigenvalues of A

2. Find three orthogonal eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues in 1.

3. Find a matrix P such that P 1 AP is diagonal and write down this diagonal matrix.

4. Calculate P 1 A 2 P . Hint: You may use the result in 3.

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6

CONTINUED

Question 5 The Laplace transform F (s) = L{f (t)} of a function f (t) is given by the formula

(a)

(b)

Prove carefully that

F (s)

= L{f (t)} = e st f (t)dt.

0

d

L{tf (t)} = ds Lf (t),

L{f (t)} = sL{f (t)} − f (0),

L{f (t)}

= s 2 L{f (t)} − sf (0) f (0).

Use Laplace transforms to solve the following diﬀerential equation

y + y = cos t

with the initial conditions y(0) = 1 and y (0) = 1.

Hint: you may assume the formulae in (a) and

b

L{sin bt} = s 2 + b 2 ,

where b is a real constant.

CEGE3021

L{cos bt} =

7

s

s 2 + b 2

TURN OVER

Question 6

(a)

(b)

(c)

Find the ﬁrst three non-zero terms of the Maclaurin series near the point x = 0 of the following functions,

(i) sin(x)

 (ii) x 3 + 3x + 2 (iii) sin(x 2 )

Hint: for (iii) you may use the result in (i)

Find the ﬁrst two terms of the Taylor series near the point x = π for the function

1

2x+3 .

By substituting the series y(x) = n=0 a n x n (or otherwise), show that the solution to the diﬀerential equation

y (x) + y(x) = 1,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0

is given by

CEGE3021

y(x) = x 2

2

8

24 x 4 +

END OF PAPER